Theodosius I, known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD379 to AD395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. He failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them and he fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the empire. He issued decrees that effectively made Orthodox Nicene Christianity the official church of the Roman Empire. He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome, in 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. Theodosius was born in Cauca, Hispania or Italica, Hispania, to a military officer. Theodosius learned his lessons by campaigning with his fathers staff in Britannia where he went to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368.
In about 373, he became governor of Upper Moesia and oversaw hostilities against the Sarmatians and he was military commander of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, shortly thereafter, and at about the time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father. The reason for his retirement, and the relationship between it and his fathers death is unclear and it is possible that he was dismissed from his command by the emperor Valentinian I after the loss of two of Theodosius legions to the Sarmatians in late 374. The death of Valentinian I in 375 created political pandemonium, fearing further persecution on account of his family ties, Theodosius abruptly retired to his family estates in the province of Gallaecia where he adopted the life of a provincial aristocrat. In 378, after the disastrous Battle of Adrianople where Valens was killed, as Valens had no successor, Gratians appointment of Theodosius amounted to a de facto invitation for Theodosius to become co-Augustus of the East Roman Empire.
After Gratian was killed in a rebellion in 383, Theodosius appointed his own son, Arcadius. By his first wife, the probably Spanish Aelia Flaccilla Augusta, he had two sons and Honorius and a daughter, Aelia Pulcheria, Arcadius was his heir in the East, both Aelia Flaccilla and Pulcheria died in 385. His second wife was Galla, daughter of the emperor Valentinian I, Theodosius and Galla had a son Gratian, born in 388 and who died young, and a daughter Aelia Galla Placidia. Placidia was the child who survived to adulthood and became an Empress
1348 Friuli earthquake
The 1348 Friuli earthquake, centered in the South Alpine region of Friuli, was felt across Europe on 25 January. The quake hit in the year that the Great Plague ravaged Italy. According to contemporary sources, it caused damage to structures and houses collapsed, villages were destroyed. The epicenter was located east of Tolmezzo and Gemona, striking in the early afternoon, the earthquake caused hundreds of casualties and destroyed numerous buildings. In Udine, the castle and the cathedral were severely damaged, in Carinthia, the town of Villach and numerous surrounding villages were largely destroyed by a major landslide followed by a flood of the Gail River. The sixth-century basilica of Santi Apostoli was so ruined that it was left in an abandoned state for a generation. The historian of medicine A. G. Carmichael observes, The earthquake of 25 January 1348 is likely to have fuelled and focused specifically apocalyptical fears more than plague did, List of earthquakes in Italy List of historical earthquakes Borst, Arno.
Das Erdbeben von 1348, Ein historischer Beitrag zur Katastrophenforschung, Christa, The earthquake of January 25,1348, Reconstruction of a natural occurrence Based on, Christa. Villach, Museum der Stadt Villach, gutdeutsch, R. Lenhardt, W. Seismological interpretation of the South Alpine earthquake of January 25th,1348. Seismology in Europe, papers presented at the XXV General Assembly, 25th ESC General Assembly, Iceland,1996
Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares, and a population of 842, formally it is not sovereign, with sovereignty being held by the Holy See, the only entity of public international law that has diplomatic relations with almost every country in the world. It is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the Bishop of Rome – the Pope, the highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin. According to the terms of the treaty, the Holy See has full ownership, exclusive dominion, within Vatican City are religious and cultural sites such as St. Peters Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the worlds most famous paintings and sculptures, the unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The name Vatican City was first used in the Lateran Treaty, signed on 11 February 1929, the name is taken from Vatican Hill, the geographic location of the state. Vatican is derived from the name of an Etruscan settlement, Vatica or Vaticum meaning garden, located in the area the Romans called vaticanus ager. The official Italian name of the city is Città del Vaticano or, more formally, Stato della Città del Vaticano, although the Holy See and the Catholic Church use Ecclesiastical Latin in official documents, the Vatican City officially uses Italian. The Latin name is Status Civitatis Vaticanæ, this is used in documents by not just the Holy See. The name Vatican was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for an area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD40, her son, Emperor Caligula built in her gardens a circus for charioteers that was completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis, usually called, simply.
Even before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome had long considered sacred. A shrine dedicated to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis remained active long after the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter was built nearby, the particularly low quality of Vatican water, even after the reclamation of the area, was commented on by the poet Martial. The Vatican Obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis in Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant and this area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down, opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Peters in the first half of the 4th century, the Constantinian basilica was built in 326 over what was believed to be the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in that cemetery
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Luigi Poletti (architect)
Luigi Poletti was an Italian architect, active in a neoclassical style. He initially obtained a doctorate in Mathematics and Philosophy in Bologna and he returns to Modena and becomes engineer of the Garfagnana, and professor of Mechanics and Hydraulics at the University. He received a stipend to study in Rome, there he studied under Raffaele Stern. In 1823, the ancient Basilica of San Paolo fuori le Mura, one of the seven pilgrimage churches of Rome, was destroyed by fire. When plans for a new church were announced, a great hue arose from the adherents of the past, such as Carlo Fea. Initially Pasquale Belli was hired, but soon after was replaced by Poletti who promised a closer replica, Poletti added a choir to the Pantheon in 1840 and built the theaters in Fano and Terni. He rebuilt the church of San Venanzio in Camerino, which had fallen in the earthquake of 1792, after the damage from an earthquake in 1832, he rebuilt the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Assisi. He built the Cathedral of Montalto delle Marche on the foundations that had started under Pope Sixtus V.
