Municipal corporations in India
A municipal corporation, city corporation, Mahanagar Palika, Mahanagar Nigam or Nagar Nigam or Nagara Sabha is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health care, educational institution, transport etc. by collecting property tax and fixed grant from the State Government. The 74th Amendment made the provisions relating to urban local governments. Municipal corporations are referred to by different names in different states, all of which are translated to "municipal corporation" in English; these names include nagar nigam, mahanagar palika, pouro nigom, pur porishod, nagar palika nigam, Nagara Palaka Samstha, Maanagaraatchi. The Vadodara Municipal Corporation is called by the name "Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan"; the detailed structure of these urban bodies varies from state to state, as per the laws passed by the state legislatures, but the basic structure and function is the same.
The area administered by a municipal corporation is known as a municipal area. Each municipal area is divided into territorial constituencies known as wards. A municipal corporation is made up of a wards committee; each ward has one seat in the wards committee. Members are elected to the wards committee on the basis of adult franchise for a term of five years; these members are known as corporators. The number of wards in a municipal area is determined by the population of the city; some seats are reserved for scheduled tribes, backward classes and women. A state can choose to constitute additional committees to carry functions of urban local governance, in addition to the wards committees. In addition to the councillors elected from the wards, the legislature of a state may choose to make provisions for the representation of persons having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, the MPs or MLAs representing the constituencies which comprise wholly or the municipal area, and/or the commissioners of additional committees that the state may have constituted.
If a state legislature appoints a person from the first category to a wards committee, that individual will not have the right to vote in the meetings of the municipal corporation, while MPs, MLAs and commissioners do have the right to vote in meetings. The largest corporations are in the seven metropolitan cities of India, viz. Delhi, Kolkata, Bengaluru and Pune; the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation of The City of Mumbai is the richest municipal corporation in India. The Mayor is the head of the municipal corporation, but in most states and territories of India the role is ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner; the office of the Mayor combines a functional role of chairing the Corporation meeting as well as ceremonial role associated with being the First Citizen of the city. As per the amended Municipal Corporation Act of 1888, a Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor; the tenure of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor is five years. However, in seven states. Executive officers monitor the implementation of all the programs related to planning and development of the corporation with the coordination of mayor and councilors.
The Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution lists the subjects that municipal corporations are responsible for. Corporations may be entrusted to perform functions and implement schemes including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule. Urban planning including town planning. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings. Planning for economic and social development Water supply for domestic and commercial purposes. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management. Fire services. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded. Slum improvement and upgradation. Urban poverty alleviation. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, playgrounds. Promotion of cultural and aesthetic aspects. Burials and burial grounds. Cattle pounds. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences.
Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries Its sources of income are taxes on water, houses and vehicles paid by residents of the town and grants from the state government. List of municipal corporations of India Municipal governance in India
Electric multiple unit
An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. An EMU is formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as EMUs; the great majority of EMUs are passenger trains, but versions exist for carrying parcels and mail. EMUs are popular on commuter and suburban rail networks around the world due to their fast acceleration and pollution-free operation. Being quieter than diesel multiple units and locomotive-hauled trains, EMUs can operate at night and more without disturbing nearby residents. In addition, tunnel design for EMU trains is simpler as no provision is needed for exhausting fumes, although retrofitting existing limited-clearance tunnels to accommodate the extra equipment needed to transmit electric power to the train can be difficult.
Multiple unit train control was first used in the 1890s. The Liverpool Overhead Railway opened in 1893 with two car electric multiple units, controllers in cabs at both ends directly controlling the traction current to motors on both cars; the multiple unit traction control system was developed by Frank Sprague and first applied and tested on the South Side Elevated Railroad in 1897. In 1895, derived from his company's invention and production of direct current elevator control systems, Frank Sprague invented a multiple unit controller for electric train operation; this accelerated the construction of electric traction railways and trolley systems worldwide. Each car of the train has its own traction motors: by means of motor control relays in each car energized by train-line wires from the front car all of the traction motors in the train are controlled in unison; the cars that form a complete EMU set can be separated by function into four types: power car, motor car, driving car, trailer car.
