The Enchanted moura or, moura encantada is a supernatural being from the fairy tales of Portuguese and Galician folklore. Beautiful and seductive, she lives under an imposed occult spell. Shapeshifters, the mouras encantadas occupy liminal spaces and are builders with stone of formidable strength; the enchanted Moura appears singing and combing her beautiful long hair, golden as gold or black as the night with a golden comb, promises to give treasures to whom sets her free by breaking her spell. According to José Leite de Vasconcelos, mouras encantadas are “beings compelled by an occult power to live on a certain state of siege as if they were numb or asleep, insofar as a particular circumstance does not break their spell”. According to ancient lore, they are the souls of young maidens who were left guarding the treasures that the males, mouros encantados hid before heading to Mourama; the legends describe mouras encantadas as young maidens of great beauty or as charming princesses who are "dangerously seductive".
They are shapeshifters and there are a number of legends, versions of the same legend, as a result of centuries of oral tradition. They appear as guardians of the pathways into the earth and of the "limit" frontiers where it was believed that the supernatural could manifest itself. Mouras encantadas are magical maidens who guard castles, bridges, wells and treasures. José Leite de Vasconcelos considered as a possibility that the mouras encantadas may have had assimilated the characteristics of local deities, such as nymphs and spirits of nature. Consiglieri Pedroso referred to the mouras encantadas as "feminine water genies"; the tales of the mouras are part of a wider lore of the "mouros encantados", who some times appear as giants or warriors, which include the mourinhos or maruxinhos, a small elf like people who live under the ground. The fairy tales featuring mouras encantadas are thought to be of pre-Roman, Indo-European Celtic origin, they are related to other Indo-European, Celtic, female divinities of the water.
Every Portuguese or Galician town has a tale of a Moura Encantada. The lore of the mouros encantados is used to find prehistoric monuments and was for some time used in the 19th century as the main method to locate Lusitanian archaeological "monuments", as Martins Sarmento viewed these as a kind of folk memory, erased with Christianization. Like the Mairu of Basque mythology built dolmens or harrespil, the mouras are builders of ancient monuments. Moura is a homonym word with meanings; the word "moura", feminine of "mouro", is thought to originate from the Celtic *MRVOS and the Indo-European mr-tuos that originated in Latin the word mortuus and in Portuguese/Galician the word morto. Some authors think, but the word mouro is a synonym of Muslim. Since the Iberian peninsula was occupied by Muslims for many centuries, it might refer to young Muslims deceased in battle. Princesa moura appears as a snake with long blond hair. In some fairy tales, the beings are beautiful Muslim princesses who live in castles at the time of the Reconquista or, fall in love with a Portuguese Christian knight.
In other fairy tales, a moura encantada lives in a castle under the earth and falls in love with a Moor instead of the Christian knight. These two variations are found only in Portugal. Many of these legends try to explain the origins of a city or invoke historical characters, other legends present a religious context. In the historical context, these places and events are situated in the real world and in a specific time frame, it is believed. In other variants, the moura encantada is a spinning maiden moura, who carries stones on her head to build the hill forts while she spins the yarns with a distaff that she carries at her waist. Mouras encantadas were believed to be the builders of the Paleolithic hill forts, the dolmens, the megaliths, they are believed to still live there. The ancient coins found on the hill forts were called "medals of the mouros"; the Pedra Formosa found on Citânia de Briteiros was, according to folklore, brought to this place by a moura who carried it on her head while she was spinning with a spindle.
They are night weavers, but only the sound of weaving can be heard in the night. Pedra-moura are mouras encantadas named for living inside stones, it was believed that who sat on one of these stones would become enchanted, or, that if any enchanted stone was taken to a house, all the animals in the house could die. It was believed that pedras mouras had enchanted treasures inside them. There are several legends. In Portuguese lore it is said that you can walk into or walk out of certain rocks related to the moura legends; the moura is described as traveling to Mourama while sitting on a stone that can float in the air or water. Inside caves, under rocks and under the earth many legends say. According to Thurnwald, it was not uncommon among the people of pre-Roman Iberian Peninsula to believe that the souls of the dead dwell in certain rocks; the almas dos mouros or alminhas dos mouros was the name given to the votive aras, being alminhas the common name for the wayside shrine. In some tales, the enchanted moura is a shapeshifter who takes the form of a cobra.
Michael is an archangel in Judaism and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called "Saint Michael the Taxiarch". Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel; the idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy. In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is referred to as "the archangel Michael". Christian sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil. Michael is mentioned three times in all in the Book of Daniel.