He designed the church of San Filippo in the town of Nocera and he completed the chapel and altar of Santissima Maria in San Francesco in Rimini. He built a chapel in Fossombrone. He designed the lighthouse and arsenal in the port of Ripa Grande and he designed the Palazzo Ceccopieri in Via di Monte Catino. He reconstructed SantAndrea degli Scozzesi in Rome and he helped design the Column of the Immaculate Conception, Rome. Www. italycyberguide. com Ashton Rollins Willard, History of modern Italian art, Green & Co
An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes. The term may be used in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church instead of dean or vicar forane. In the 16th and 17th centuries, during the persecution of Catholics in England, in the present-day Church of England, a rural or area dean resembles an archpriest. In the Catholic Latin Rite traditionally a priests first Mass has an archpriest assisting the newly ordained priest, functioning as the deacon otherwise does and his duties included deputising for the Bishop in spiritual matters when necessary. In the western church, by the Middle Ages, the title had evolved and was that of the priest of the principal parish among several local parishes, the first recorded use of this meaning of the title comes from St Charles Borromeos reforms in his own diocese. Unlike vicars general and vicars episcopal, vicars forane are not prelates and their role is entirely supervisory, and they perform visitations for the bishop and report to the bishop or vicar general any problems in their vicariate.
In late Elizabethan England, an Archpriest was appointed from Rome to oversee the Roman Catholic Churchs mission in England, the title of archpriest has survived in Rome, in Malta and elsewhere, where it is now held by the rectors of the major basilicas. However, the title is entirely honorary, reflecting the fact that these churches held archpriestly status in the past, the title is mostly honorary. Today, the archpriest has no control over the subordinate clergy, the use of archpriest in Roman Catholicism should not be confused with protopriest, the senior Cardinal-Priest in the College of Cardinals. In the Church of England there is at least one archpriest, the appointment was first made in 1315 AD and has been held ever since. There is a patron for the Church of St Blaise. The modern office most closely resembling that of archpriest is the role of dean or area dean. Like the archpriest of old, these officers have supervisory duties, but not ordinary jurisdiction, one example of this historical oddity is the office of Dean of Bocking in Essex.
Archpriest is a rank, a title of honor given to non-monastic priests and is conferred by a bishop with the laying on of hands. An archpriest wears a cross both as part of his street clothes and when vested. Endue our brother with Thy Grace, and adorn him with virtue to stand at the head of the Presbyters of Thy people, the rank of Protopresbyter as a distinction higher than Archpriest is a addition. The same Order, naturally, is used for what is now called Protopresbyter, the Unitarian Church of Transylvania is divided into five Archpriestships as a form of territorial governance, virtual dioceses. Archimandrite Archpriest Controversy Arnaud de Cervole, known as the Archpriest Archpriest of Hita Protopope References Sources Cross, Oxford University Press, pp. 79–80 Amanieu, A. Archiprêtre, in, Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word consecration literally means association with the sacred, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify, a distinct antonym is to desecrate, consecration is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term episcopal ordination is now common, consecration was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council. The Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n.76 states, Both the ceremonies, the address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present, the life of those who enter religious institutes and similar institutes is described as Consecrated life.
The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century, by the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only. The Council directed that this should be revised, two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins, Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, used to be consecrated by a bishop, using chrism. Before a new priest is ordained, the day there is a vigil. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the consecration of an altar, the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, to consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution.
It can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body, the Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. A person may be consecrated for a role within a religious hierarchy. In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators
Pope Gregory II
Pope Gregory II was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. Born into a noble Roman family in the year 669, Gregory was the son of Marcellus, as a young man, he was placed into the papal court, and was made a subdeacon and sacellarius of the Roman See during the pontificate of Pope Sergius I. Later he was made a deacon and placed in charge of the Vatican Library, after Constantine’s death on 9 April 715, Gregory was elected pope, and was consecrated as Bishop of Rome on 19 May 715. Almost immediately, Gregory began the task of repairing the Walls of Rome, work on this task was delayed in October 716 when the Tiber river burst its banks and flooded Rome, causing immense damage and only receding after eight days. Gregory ordered a number of litanies to be said to stem the floods, which spread over the Campus Martius, Gregory responded by sending a letter outlining the traditional Roman position against Monothelitism. Then in 716, Gregory received a visit from Theodo. Gregory next turned his attention to Germany, in 718, he was approached by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, who proposed undertaking missionary work in Germany.