Each car can have more than one function, such as power-driving car. A power car carries the necessary equipment to draw power from the electrified infrastructure, such as pickup shoes for third rail systems and pantographs for overhead systems, transformers. Motor cars carry the traction motors to move the train, are combined with the power car to avoid high-voltage inter-car connections. Driving cars are similar to a cab car. An EMU will have two driving cars at its outer ends. Trailer cars are any cars that carry little or no traction or power related equipment, are similar to passenger cars in a locomotive-hauled train. On third rail systems the outer vehicles carry the pick up shoes, with the motor vehicles receiving the current via intra-unit connections. Many modern 2-car EMU sets are set up as "married pair" units. While both units in a married pair are driving motors, the ancillary equipment are shared between the two cars in the set. Since neither car can operate without its "partner", such sets are permanently coupled and can only be split at maintenance facilities.
Advantages of married pair units include weight and cost savings over single-unit cars while allowing all cars to be powered, unlike a motor-trailer combination. Each car has only one control cab, located at the outer end of the pair, saving space and expense over a cab at both ends of each car. Disadvantages include a loss of operational flexibility, as trains must be multiples of two cars, a failure on a single car could force removing both it and its partner from service; some of the more famous electric multiple units in the world are high-speed trains: the AGV in France, Italian Pendolino, Shinkansen in Japan, the China Railway High-speed in China and ICE 3 in Germany. The retired New York–Washington Metroliner service, first operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and by Amtrak featured high-speed electric multiple-unit cars, see Budd Metroliner. EMUs powered by fuel cells are under development. If successful, this would avoid the need for third rail. An example is Alstom’s hydrogen-powered Coradia iLint.
The term hydrail has been coined for hydrogen-powered rail vehicles. Electro-diesel multiple unit Diesel multiple unit Battery electric multiple unit British electric multiple units
Bangaon is a city and a municipality in North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal, India. Bangaon is headquarters of Bangaon subdivision. Bangaon is located at 23.07°N 88.82°E / 23.07. It has an average elevation of 7 metres. Arsenic contamination is a major concern in this area. Public transport is provided by the rail and buses. Bangaon is part of the Kolkata Suburban Railway system, it is the last station on the Sealdah-Bangaon section of Eastern Railway, 77 km from Sealdah Station. The Sealdah–Bangaon railway was built between 1882 and 1884. Bangaon is well connected with others major places by buses, like Kolkata, Dakshineshwar, Habra, Basirhat, Kalyani, Chakdah, Karimpur, Santragachi etc. In the 2011 census, Bangaon municipality had a population of 110,668, out of which 56,416 were males and 54,252 were females; the 0–6 years population was 8,452. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 90.25 per cent. Dinabandhu Mahavidyalay is the only degree college in Bangaon, affiliated to West Bengal State University.
Jiban Ratan Dhar, politician Jogendra Nath Mandal, politician Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, Bengali novelist Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, archeologist 2000 India-Bangladesh floods Ichamati River Bangaon railway station Bangaon subdivision
North 24 Parganas district
North 24 Parganas or sometimes North Twenty Four Parganas is a district in southern West Bengal, of eastern India. North 24 Parganas extends in the tropical zone from latitude 22º11'6" north to 23º15'2" north and from longitude 88º20' east to 89º5' east, it is bordered to Nadia by north, to Bangladesh by north and east, to South 24 Parganas and Kolkata by south and to Kolkata and Hoogly by west. Barasat is the district headquarters of North 24 Parganas. North 24 Parganas is West Bengal's most populous district and the most populated district in the whole of India, it is the tenth-largest district in the State by area. According to Ptolemy's Treatise on geography, written in the 2nd Century A. D. the ancient land of Gangaridi was stretched between the rivers Bhagirathi-Hoogly and Padma-Meghna. The modern-day 24 Parganas was the southern and the south-eastern territory of that legendary kingdom. Archaeological excavation at Berachampa village in Deganga PS proves that though the area was not directly attached to the rule of the Guptas, yet it could not shun their cultural influence.
