Bass guitar

The bass guitar, electric bass is the lowest pitched member of the guitar family. It is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric or an acoustic guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. Since the mid-1950s, the electric bass has replaced the double bass in popular music; the four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar. It is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick; the electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'–A1'–D2–G2." It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate.

As the electric alternative to a double bass, many manufacturers such as Fender list the instrument in the electric bass category rather than guitar. The bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds, to reduce the need for ledger lines in music written for the instrument, simplify reading. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's company Audiovox featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a solid-bodied electric bass guitar with four strings, a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pickup. Around 100 were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son Bud began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success.

In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar. The Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass, or P-Bass, in October 1951; the design featured a simple un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster. By 1957 the Precision more resembled the Fender Stratocaster with the body edges beveled for comfort, the pickup was changed to a split coil design; the Fender Bass was a revolutionary instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 20th century to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows; when amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. The addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses, allowed guitarists to more transition to the instrument. In 1953, Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band.

Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the electric bass, on July 2, 1953, with the Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, who played with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalog as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics". In 1959, these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass; the EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket.

The Fender and Gibson versions used glued-on necks. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beatle Bass", due to its endorsement and use by Beatles bassist Paul McCartney. In 1957, Rickenbacker introduced the model 4000,the first bass to feature a neck-through-body design in which the neck is part of the body wood. Kay Musical Instrument Company began production of the K-162 in 1952, Danelectro released the Longhorn in 1956, Burns London/Supersound in 1958. With the explosion of the popularity of rock music in the 1960s, many more manufacturers began making electric basses, including Yamaha and Guyatone. Introduced in 1960, the Fender Jazz Bass

Social psychology (sociology)

In sociology, social psychology known as sociological social psychology or microsociology, is an area of sociology that focuses on social actions and on interrelations of personality and mind with social structure and culture. Some of the major topics in this field are social status, structural power, sociocultural change, social inequality and prejudice and intra-group behavior, social exchange, group conflict, impression formation and management, conversation structures, social constructionism, social norms and deviance and roles, emotional labor; the primary methods of data collection are sample surveys, field observations, vignette studies, field experiments, controlled experiments. Sociological social psychology was born in 1902 with the landmark study by sociologist Charles Horton Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, which presented Cooley's concept of the looking glass self; the first textbook in social psychology by a sociologist appeared in 1908—Social Psychology by Edward Alsworth Ross.

The area's main journal was founded as Sociometry by Jacob L. Moreno in 1937; the journal's name changed to Social Psychology in 1978, to Social Psychology Quarterly in 1979. In the 1920s W. I. Thomas contributed the notion of the definition of the situation, with the proposition that became a basic tenet of sociology and sociological social psychology: "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences." One of the major currents of theory in this area sprang from work by philosopher and sociologist George Herbert Mead at the University of Chicago from 1894 forward. Mead is credited as the founder of symbolic interactionism. Mead's colleague and disciple at Chicago, sociologist Herbert Blumer, coined the name of the framework in 1937. Sociologist Talcott Parsons, at Harvard University from 1927 forward, developed a cybernetic theory of action, adapted to small group research by Parsons' student and colleague, Robert Freed Bales, resulting in a body of observational studies of social interaction in groups using Bales' behavior coding scheme, Interaction Process Analysis.

During his 41-year tenure at Harvard, Bales mentored a distinguished group of sociological social psychologists concerned with group processes and other topics in sociological social psychology. Contemporary symbolic interactionism originated out of ideas of George Herbert Max Weber. In this framework meanings are constructed during social interaction, constructed meanings influence the process of social interaction. Many symbolic interactionists see the self as a core meaning constructed through social relations, influencing social relations; the structural school of symbolic interactionism uses shared social knowledge from a macro-level culture, natural language, social institution, or organization to explain enduring patterns of social interaction and psychology at the micro-level investigating these matters with quantitative methods. Identity theory, affect control theory, the Iowa School are major programs of research in this tradition. Identity Theory and Affect Control Theory both focus on how actions control mental states, thereby manifesting the underlying cybernetic nature of the approach, evident in Mead's writings Affect Control Theory provides a mathematical model of role theory and of labeling theory.

