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Bass (sound)

Bass describes tones of low frequency and range from 16 to 256 Hz and bass instruments that produce tones in the low-pitched range C2-C4. They can cover a wide range of musical roles. Since producing low pitches requires a long air column or string, for stringed instruments, a large hollow body, the string and wind bass instruments are the largest instruments in their families or instrument classes. In musical compositions, such as songs and pieces, these are the lowest-pitched parts of the harmony. In choral music without instrumental accompaniment, the bass is supplied by adult male bass singers. For an accompanied choir, the bass is provided by pipe organ or piano. In an orchestra, the basslines are played by the double bass and cellos, bassoon or contrabassoon, low brass such as the tuba and bass trombone, the timpani. In many styles of traditional music such as Bluegrass, in styles such as Rockabilly and big band and Bebop jazz, the bass role is filled by the upright bass. In most rock and pop bands and in jazz fusion groups, the bass role is filled by the electric bass.

In some 20th and 21st century pop genres, such as 1980s pop, hip hop music and Electronic Dance Music, the bass role may be filled with a bass synthesizer. When bass notes are played in a musical ensemble such an orchestra, they are used to provide a counterpoint or counter-melody, in a harmonic context either to outline or juxtapose the progression of the chords, or with percussion to underline the rhythm. In popular music, the bass part, called the "bassline" provides harmonic and rhythmic support to the band; the bass player is a member of the rhythm section in a band, along with the drummer, rhythm guitarist, and, in some cases, a keyboard instrument player. The bass player emphasizes the root or fifth of the chord in their basslines and accents the strong beats. In classical music, different forms of bass are: basso recitante. Basso continuo was an approach to writing music during the Baroque music era. With basso continuo, a written-out bassline served to set out the chord progression for an entire piece, with the bassline being played by pipe organ or harpsichord and the chords being improvised by players of chordal instruments.

"The bass differs from other voices because of the particular role it plays in supporting and defining harmonic motion. It does so at levels ranging from immediate, chord-by-chord events to the larger harmonic organization of a entire work." As seen in the musical instrument classification article, categorizing instruments can be difficult. For example, some instruments fall into more than one category; the cello is considered a tenor instrument in some orchestral settings, but in a string quartet it is the bass instrument. The Bass Flute is the tenor member of the flute family though it is called the "Bass" Flute. Examples grouped by general form and playing technique include: Double bass from the viol or violin family Bass guitar and acoustic bass guitar, instruments shaped and held like guitars, that play in the bass range; the electric bass guitar is the instrument referred to as a "bass" in pop and rock music. A bass horn, such as a tuba and sousaphone from the wind family and low-tuned versions of specific types of brass and woodwind instruments, such as bassoon, bass clarinet, bass trombone and bass saxophone, etc.

Keyboard bass, a keyboard alternative to the bass guitar or double bass Washtub bass, a simple folk instrumentA musician playing one of these instruments is known as a bassist. Other more specific terms such as'bass guitarist','double bassist','bass player', etc. may be used. Keyboard bass Pedal keyboard Bass drum Timpani Double bass Bass guitar Washtub bass Bass oboeBassoon Contrabassoon Bass saxophone Baritone Saxophone Bass clarinet Contrabass flute Tuba Bass trombone Euphonium With recorded music playback, for owners of 33 rpm LPs and 45 singles, the availability of loud and deep bass was limited by the ability of the phonograph record stylus to track the groove. While some hi-fi aficionados had solved the problem by using other playback sources, such as reel-to-reel tape players which were capable of delivering accurate deep bass from acoustic sources, or synthetic bass not found in nature, with the popular introduction of the compact cassette in the late 1960s it became possible to add more low frequency content to reco

Diether of Nassau

Diether of Nassau, German: Diether von Nassau was a clergyman from the Walramian branch of the House of Nassau. From 1300 to 1307 he was Archbishop and Elector of Trier as Diether III. Diether was the eldest son of Count Walram II of Adelheid of Katzenelnbogen, it is believed that after his father died in 1276, Diether's mother and sister led a devout life at Klarenthal Abbey in Wiesbaden. His younger brother, Count Adolf of Nassau, was elected King of Germany in 1292 and died in 1298 in the Battle of Göllheim. Diether was a dominican at Mainz since 1292, a Doctor of Theology; as archbishop, he supported the Dominican Order energetically. From 1295 Diether was in the service of Pope Boniface VIII. Not only did Boniface VIII use Diether to influence King Adolf. Although the chapter of the Cathedral of Trier had elected Henry II of Virneburg, the provost of the Cathedral of Cologne, for political reasons the Pope elevated Diether to Archbishop of Trier on 18 January 1300, it was the intention of the Pope to appoint an irreconcilable opponent, due to the death of Diethers brother Adolf, to King Albert I.