Xuanzang visited 30 Buddhist Biharas and 100 Hindu Temples in India and some of these were in the Greater 24 Parganas region. The district was not a part of Shashanka's unified Bengali empire known as Gauda, but it is assumed that the district, the south-west frontier territory of ancient Bengal, was comprised in under the rule of Dharmapala; the Pala rule was not quite strong in this part, as no excavation uncovered any of Buddhist Pala antiquities but many Hindu Sena sculptures. In the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese pirates began to invade and plunder many of the waterways and prosperous human settlements in the lower delta region. People left these places out of the fear of being raped, or captured to be sold as slaves; the Basirhat sub-division of North 24 Parganas suffered most from these torments. Shrihari, a Kayastha, was an influential officer in the service of Daud Khan Karrani. On the fall of Daud he fled away with the government treasure in his custody, he set up a kingdom for himself in the marshy land to the extreme south of Khulna district and assumed the title of Maharaja.
Pratapaditya succeeded to the kingship in 1574. The baharistan and the travel diary of Abdul Latif and the contemporary European writers, all testify to the personal ability of Pratapaditya, his political pre-eminence, material resources, his territories covered the greater part of what is now included in the greater Jessore and Barisal districts. He established his capital at Dhumghat, a strategic position at the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati before it was shifted to Ishwaripur. Maharaja Pratapaditya, soon became one of the 12 feudal lords of Bengal who not only declared their sovereignty from the Mughal Empire in the ruling of Jessore, Khulna and Greater 24 Parganas, but fought and resisted the Portuguese in the early years of the 17th Century; when he was defeated by the Mughals. Pratapaditya lost both the battles of Magrahat, his fate was sealed and he was compelled to tender submission to Islam Khan at Dhaka. His kingdom was annexed, he died at Benares on his way to Delhi from Dhaka, as a prisoner.
Of war to the Mughals. After his death, Bhavanand Majumdar, in the service of Pratapaditya, was given the throne by Raja Man Singh, he became the founder of the Nadiya Raj family. Laksmikanta Gangopadhyay better known as Laksmikanta Roy Choudhury, the well known Brahmin scholar, the son of great saint Kamdev Brahmachari and a close associate of Raja Basanta Ray, was given tax free jaigir of eight parganas, including the areas in and around Kalikatah as Gurudakshina by Raja Man Singh in 1608. Jashoreshwari Kali Temple, Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur, Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur, two big and four small domed Hammankhana at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur, Jahajghata Port, Kalighat Temple bear archaeological evidences of the Bhuiyan and Majumdar kings; the territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon administration during the Mughal era and it was included in Hoogly chakla during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan. In 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, Nawab Mir Jafar conferred the Zamindari of 24 parganas and janglimahals upon the British East India Company.
These were Amirpur, Balia, Azimabad, Baridhati, Kalikata, Hatiagarh, Dakshin Sagar, Khaspur, Magura, Maida, Barasat, Muragachha, Paikan, Shahpur, Satal, New Barrackpore and Uttar Pargana. Since this entire territory is known as Twentyfour Parganas. In 1751, the Company assigned John Zephaniah Holwell as zemindar of the District. In 1759, after the Bengali War of 1756-57, the Company assigned it to Lord Clive as a personal Jaghir and after his death it again came under the direct authority of the Company. In 1793, during the rule of Lord Cornwallis, entire Sunderbans were in Twentyfour Parganas. In 1802, some parganas on the western banks of river Hoogly were included into it; these parganas were in Nadia earlier. In 1814, a separate collectorate was established in Twenty-four Parganas. In 1817, Falta and Baranagar and in 1820, some portions of Nadia’s Balanda and Anwarpur were encompassed to it. In
Bandel is a town in the Hooghly district of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is founded by Portuguese settlers and falls under the jurisdiction of Chandernagore Police Commissionerate, it is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority. Bandel is a major rail junction station of Eastern Railway zone, it is 40 km from Howrah station. Bandel is located at 22°55′22″N 88°22′46″E and it has an elevation of 16 m; the main river that flows by Bandel is Ganges. The town is in Gangetic plain. Climate Like the rest of the Ganges delta of West Bengal, the climate is tropical wet-and-dry in nature. A prolonged hot and humid weather is the main characteristic of the climate of Bandel; the Monsoon stays from early June to mid-September. Winter persists for three months, from mid-November to mid-February; the weather remains dry during humid during summer. Dunlop Factory: The famous Dunlop factory is situated at Sahaganj near Bandel. However, it has been shut down owing to some issues in its administration.
