SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bass amplifier

A bass amplifier or "bass amp" is a musical instrument electronic device that uses electrical power to make lower-pitched instruments such as the bass guitar or double bass loud enough to be heard by the performers and audience. Bass amps consist of a preamplifier, tone controls, a power amplifier and one or more loudspeakers in a cabinet. While bass amps share many features with the guitar amplifiers used for electric guitar, they are distinct from other types of amplification systems, due to the particular challenges associated with low-frequency sound reproduction; this distinction affects the design of the loudspeakers, the size and design of the speaker cabinet and the design of the preamplifier and amplifier. Speaker cabinets for bass amps incorporate larger loudspeakers or more speakers and larger cabinet sizes than those used for the amplification of other instruments; the loudspeakers themselves must be sturdier to handle the higher power levels and they must be capable of reproducing low pitches at high sound pressure levels.

The bassists who first sought methods to make their instruments louder were upright bass players. While the upright bass is a large instrument, standing about six feet tall, due to its low register it is not a loud instrument when played acoustically, as lower frequencies attenuate with distance. In the 1890s and early 1900s, upright bass players performing in bars and brothels found it difficult to be heard by the audience over louder instruments such as trumpet. A partial solution was playing slap bass style, slapping the strings against the fingerboard to make a loud percussive sound. In 1933, the Audiovox Manufacturing Company was founded by Paul Tutmarc, subsequently the inventor of the first electric bass, the fretted and solid-body Audiovox Model 736 Bass Fiddle, in 1936, designed to be played in a guitar-like horizontal manner; the instrument was sold with the first purpose-built bass amplifier, the Audiovox Model 936. Seen as a novelty, the few that were sold remained in the Seattle area.

The Ampeg Bassamp Company, founded in 1949 by Everett Hull, responded to the growing demand for electric bass equipment by producing a line of bass amplifiers. The first model offered was the Super 800, an 18-watt model with a single 12" speaker and a rear ventilation port. In 1951, Ampeg introduced a 20-watt version with a 15-inch speaker. In 1960, they introduced the B-15 Portaflex, a flip-top 25-watt tube bass amplifier with a single 15" speaker. While the Portaflex had a pleasing bass tone, was used by studio bassists such as James Jamerson and Carol Kaye, it was not powerful enough to be used in a stadium or arena concert. Ampeg amplifiers were used by electric bass guitarists in the 1950s and 1960s. Leo Fender resurrected the solid-body "bass guitar" in 1950 with the Fender Precision bass. Unlike the upright bass, a solid-body electric bass does not produce acoustic sound from a hollow body. By the late 1960s, as electric guitarists in rock bands began using powerful amplifiers to play large venues, bassists needed to keep up.

The Acoustic 360 was a "200-watt, solid state head designed to drive the 361 cabinet, a rear-firing 18” speaker enclosure". The engineers who designed the amp and cabinet in 1967, Harvey Gerst and Russ Allee, mounted the 18" speaker in a folded horn enclosure; the Acoustic 360 and its 361 cabinet "...got the bass world ready for the Woodstocks and giant festival concerts" and it was used by notable players such as funk bassist Larry Graham, Led Zeppelin's bassist John Paul Jones and jazz fusion player Jaco Pastorius. John Paul Jones used two of the amp/cabs in Led Zeppelin. In December 1967, the loud sound of the Acoustic 360 led to The Doors getting "...arrested for noise violations". Another 1960s-era amp and speaker, used for loud, large venue performances was the Ampeg SVT, a 300-watt amplifier head "powered by fourteen tubes" designed to be used with an 8x10" speaker cabinet; the Vox T-60/AC-100 bass amplifier uses two 15-inch cabinets and thirty-to-forty watts of solid-state power using "germanium transistors".

The Sunn Model T was used by The Moody Blues, Queen, The Who's John Entwistle and Rush's Geddy Lee. The Sunn used a 150-watt amp with "four 12AX7WA tubes, followed by two 12AX7A tubes, powered by four 6L6GC tubes"; the Gallien-Krueger 800RB was a solid state bass amplifier head introduced in 1983, liked by bassists for its loud, clean sound and durable construction. It introduced the concept of bi-amplification, as it sent 300 watts of low register sound to the bass speakers and 100 watts to the tweeter; the GK used a tube preamp simulator circuit called "boost". GK 800RB users include Roses' Duff McKagan; the Marshall JMP Super Bass is a 100 watt amp. Lemmy, bassist/lead singer of Motörhead, used numerous of these amps to drive cabinets with four 12" speakers and others with four 15" speakers, his amps were labelled named “Killer,” “No Remorse,” and “Murder One". The Peavey Mark IV is a solid-state amp providing 300 watts at 2 ohms. Fender developed a bass amplifier, the Fender Bassman, first produced in 1952.

This was a 26-watt tube amplifier with a single 15" speaker. In 1954, the Bassman was redesigned to use four 10" speakers; this speaker cabinet was an open-ba

Canadian Wheat Board

The Canadian Wheat Board was a marketing board for wheat and barley in Western Canada. Established by the Parliament of Canada on 5 July 1935, its operation was governed by the Canadian Wheat Board Act as a mandatory producer marketing system for wheat and barley in Alberta, Manitoba, a small part of British Columbia, it was illegal for any farmer in areas under the CWB's jurisdiction to sell their wheat and barley through any other channel than the CWB. Although called a monopoly, it was a monopsony since it was the only buyer of wheat and barley, it was a marketing agency acting on behalf of Western Canadian farmers, passing all profits from its operation back to farmers. Its market power over wheat and barley marketing was referred to as the "Single Desk". " The CWB’s mandate was to pay farmers a base price for their grain, identify markets, negotiate the best price, deliver the goods, issue advance cheques and make final payment after the crop was sold. If the wheat market went up, farmers pocketed the profits.