Diether had to sacrifice himself for this policy. Diether fortified castles in other places. In the same year he granted town privileges to Wittlich. In 1302 he founded the collegiate church Liebfrauenkirche in Oberwesel; the so-called Toll War led by King Albert I, against the alliance of the four electors from the Rhineland, in 1301, first required Count Palatine Rudolf I of the Rhine, the archbishops Gerhard II of Mainz and Wigbold I of Cologne to submit. In November 1302, Albert advanced to Trier and forced Diether, abandoned by his country, to a humble peace. Diether's government was characterized by conflicts with the cathedral chapter, the clergy, the subjects; the city of Trier suffered from financial difficulties, there was a power struggle between the estates of the realm in other cities of the Electorate. In the spring of 1303, after an uprising of the guilds, Diether had to allow the city of Trier complete freedom of the municipal administration. From 1276 the inhabitants of Koblenz sought more independence established a city council and in 1280 prevented further construction of the city walls and castle.

In 1304 Diether subdued the city after fierce fighting and Koblenz had to give up the city council from on. As a result of the war with King Albert I, the financial situation of Dietrich was very bad, now it became worse. Diether made enemies in the church. After all the possessions and income of the Archdiocese had been pledged, he confiscated property and income from parish churches and, in 1303, had himself paid by the cathedral chapter for concessions. In 1306, after he began to take relics in private possession, the chapters of the Cathedral, St. Simeon's and St. Paulinus', as well as St. Maximin's Abbey, complained to Pope Clement V; the Pope ordered Diether to defend himself against the allegations. He treated the papal legate badly, followed by excommunication and suspension. Diether died at Trier on 23 November 1307, before he could fulfill further requests to account for himself to the Pope, he burdened with debts. He was buried in the church of the dominican abbey; that church was destroyed in 1812.

This article is text translated from the corresponding Dutch Wikipedia article, as of 2019-10-13. Conrad, Joachim. Nassau Dieter von in: Saarland Biografien. Dek, A. W. E.. Genealogie van het Vorstenhuis Nassau. Zaltbommel: Europese Bibliotheek. OCLC 27365371. Von Eltester, Leopold. Diether von Nassau in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie Band 5. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 170-171. Gauert, Adolf. Dieter in: Neue Deutsche Biographie Band 3. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 668-669. ISBN 3-428-00184-2. Ost, Sandra. Diether von Nassau in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon Band 26, Nordhausen: Bautz, p. 267–271. ISBN 3-88309-354-8. Vorsterman van Oyen, A. A.. Het vorstenhuis Oranje-Nassau. Van de vroegste tijden tot heden. Leiden & Utrecht: A. W. Sijthoff & J. L. Beijers. Medieval Lands. A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families. Nassau, compiled by Charles Cawley

State Technical College of Missouri

State Technical College of Missouri, abbreviated locally as State Tech, is a public technical school in Linn, Missouri. In 2018, the college saw its highest enrollment at 1,483 students for the 2018–2019 school year and there were about 600 graduates in May 2019. State Tech began as Linn Technical Junior College in 1961 being awarded the status of Area Vocational Technical School by the Missouri State Board of Education after the U. S. Vocational Education Act of 1963; the school dropped "Junior" from its name in 1968. In 1991, the college was granted the authority to give associate degrees. In 1995, Linn State Technical College separated from Osage County R-II School District after it obtained its own Board of Regents to administrate it. In 2013, The Missouri House of Representatives voted to change the school's name to its current one, effective July 1, 2014; the new name emphasizes the school's status as Missouri's only state-funded technical college, not funded by local property taxes, drawing students from throughout the state.

State Tech has various facilities and resources for use by its faculty and local community. The main campus in Linn includes 11 academic buildings, cottage-style student housing, an activity center, an airport; the newest academic buildings as of 2019 are the 21,000-square-foot Health Science Center and 10,200-square-foot Welding Technology Center. The 72,000-square-foot activity center opened in 2008; the airport hangars available for public rental. Ninety-five percent of the academic and housing building space uses geothermal energy for its heating and cooling; the campus library is a charter member of MOBIUS, which provides interlibrary lending access across Missouri and several nearby states. State Tech's Advanced Manufacturing Technician program is hosted by the Lewis & Clark Career Center in St. Charles, Missouri. Adjacent to and managed by State Tech, the Osage County Community Center provides the college and community with an 11,000-square-foot facility for meetings, conferences and social events.

