SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Basketball

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.

The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile player is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the EuroLeague and the Basketball Champions League Americas; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.

Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.

Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.

A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players

Criticisms of the labour theory of value

Criticisms of the labor theory of value affect the historical concept of labor theory of value which spans classical economics, liberal economics, Marxian economics, neo-Marxian economics, anarchist economics. As an economic theory of value, LTV is central to Marxist social-political-economic theory and gave birth to the concepts of labour exploitation and surplus value. LTV criticisms therefore appear in the context of economic criticism, not only for the microeconomic theory of Marx but for Marxism, according to which the working class is exploited under capitalism. Adherents of neoclassical economics, the mainstream school of economics, employ the theory of marginalism, which holds that the value of any good or service is measured by its price. While Marxian surplus value can't be measured, the utility of the "last" bought consumption good determined by its marginal utility, in satisfying a specific consumer's wants should therefore be concerned as a complete absolute essence, where politics, social constructions and culture should be considered nonexistent.

While Marx emphasizes profit maximisation, neoclassical economists view the maximisation of utility at the individual or societal level. Proponents of the labor theory of value would reply that in capitalism the price of a good is not measured by its usefulness but by its price, it depends on a pre-existing set of relations of distribution. These relations of distribution in turn rest on a set of relations of production, which determine how consumers "earn" money, capitalists "earn" profits, workers wages, landlords rent and so on; the price of an object depends not only on its usefulness, but on the amount of money different consumers would spend on it—their different effective demands. It is unclear how if at all this differs from a wealth effect on demand that results directly from the individual's utility maximization problem. In microeconomics, this utility maximisation takes place under certain constraints, these are the available numbers of factors of production, for instance, labor. In fact, the ultimate restriction is time.

Households divide their time into leisure time for work. Time for work is to make money to buy goods for consumption; the household chooses that amount of leisure time and that amount of consumption goods that maximises its utility level. With Marx, working time is not based on a free decision of households, but the outcome of a class struggle between workers and capitalists, the former trying to decrease, the latter to increase working time. Further, all this does not take account of effects of the accumulation process. With Marx, there is a tendency of equalisation of rate of profit in the accumulation process, which leads to prices of production. If the price of a commodity is above its price of production capitalists in that sector earn a super profit; as a result, capital is attracted to that sector, production increases, prices fall until the super profit has been competed away. The resulting prices of production are via transformation from labor values into prices based on labor times. According to marginalism, value is subjective and therefore cannot be determined by measuring how much labor is necessary to produce an item.

In the Pareto optimum, on the other hand, the exchange relations between commodities are not only determined by their marginal utility, but by the marginal productivity of the factors of production available. This means that in marginalism commodities exchange at the marginal amount of labor necessary to produce them. In this sense, an LTV, or, more a value theory of marginal labor inputs, holds. However, this applies to all factors of production and to marginal utility. Labor is nothing special; that these several value theories can hold all at the same time is made possible by marginal analysis. The Pareto optimum is defined as a situation where utility is maximised and at the same time all factors of production are employed most efficiently, leading to a situation, where all commodities exchange at their marginal utilities and at their - marginal - amounts of the different factors of production necessary to produce them. In other words, if empirically it was found out, that commodities exchange according to their marginally necessary labor inputs, this would confirm marginal theory.

It would falsify Marx’s theory, because according to Marx these exchange ratios are determined by prices of production, which are different from the necessary labor inputs, the labor values. Implicitly, Marx is thus denying. Opponents of Marxist economics argue that the labor theory of value is disproven as commodities may diverge from the average price of production. In his 1871 work Principles of Economics, Austrian School economist Carl Menger writes: There is no necessary and direct connection between the value of a good and whether, or in what quantities and other goods of higher order were applied to its production. A non-economic good does not attain value for men since large quantities of labor or other economic goods wer

507th Maintenance Company

The 507th Maintenance Company was a United States Army unit, ambushed during the Battle of Nasiriyah in the rapid advance towards Baghdad during 2003 invasion of Iraq on 23 March 2003. The most well known member of the unit was Private First Class Jessica Lynch whose rescue from an Iraqi hospital received worldwide media coverage. Sergeant Donald Walters and Private First Class Patrick Miller were both awarded the Silver Star for valor. Sergeant Matthew Rose was awarded the Bronze Star Medal with "V" Device. Many other members of the unit were decorated as well, receiving the Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart, and/or Prisoner of War Medal. On 16 July 2005, the 507th Maintenance Company was redesignated as Battery E, 5th Battalion, 52d Air Defense Artillery Regiment. In 2006, A monument to the 507th Maintenance Company was placed within the battalion's area on Fort Bliss, Texas. In January 2007, the unit's designation was changed to Battery F; the 507th Maintenance Company provided maintenance support to 5th Battalion, 52nd Air Defense Artillery, a Patriot missile unit based at Fort Bliss, Texas.

It was assigned to 2d Battalion, 7th Air Defense Artillery, 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, another Patriot missile unit at Fort Bliss which played a major support role in the Persian Gulf War. During its Iraq deployment in 2003, the 507th was attached to 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade. A trail vehicle convoy element of this unit was ambushed during the rapid advance towards Baghdad during Operation Iraqi Freedom on 23 March 2003; the 507th was last in a march column of over 600 vehicles from the 3rd Infantry Division. This element which included the heavier, slower vehicles of the 507th, made a wrong turn into Nasiriyah, a major crossing point over the Euphrates River northwest of Basra. A U. S. Army investigation concluded that this wrong turn was the result of a navigational error compounded by a lack of rest, limited communications and human error; the following soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company were killed in action: Two soldiers from the 3rd Forward Support Battalion of the 3rd Infantry Division, Specialist Edward J. Anguiano, 24, of Brownsville and Sergeant George Edward Buggs, 31, of Barnwell, South Carolina, were killed in action with the 507th Maintenance Company after falling back in the column to assist the 507th with vehicle recovery.

The following soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company were captured and held as prisoners of war: The following soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company were wounded in action: The following soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company were noted to have escaped capture by media accounts: The Oregonian, Left Behind, 13 April 2003. Texas Senate Resolution 50, recognizing 13 members of the 507th Maintenance Company