BTPS: Bandel Thermal Power Station was started with a capacity of 82.5 MW in 1965. It has since been expanded and has a rated capacity of 530 MW, it is operated under the West Bengal Power Development Corporation. A old factory PANCH STEEL was purchased and set up a wagon factory Jupiter Wagons Limited. Bakery: Bandel is the base of many bakery industries. Bandel Bazar:Bandel Bazar is one of the biggest and important markets of the district. It's the hub of agricultural export. Vegetables and rice are exported from the market. Banks: At Bandel, there are branches of banks such as Allahabad Bank, Axis Bank, Bandhan Bank, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab & Sind Bank, State Bank of India, UCO Bank, United Bank of India. Jupiter Wagons Ltd: Jupiter, an engineering company which manufacture railway based products such as Fright Wagons, Bogie & CMS Crossings, is located in front of Bandel ITI. At Bandel, there are Hooghly railway station and Bandel Junction. Bandel Junction is a model rail station.
The station is situated 40 km from Howrah station on the Howrah-Bardhaman Main Line. The Bandel-Katwa meets the Howrah main line, here at Bandel Jn. Another branch line connects Kolkata station via Naihati Junction. An EMU car-shed, as well as a goods yard, is situated in the neighbourhood of Bandel station. Like other parts of Kolkata suburban area auto rickshaws can be found on the roads and streets of Bandel. Besides, there are buses, rickshaws; these all contribute to the public transport of Bandel. The nearby airport is Kolkata. Like other parts of West Bengal, Durga Puja is the biggest festival of Bandel. Kartik Puja is one of the famous festivals celebrated in Bandel. Lakshmi Puja, Kali Puja, Viswakarma Puja, Saraswati Puja, Poila Boisakh-Ganesh Puja, Chhat Puja, Dol Yatra are celebrated at Bandel. Olichandi Mela is the biggest fair observed at Bandel in early summer after the Dol Yatra. Christmas is well celebrated at Bandel church and lots of people come here for this occasion. Eid is the major festival celebrated by the Muslim community of Bandel.
Another festival,'vel-vel', is exclusive to Bandel, celebrated few weeks after the Dol Yatra. Bandel St. John's High School Don Bosco School Bandel Ideal Central Public School. Bikramnagar Haranath Niradasundari Ghosh Vidyamandir established 1964 Bandel Mahatma Gandhi Hindi High School Blooming Buds School Bandel Dunlop English Medium School Bandel Vidyamandir High School Auxilium Convent Sahaganj Dunlop High School Abbot Shishu Hall Hooghly Gour Hari Harijan Vidya Mandir Elite Co-Ed School Hooghly Girls' High School Hooghly Branch High School Pratibandhi Kalyan Kendra, a centre for children with disability Tribeni Tissues Vidyapith, Hooghly Morning Smile Nursery & Kindergarten School, Bandel. Ghutiabazar Binodini Girls' High School Sahaganj Girls High School Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bandel Railway Colony Sunshine Public School, Bandel Bazar Modern Institute of Engineering and Technology West Bengal Survey Institute Debanandapur is the birthplace of the Bengali author Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay and is about 3 km west from Bandel Station.
His dwelling house is still there. There is a library named Sarat Smrithi Pathagar, which includes a museum room containing the things used by the famous writer; the village has some 19th-century atchala temples. It is one of the seven important villages named Saptagram at the time of Mughals. Sahaganj is 4 km from Bandel station. A unit of Dunlop India Ltd. is located here. Ruias purchased Dunlop India Ltd. from the Dubai-based Jumbo group owned by late Manu Chhabria. The pin code is 712104. and resumed production in January 2007 after 8 years. After few months of starting production Ruias stopped production again, till December 2012 there is no hope of light for the workers. Jupiter, an engineering company which manufacture railway based products such as Fright Wagons, Bogie & CMS Crossings, is located in front of Bandel ITI. Tribeni is 8 km from Bandel on the Bandel-Katwa line. Tribeni Tissues Limited, a specialty paper manufacturing company and a major supplier of tissue paper to the cigarette industry, is located at Tribeni.
It was taken over by ITC in 1990. Tribeni in West Bengal is derived from the junction of three rivers Kunti & Swaraswati. Tribeni burning ghat has Hindu Religious va
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i