The center's 3,200-square-foot auditorium includes a catering kitchen. A non-profit foundation named for State Tech is its primary organization for fundraising to enable scholarships, faculty development, instructional equipment, facility construction, other support to the college. Forbes magazine ranked State Tech as the third-best two-year trade school in the nation in 2018

Jubilee station (Calgary)

Jubilee station, or SAIT/AUArts/Jubilee station, is a CTrain light rail station in Calgary, Alberta. It opened on September 7, 1987 as part of the original line; the station is located on the exclusive LRT right of way in the heart of the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology campus, 1.8 km northwest of the 7 Avenue & 9 Street SW interlocking and has a center-loading platform that has grade-level access at the West end and +15 access at the East end connecting to both SAIT and the Alberta College of Art and Design. Stairs, an elevator and an escalator connect the platform to the +15; the station's full name is Southern Alberta Institute of Technology/Alberta College of Art and Design/Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium. The station serves all of the aforementioned landmarks, is located close to the northern periphery of Riley Park; when the station opened, the signage read "SAIT/ACA/Jubilee", as the station was constructed eight years before the Alberta College of Art took on its present name.

The signage was changed to "SAIT/AUArts/Jubilee" in mid-2019 due to the name change of Alberta College of Art and Design to the Alberta University of the Arts, although some trains continued to announce "SAIT/ACAD/Jubilee". As part of Calgary Transit's plan to operate four-car trains by the end of 2014, all three-car platforms are being extended. Construction of the extension for SAIT/ACAD/Jubilee started July 3, 2014 and was completed by the end of 2014

Julio Crespo MacLennan

Julio Crespo MacLennan is a Spanish academic and published author. He holds a senior fellowship at the Cañada Blanch Centre for Contemporary Spanish Studies in the London School of Economics. Julio Crespo MacLennan was born in Madrid on 17th May 1970, he is the son of renowned lawyer and journalist Pedro Crespo de Lara, who held the vice presidency to the World Press Freedom Committee for 4 terms. He studied modern history at Oxford, he initiated postgraduate studies in Paris followed by the Ortega y Gasset Research Institute in Madrid, where he took an MA In International Relations, finished at St Antony's College, where he presented his D. Phil thesis on Spain and the process of European integration, he has taught history and international relations at several universities in Britain and the United States. He has been a Santander Fellow in Iberian and European Studies at St Antony's College, Visiting Professor at the Prince of Asturias Chair in Tufts University and Associate Professor at IE University and IE Business School.

Throughout his academic career, he has lectured in over twenty countries in Europe and the Middle East. For a time he worked in cultural diplomacy representing the Spanish diplomatic mission as director of the Instituto Cervantes in Istanbul and London. In his latter post, in 2016, Crespo MacLennan was in charge of the cultural programme that marked the 400th anniversary of the deaths of Shakespeare and Cervantes. In London, he conducted a series of conversations with eminent Hispanists in the English-speaking world, he first specialized in Spanish modern history as a member of the Oxford School of Historians founded by Raymond Carr. His work veered towards contemporary Europe and European integration history, his main research interests lie in modern European history and the legacy of Europe in the global world, including a pioneering pan-European history, beyond artificial barriers of nation-states and national rivalries, presented at the Instituto Cervantes in London in February 2019. Crespo MacLennan has published six books, including Spain and the process of European integration, 1957-1985 in 1999, auge y declive de Europa en el mundo 1492-2015 in 2012, his latest and most ambitious work, Europa: how Europe shaped the modern world in 2018.

He has published over one hundred book reviews and articles in academic journals and the daily press in the Spanish daily newspapers ABC and El Pais. Full list of publications: Spain and the process of European integration, 1957–85, Palgrave 1999, ISBN 0-333-92886-5España en Europa, del ostracismo a la modernidad, Marcial Pons, 2004, ISBN 84-95379-67-8 Spain and Ireland through the ages, Four Courts Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-85182-991-0Forjadores de Europa, grandes europeístas y euroescépticos del siglo XX, Destino, 2009, ISBN 978-84-233-4118-4Imperios, auge y declive de Europa en el mundo, 1492-2012, Galaxia Gutenberg, 2012, ISBN 978-84-15-47209-4Europa: how Europe shaped the modern world, Pegasus books, 2018, ISBN 978-1-68177-756-6 The Viney Agency: http://www.thevineyagency.com/author_juliomaclennan.html World Catalogue Authors: http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n2012003656/

City of Sandringham

The City of Sandringham was a local government area about 20 kilometres south of Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia, on the eastern side of Port Phillip. The city covered an area of 14.97 square kilometres, existed from 1917 until 1994. Sandringham was part of the Shire of Moorabbin, was severed and incorporated as the Borough of Sandringham on 28 February 1917, it was proclaimed a town on 9 April 1919 and a city on 21 March 1923. On 15 December 1994, the City of Sandringham was abolished, along with the City of Brighton and parts of the City of Moorabbin and the eastern section of Beaumaris, from the City of Mordialloc, was merged into the newly created City of Bayside. Council meetings were held on Royal Avenue, Sandringham, it presently serves as a corporate centre for the City of Bayside. The City of Sandringham was subdivided into three wards on 15 September 1970, each electing three councillors: North Ward Centre Ward South Ward Beaumaris Black Rock Cheltenham Hampton Sandringham * Estimate in the 1958 Victorian Year Book