The prophet Daniel experiences a vision after having undergone a period of fasting. Daniel 10:13-21 describes Daniel's vision of an angel who identifies Michael as the protector of Israel. At Daniel 12:1, Daniel is informed that Michael will arise during the "time of the end"; the Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven. After the conflict, Satan is thrown to earth along with the fallen angels, where he still tries to "lead the whole world astray". In the Epistle of Jude 1:9, Michael is referred to as an "archangel". A reference to an "archangel" appears in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians 4:16; this archangel who heralds the second coming of Christ is not named, but is associated with Michael. Michael, is one of the two archangels mentioned alongside Jibrail. In the Quran, Michael is mentioned once only, in Sura 2:98: "Whoever is an enemy to God, His angels and His messengers, Jibrail and Mikhail! God is an enemy to the disbelievers." Some Muslims believe that the reference in Sura 11:69 is Michael, one of the three angels who visited Abraham.
According to rabbinic Jewish tradition, Michael acted as the advocate of Israel, sometimes had to fight with the princes of the other nations and with the angel Samael, Israel's accuser. Michael's enmity with Samael dates from the time. Samael took hold of the wings of Michael. Michael said "May The Lord rebuke you" to Satan for attempting to claim the body of Moses; the idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy: "When a man is in need he must pray directly to God, neither to Michael nor to Gabriel." There were two prayers written beseeching him as the prince of mercy to intercede in favor of Israel: one composed by Eliezer ha-Kalir, the other by Judah ben Samuel he-Hasid. But appeal to Michael seems to have been more common in ancient times, thus Jeremiah is said to have addressed a prayer to him.
The rabbis declare that Michael entered upon his role of defender at the time of the biblical patriarchs. Thus, according to Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob, it was Michael who rescued Abraham from the furnace into which he had been thrown by Nimrod, it was Michael, the "one that had escaped", who told Abraham that Lot had been taken captive, who protected Sarah from being defiled by Abimelech. He announced to Sarah that she would bear a son and he rescued Lot at the destruction of Sodom, it is said that Michael prevented Isaac from being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram in his place, saved Jacob, while yet in his mother's womb, from being killed by Samael. Michael prevented Laban from harming Jacob.. It was Michael who afterwards blessed him; the midrash Exodus Rabbah holds that Michael exercised his function of advocate of Israel at the time of the Exodus when Satan accused the Israelites of idolatry and declared that they were deserving of death by drowning in the Red Sea. Michael is said to have destroyed the army of Sennacherib.
The early Christians regarded some of the martyrs, such as Saint George and Saint Theodore, as military patrons. The earliest and most famous sanctuary to Michael in the ancient Near East was associated with healing waters, it was the Michaelion built in the early 4th century by Emperor Constantine at Chalcedon, on the site of an earlier Temple called Sosthenion. A painting of the Archangel slaying a serpent became a major art piece at the Michaelion after Constantine defeated Licinius near there in 324 leading to the standard iconography of Archangel Michael as a warrior saint slaying a dragon; the Michaelion was a magnificent church and in time became a model for hundreds of other churches in E
Mari called Mari Urraca, Anbotoko Mari, Murumendiko Dama was a goddess of the Basques. She was married to the god Sugaar. Legends connect her to the weather: when she and Maju travelled together hail would fall, her departures from her cave would be accompanied by storms or droughts, which cave she lived in at different times would determine dry or wet weather: wet when she was in Anboto. Other places where she was said to dwell include the chasm of Murumendi, the cave of Gurutzegorri and Aralar, although it is not always possible to be certain which Basque legends should be considered as the origin, it is believed that Mari is a modification of Amari by losing the first vowel. The closeness in names between Mary and Mari may have helped pagans adapt their worship of Mari to undertake Christian veneration of the Virgin Mary; the first known written citation of the "Dame of Amboto" was made by Charles V's chronicler Esteban de Garibay Zamalloa in his Memorial histórico español. Mari lives underground in a cave in a high mountain, where she and her consort Sugaar meet every Friday to conceive the storms that will bring fertility to the land and the people.
Mari is served by a court of sorginak, is said to feed "on the negation and affirmation". The figure of Mari is linked to the kidnapping or theft of cows; the presence of Christian priests in those myths may indicate that they are Christian fabrications or distortions of original material. Legends do not recount any kind of sacrifices offered to Mari under normal circumstances, in contrast to food given to lesser spirits, as recompense for their work in the fields. In various legends, Mari is said to have sons or daughters, but their number and character fluctuate; the two most well-known were her two sons and Mikelatz. Atxular represents the Christianized Basque soul, becoming a priest after having learned from the Devil in a church in Salamanca and having escaped. Mikelatz seems to have a more wild character. Another legend presents Mari as wife to the Lord of Diego López I de Haro; this marriage may symbolize the legitimacy of the dynasty, much in the style of the Irish goddess marrying the kings of that island as a religious act of legitimacy.