Gregory agreed, and after changing his name to Boniface, commissioned him in May 719 to preach in Germany, after hearing of the work that had been done so far, in 722 Gregory summoned Boniface back to Rome to answer rumours concerning Boniface’s doctrinal purity. After examining Boniface’s written profession of faith, Gregory was satisfied enough that he made Boniface a bishop in November 722, Gregory strengthened papal authority in the churches of Britain and Ireland. In 726 Gregory had a visit from Ine, the former King of Wessex. Gregory concerned himself with establishing or restoring monasteries, in 721, Gregory held a synod in Rome, for the purpose of fixing issues around illegitimate marriages. Then in 723, the dispute between the patriarchs of Aquileia and Grado flared up again. Upon the request of the Lombard king, Gregory had given the pallium to Bishop Serenus, at the same time, Gregory reprimanded Donatus for complaining about Gregory’s decision to grant the pallium to Serenus in the first place.
Then in 725, upon Donatus’ death, the Grado patriarchate was usurped by Peter, Gregory mandated a number of practices within the Church. He decreed that in Lent, on the Thursdays, people should fast, just as they were required to do during the days of the week. Apparently the practice had been frowned upon by popes of previous centuries and he prescribed the offices to be said during church services on Thursdays in Lent, as prior to this, the Mass of the preceding Sunday was said on those Thursdays. Gregory attempted to remain on good terms with the Lombards. In April 716 he managed to get Liutprand to agree not to retake the Cottian Alps, the semi-independent Lombard Duchy of Benevento, under the expansionist duke Romuald II, resumed hostilities by capturing Cumae in 717, cutting Rome off from Naples
The Holy See, referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates, as an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City enclave in Rome as sovereign territory, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. Diplomatically, the Holy See acts and speaks for the whole church and it is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained. The creation of the Vatican City state was meant to ensure the diplomatic, in Greek, the adjective holy or sacred is constantly applied to all such sees as a matter of course. The word see comes from the Latin word sedes, meaning seat, while Saint Peters basilica in Vatican City is perhaps the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the church of Saint John Lateran within the city of Rome.
The Pope governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia, the Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Archbishop Pietro Parolin, is the Sees equivalent of a prime minister, Archbishop Paul Gallagher, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy Sees minister of foreign affairs. Parolin was named in his role by Pope Francis On 31 August 2013, mamberti was named in his role by Pope Benedict XVI in September 2006. The Secretariat of State is the body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome that have rights similar to those of embassies. The Roman Rota handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage and it oversees the work of other ecclesiastical tribunals at all levels. The most important of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, the Prefecture of the Papal Household is responsible for the organization of the papal household and ceremonies.
The Holy See does not dissolve upon a Popes death or resignation and it instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. The government of the See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. In 2001, the Holy See had a revenue of 422.098 billion Italian lire, the Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner. Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the popes merchant banker, Mennini heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica – which handles the patrimony of the Holy See. The Holy See has been recognized, both in practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights
The Archbasilica of St. John in the Lateran is the seat of the Pope and the site of the Papal Cathedra, and is the oldest and first in rank of the Major Basilicas. All other churches that have the title of basilica are minor basilicas, the title of major basilica was introduced in 1300 by Pope Boniface VIII. With the promulgation of the bull Antiquorum fida relatio, he instituted the Holy Year, Boniface VIII renewed certain great remissions and indulgences for sins which were to be obtained by visiting the city of Rome and the venerable basilica of the Prince of the Apostles. Peter and St. Paul, the burial sites of the Apostles Pope St. Peter. In the second year in 1350, Pope Clement VI designated as a third major basilica St. John in the Lateran. He encouraged the faithful to make visits to St. John in the Lateran, besides those to the Basilicas of St. Peter. Finally, for the jubilee year in 1390, the Basilica of St. Mary Major. Visiting these four churches has remained one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee indulgence, while of the Major Basilicas, the Basilica of St.
Consequently, all four of the Major Basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of Vatican City State. These properties, located across Rome, are deemed to be essential institutions necessary to the character. Upon relinquishing the title of Patriarch of the West in 2006, in addition, there is a multitude of minor basilicas throughout the world which have not been granted the official appellation Papal as the aforementioned three have. To this class belong the four ancient churches of Rome, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, called the Lateran Archbasilica, is the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome. It is the one called an archbasilica. Its full official name is Papal Archbasilica of the Most Holy Saviour and of Saints John the Baptist, St. Peters Basilica, called the Vatican Basilica, is a major pilgrimage site, built over the burial place of Saint Peter. Perhaps the largest church in the world, it is used for most of the religious ceremonies in which the Pope participates. Its official name is the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican, Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, known as the Ostian Basilica because it is situated on the road that led to Ostia, is built over the burial place of Paul the Apostle.
Its official name is the Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. e and its official name is the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major. These four major basilicas are distinguished by their having a door and for being prescribed as destinations for visits as one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee. Only the Pope and his delegatees may celebrate mass at the high altar, until recently, the four churches were open 24 hours a day, their staff included a college of priests to be continually available to hear confessions
An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world