If the market went down, the government absorbed the loss. Nothing was subtracted from the farmer’s share except the cost of marketing and delivery." Amid criticism, the Canadian Wheat Board's Single Desk marketing power ended on 1 August 2012 as a result of Bill C-18 known as the Marketing Freedom for Grain Farmers Act, tabled by the Harper government and passed in December 2011. The Canadian Wheat Board changed its name to CWB, reflecting its changed status. CWB continued to operate as a grain company, although the bill set a timeline for the eventual privatization of CWB. On 15 April 2015, it was announced that a 50.1% majority stake in CWB would be acquired by Global Grain Group, a joint venture of Bunge Limited and the Saudi Agricultural and Livestock Investment Company, for $250 million. CWB was combined with the grain assets of Bunge Canada to form G3 Canada Limited; the third-highest sales year for wheat industry in Canada was 2011–2012 when the CWB "sold $7.2-billion worth of grain to more than 70 countries, $4.9 billion of, paid back to farmers."

By the early 20th century in Western Canada, grain purchasing and marketing were dominated by large companies headquartered outside the region, such as the Canadian Pacific Railway and the trading companies which dominated the Winnipeg Grain Exchange. Producers were suspicious of the business practices of these companies and hostile to their positions of power. Farmers were impressed by the success of state-led marketing as it was practised during World War I; the government created a series of boards in and around the war, each with progressively more power to control the grain trade. The Board of Grain Commissioners of 1912 was purely for regulation, but by 1915 the government had seized control of all wheat exports to help the war effort, by 1917 futures trading on the Winnipeg Exchange was banned. In 1917, the new Board of Grain Supervisors was given monopoly powers over wheat, fixed uniform prices across the country. Soon afterwards, the Board took over marketing of other crops as well.

Farmers were worried that after the war, prices would crash and various agrarian groups lobbied Ottawa to keep the Board in place. The government relented by creating the Canadian Wheat Board for the 1919 crop only. Farmers got a guaranteed price for that crop, paid and a further payment once the Board had completed the year's sales; this system of guaranteed prices and distributed income was popular and when the Board dissolved in 1920, many farmers were livid. It did not help that, "from a peak of $2.85 per bushel in September, 1920 began a slow and sickening decline to less than a dollar a bushel in late 1923." This marked contrast to the stable prices of 1919–1920 Board seemed to confirm farmers' suspicions of market trading. After the dissolution of the early board in 1920, farmers turned to the idea of farmer-owned cooperatives. Cooperative grain elevator operators existed, like United Grain Growers, started in 1917. In 1923 and 1924 the wheat pools were created to resell it overseas; the Alberta Wheat Pool, the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, Manitoba Pool Elevators became giants in the industry and displaced the private traders.

However they did not hedge against falling prices, during the price collapse of 1929, they went bankrupt. The majority of farmers did not want the private traders to return, now it seemed impossible for them to own their own marketing companies, so the idea of a government marketing board was revived; the Canadian Wheat Board was re-created in 1935 with the aim of controlling grain prices, so as to benefit farmers devastated by the Great Depression. During the Second World War, the authority of the Board was expanded, the Board was given the authority to set statutory maximums on wheat, barley and corn between December, 1941 until expiry after the war. Membership was made compulsory for Western Canadian farmers in 1943 via the War Measures Act, now with the purpose of aiding the war effort. In April, 1943 the Board was authorized to buy rapeseed and sunflowers. Between 1958 and 1970 the CWB was chaired by William Craig McNamara, he managed to perennialise the CWB in 1965, until subject to amendments by Parliament when they periodically extended the Board's duration.

McNamara convinced thereby creating a permanent Board. CWB control over interprovincial shipments of feed grains became a public issue during the grains crisis in 1969 to 1972 and was removed. On

Omaha Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant

The Omaha Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant is located at 1514-1524 Cuming Street in North Omaha, Nebraska. In its 16 years of operation, the plant employed 1,200 people and built 450,000 cars and trucks. In the 1920s, it was Omaha's second-biggest shipper; the plant was designed by Albert Kahn as a Model T assembly plant, built in 1916. Its design represents an important step in the development of Ford's assembly process; each step in the assembly of an automobile had taken place in a different building, which entailed a cost in time and labor to move the product from one building to another. From 1903 to 1916, Kahn designed "all-under-one-roof" buildings for a variety of manufacturers. In such buildings, Ford's usual practice was to begin assembly on the top floor and move downward until the product was finished at ground level; the Omaha plant was an exception to this: assembly began on the lowest floor and moved upward. It is speculated. In 1917, Kahn designed the first single-floor assembly plant with a continuous moving assembly line at Ford's Rouge River plant.

This design supplanted the older one. Assembly ceased at the Omaha plant in 1932. Ford continued to use the building as a sales and service center until 1955. After Ford's departure, the building was used as a warehouse by the Western Electric Company from 1956 to 1959, it was vacant until 1963, when it was occupied by Tip Top Products, an Omaha manufacturer of liquid solder, hair accessories, other plastic goods founded by Carl W. Renstrom. Tip Top left the building in 1986, it served as a tire warehouse and retail outlet for some time, but fell vacant again. In 2005, the building was opened as TipTop Apartments, a mixed-use building with office space on the first floor and with 96 loft-style apartments on the upper levels. History of Omaha