In any case, the condition that Mari imposes on her husband is that, while he could keep his Christian faith, he was obliged to keep it outside the home. Once after discovering that his wife had a goat leg instead of a normal human foot, he made the sign of the cross. After that act, Mari took her daughter, jumped through the window and disappeared, never to return; this account can be heard as delegitimizing the de Haro family, placed as lords by the Castilian conquerors not long before this myth arose. Other legends are more simple. For example, there is a legend that when one is lost in the wild, one only has to cry Mari's name loudly three times to have her appear over one's head to help the person find his or her way; the people of Oñati believed that the weather would be wet when she was in Anboto, dry when she was in Aloña. In Zeanuri, they say that she would stay seven years in Anboto the next seven in a cave in Oiz called Supelegor. A similar legend in Olaeta, Biscay substitutes Gorbea for Supelegor.
A legend from Otxandio, Biscay tells that Mari was born in Lazkao and that she was the evil sister of a Roman Catholic priest. In other legends, the priest is her cousin Juanito Chistu, rather than a brother, is a great hunter, she was said to take a distaff by the middle and walk along spinning, leaving storms in her wake. In Elorrieta, Biscay, it was said that she would be in her cave, combing her hair, not a shepherd could draw near to her, it was said that her malign power did not extend to those who were innocent of sin. Folklorist Resurrección María de Azkue ties Mari Urraca to a legend about a princess of the Kingdom of Navarre, widow of a 12th-century nobleman who lived in the Tower of Muncharaz in the valley known as the Merindad de Durango, she was said to have headed for the cave of Anboto. According to Azkue, Iturriza tells this story in his Historia de Vizcaya. Labayru in her Historia de Vizcaya doubts it. Legends attached to the Lady of Murumendi, according to Azkue, include that she had seven brothers and was changed into a witch for her disobedience, that the weather would be warm when she walked about.
In Beizama, they say that if she stays in her cave and if, on the day of the Holy Cross, appropriate spells are cast, hail can be prevented. They say that she and her husband once went to church in a cart and that upon leaving church, she rose into the air saying, "Domingo, Domingo el de Murua, siete hijos para el mundo, ninguno para el cielo". Mari was associated with various forces including thunder and wind; as the personification of the Earth, she may have been worshipped in association with Lurbira. Mari was regarded as the protectoress of the executive branch, she is depicted as riding through the sky in a chariot pulled by rams. Her idols feature a full moon behind her head. Mari is the main character of Basque mythology, unlike other creatures that share the same spiritual environment, a
Hilarri is the name given to disk-shaped funerary steles that are typical of the Basque Country. These funerary steles present a disc-shaped head facing the rising sun on a trapezoidal stand, they belong to an old tradition throughout all of the Western Mediterranean, which includes parts of Europe and North Africa, but today they are found in the Basque Country. The disc may be decorated by: geometric symbols organizing the disc into four or eight circle sectors, a structuring of space that recalls the coat of arms of Navarre. A smaller rosette, a Christian cross or a text may be added on the stand. Geometric symbols are distributed on the disc within 4 or 8 circle sectors; the quarters are delimited by a cross as: a flowered cross reinforced by tangent arcs linking arms to each other. They may be simple or well worked. Sometimes, a diagonal secondary cross completes the figure; each sector is decorated with various small decorative symbols such as stars, potent crosses or rosettes. They may be different in each sector.
Sometimes, depictions of tools point out the trade of the deceased, whose name is mentioned. Stylized hands open upwards may be found. Many steles are decorated by single rosettes. In this case the order of symmetry is 6; the most frequent figures are: rosettes made up of 6 laurel leaves. Some figures are designed to give an idea of rotation clockwise, a sense, analyzed as positive; the most popular figures are: the lauburu. One Navarrese hilarri presents a kind of lauburu made of four walking legs; this motive cannot be considered as usual in the Basque Country. Some more specific figures can be encountered as: a figure that looks like a $ symbol, made up of 3 vertical lines, crossing 3 horizontal segments, linked to each other as a wide S, they are all identified with Christ as the sun rising after Resurrection, evident in Basque church symbols and the imagery of Loyola's Jesuit Order. The surrounding of the disc is decorated, giving an impression of a shining sun. Many innovative ornamentations can be observed in modern hilarris.
As an example, in Zuberoa, the traditional song "Orhiko txoria" has led to many representations of a bird flying towards this emblematic mountain. Others have seen connections to a prehistoric solar cult arriving with the Mauri or Jentillak and related to the Egyptian Horus, consort or manifestation of the Ishtar of Fertility among the desert and Sea People. Armenian eternity sign Atalburu Celtic cross High cross Khachkar Contribution à l'étude de la stèle discoïdale basque, Michel Duvert Association Lauburu, Bulletin du Musée Basque n° 49 & 50, 1976. Les stèles discoïdales et l'art funéraire basque, Lauburu
San Millán de la Cogolla
San Millán de la Cogolla is a sparsely populated municipality in La Rioja. It takes its name from a 6th-century saint who lived here, from the shape of the surrounding mountains; the village is famous for its twin monasteries and Suso, which were declared a World Heritage Site in 1997. There were 293 inhabitants registered in 2009, the population having fallen during the twentieth century. San Millán has a claim to being the birthplace of the Spanish language; the area is Spanish-speaking but some of the local place-names are of Basque origin, there is evidence that Basque was spoken locally a thousand years ago. Jews were living here as early as at Nájera, they suffered in the civil war between Peter of Castile and Henry II of Castile. On October 15, 1369, at the request of the directors of the small aljama of San Millán, whose cause was advocated by "certain Jews who were received at court," Henry II of Castile ordered that "the Christian men and women and the Moorish men and women" should discharge all their debts to the Jews, "that the last-named might be able to pay their taxes the more promptly."
On September 10, 1371, the king released the abbot and all the monks of San Millán from whatever debts they had contracted with the Jews since the Battle of Nájera. Aurea of San Millán Monasteries of San Millán Official website of the monastery of San Millán The Art of medieval Spain, A. D. 500-1200, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on San Millán de la Cogolla
Álava or Araba Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see. Its capital city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, is the seat of the political main institutions of the autonomous community, it borders the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa to the north, the community of La Rioja to the south, the province of Burgos to the west and the community of Navarre to the east. The Enclave of Treviño, surrounded by Alavese territory, is however part of the province of Burgos, thus belonging to the autonomous community of Castile and León, not Álava, it is the largest of the three provinces in the Basque Autonomous Community in geographical terms, with 2,963 km2, but the least populated with 328,868 inhabitants. Built around the Roman mansion Alba located on the road ab Asturica Burdigalam, it has sometimes been argued the name may stem from that landmark. However, according to the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the origin may be another: The name is first found on Muslim chronicles of the 8th century referring to the Alavese Plains, laua in old Basque with the Arab article added, developing into Spanish Álava and Basque Araba.
The province numbers 51 municipalities, a population of 315,525 inhabitants in an area of 3,037 km2, with an average of 104.50 inhabitants/km2. The vast majority of the population clusters in the capital city of Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, which serves as the capital of the Autonomous Community, but the remainder of the territory is sparsely inhabited with population nuclei distributed into seven counties: Añana. Álava is an inland territory and features a transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones: The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape; the Valleys: Low valleys, sparsely populated. The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains; the Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards. Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns; the region shows close bonds with an industrial landscape. Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like Bilbao. While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory, the trend shifted during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains, with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while 60% was in the tertiary sector and 32% in manufacturing.
Industry associated with iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava. List of rulers: Eylo, up to 866 Rodrigo c. 867–870, count of Castile Vela Jiménez 870–c. 887 Munio Velaz c. 887–c. 921 Álvaro Herraméliz c. 921–931 count of Cerezo and Lantarón Fernán González 931–970 count of Castile, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1030 García Fernández 970–995 Munio González 1030–1043 Fortunio Íñiguez 1043–1046 Munio Muñoz 1046–1060, Álava feudatary of Navarre, 1046–1085 Sancho Maceratiz 1046–1060 Ramiro 1060–1075 Marcelo 1075–1085 Lope Íñiguez 1085–?, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1123 Lope Díaz the White?–1093 Lope González 1093–1099 Lope Sánchez 1099–1114 Diego López I 1114–1123 Ladrón Íñiguez 1123–1158, Álava feudatary of Navarre until 1199 Vela Ladrón 1158–1175 Juan Velaz 1175–1181 Diego López II 1181–1187 Íñigo de Oriz 1187–1199 Diego López de Haro I 1199–1214, Álava feudatary of Castile until personal union of 1332 Lope Diaz de Haro I 1214–1240 Nuño González de Lara 1240–1252 Diego López de Haro II 1252–1274 Fernando de la Cerda 1274–1280 Lope Díaz II de Haro 1280–1288 Juan Alonso de Haro 1288–1310 Diego López de Salcedo 1310–1332The title is attributed to the Castilian kings after 1332.
The Arab invasion of the Ebro valley in the 8th century, many Christians of the Diocese of Calahorra sought refuge in areas further north free of Arab rule. The diocese called Álava or Armentaria was established in 870 on terrirory split off from the Diocese of Calahorra. From until the 11th century the names of several bishops of this see are recorded, the best known being the last, Fortún, who in 1072 went to Rome to argue before Pope Alexander II in defence of the Mozarabic Rite, which King Alfonso VI of León and Castile had decree
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania extending from 711 to 788. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus; the conquest marks the westernmost expansion of both the Umayyad Caliphate and Muslim rule into Europe. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers, he campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair. By 717, the combined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees into Provence; the historian al-Tabari transmits a tradition attributed to the Caliph Uthman who stated that the road to Constantinople was through Hispania, "Only through Spain can Constantinople be conquered.
If you conquer you will share the reward of those who conquer." The conquest of Hispania followed the conquest of North Africa. Walter Kaegi calls Tabari's tradition dubious, states that the conquest of far western reaches of the Mediterranean was motivated by exploiting military and religious opportunities, he considers that it was not a shift in direction due to the Muslims failing to conquer Constantinople in 678. Historian Jessica Coope of University of Nebraska considers that the pre-modern Islamic thought believed that the conquest of dar al-harb was motivated by belief that others were better off under Islamic rule and the belief in the superiority of the concept of Islamic society. What happened in Iberia in the early 8th century is uncertain. There is one contemporary Christian source, the Chronicle of 754, regarded as reliable but vague. There are no contemporary Muslim accounts, Muslim compilations, such as that of Al-Maqqari from the 17th century, reflect ideological influence; this paucity of early sources means.
The manner of King Roderic's ascent to the throne is unclear. Regnal lists, which cite Achila and omit Roderic, are consistent with the contemporary account of civil war. Numismatic evidence suggests a division of royal authority, with several coinages being struck, that Achila II remained king of the Tarraconsense and Septimania until circa 713; the nearly contemporary Chronicle of 754 describes Roderic as a usurper who earned the allegiance of other Goths by deception, while the less reliable late-ninth century Chronicle of Alfonso III shows a clear hostility towards Oppa, bishop of Seville and a brother of Wittiza, who appears in an unlikely heroic dialogue with Pelagius. There is a story of one Julian, count of Ceuta, whose wife or daughter was raped by Roderic and who sought help from Tangier. However, these stories are not included in the earliest accounts of the conquest. According to the chronicler Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, the Tangier governor Tariq ibn Ziyad led a raiding force 1,700 men strong from North Africa to southern Spain in 711.
However, 12,000 seems a more accurate figure. Ibn Abd-el-Hakem reports, one and a half centuries that "the people of Andalus did not observe them, thinking that the vessels crossing and recrossing were similar to the trading vessels which for their benefit plied backwards and forwards", they defeated the Visigothic army, led by King Roderic, in a decisive battle at Guadalete in 712. Tariq's forces were reinforced by those of his superior, the wali Musa ibn Nusair, both took control of most of Iberia with an army estimated at 10,000–15,000 combatants. According to the Muslim historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Iberia was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman. Another prominent Muslim historian of the 13th century, Ibn Kathir, quoted the same narration, pointing to a campaign led by Abd Allah bin Nafi al Husayn and Abd Allah bin Nafi al Abd al Qays in 32 AH. However, this putative invasion is not accepted by modern historians; the first expedition led by Tariq was made up of Berbers who had themselves only come under Muslim influence.
It is probable that this army represented a continuation of a historic pattern of large-scale raids into Iberia dating to the pre–Islamic period, hence it has been suggested that actual conquest was not planned. Both the Chronicle of 754 and Muslim sources speak of raiding activity in previous years, Tariq's army may have been present for some time before the decisive battle, it has been argued that this possibility is supported by the fact that the army was led by a Berber and that Musa, the Umayyad Governor of North Africa, only arrived the following year – the governor had not stooped to lead a mere raid, but hurried across once the unexpected triumph became clear. The historian Abd al-Wāḥid Dhannūn Ṭāhā mentions that several Arab-Muslim writers mention the fact that Tariq has decided to cross the strait without informing his superior and wali Musa; the Chronicle of 754 states that many townspeople fled to the hills rather than defend their cities, which might support the view that this was expected to be a temporary raid rather than a permanent change of government.
The Chronicle of 754 stated that "the entire army of the Goths, which had come with him fraudulently and in rivalry out of hopes of the Kingship, fled". This is the only contemporary acco