Process symbolic interactionism stems from the Chicago School and considers the meanings underlying social interactions to be situated, creative and contested. Researchers in this tradition use qualitative and ethnographic methods. A journal, Symbolic Interaction, was founded in 1977 by the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction as a central outlet for the empirical research and conceptual studies produced by scholars in this area. Postmodern symbolic interactionists understand the notions of self and identity to be fragmented and illusory, consider attempts at theorizing to be meta-narratives with no more authority than other conversations; the approach is presented in detail by The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. Social exchange theory emphasizes the idea that social action is the result of personal choices made in order to maximize benefits and minimize costs. A key component of this theory is the postulation of the "comparison level of alternatives", the actor's sense of the best possible alternative.

Theories of social exchange share many essential features with classical economic theories like rational choice theory. However, social exchange theories differ from economic theories by making predictions about the relationships between persons, not just the evaluation of goods. For example, social exchange theories have been used to predict human behaviour in romantic relationships by taking into account each actor's subjective sense of costs and comparison level of alternatives. Expectation states theory and its popular "sub-theory", status characteristics theory, proposes that individuals use available social information to form expectations for themselves and others. Group members use stereotypes about competence to attempt to determine who will be comparatively more skilled in any given task, indicating to whom the group should listen and accord status. Group members use known ability on the task at hand, membership in social categories, observed dominance behaviors to determine everyone's relative ability and assign rank accordingly.

While exhibiting dominant behavior or being of a certain race

All In (Homeland)

"All In" is the eleventh episode of the seventh season of the American television drama series Homeland, the 83rd episode overall. It premiered on Showtime on April 22, 2018. Senator Paley visits Dar Adal in prison. Dar looks at the flight manifest and recognizes that Saul and Carrie are organizing a covert operation. Dar gives him advice on how to track down Saul's task force stateside, which leads them to Clint. Janet threatens Clint with legal action. Clint confesses that Saul and Carrie are in Russia to exfiltrate Simone, indeed alive. Janet urges Paley to relay this information to the Russian ambassador to sabotage the mission, thereby ending Keane's hopes to salvage her administration. Paley, visibly conflicted, does nothing. Saul and Carrie sit down for a diplomatic meeting with representatives from the SVR and the GRU. Saul insists on the presence of Yevgeny Gromov before proceeding — a pretense to lure Gromov away from Simone; when Gromov shows up at the meeting, a team led by Anson storms the safehouse where Simone is being kept, but are forced to retreat after being ambushed by guards.

Saul declares the mission a failure. She observes dissension between the SVR's General Yakushin and the GRU's Colonel Mirov during the meeting, wonders how her team can exploit the tense relationship. Sandy discovers that General Yakushin of the SVR is hiding $300M in various U. S. banking institutions. President Keane gets the news that the Supreme Court has rejected the dismissal of four of her Cabinet secretaries. With that, the Cabinet has the sufficient votes to invoke the 25th Amendment. Vice President Warner arrives at the Oval Office to relieve a stunned Keane of her command. General Yakushin meets with Saul, livid. Saul tells Yakushin; when approached by Yakushin, Mirov falsely denies any knowledge of her whereabouts. Yakushin responds by sending 30 armed, masked men to GRU headquarters where Simone is being held in an upstairs suite. Chaos and violence ensues. Carrie accesses the balcony of Simone's suite via a ledge from a nearby window. Simone holds Carrie at gunpoint but Carrie convinces Simone to come with her, making her understand she is now a massive liability to the Russians who will consider her expendable.

Yevgeny sees "Simone" taken away by Anson and orders the car to be followed, but is duped by Carrie wearing Simone's scarf and a black wig. The real Simone, wearing a blonde wig, safely escapes in another car with Bennet; the episode was directed by Alex Graves and co-written by executive producers Patrick Harbinson and Chip Johannessen. The episode received an approval rating of 100% on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes based on 9 reviews; the A. V. Club's Scott Von Doviak rated the episode "A-", citing the "heart-pounding action". Shirley Li of Entertainment Weekly gave the episode a "B+" grade, calling it "thrilling" and "an hour of Homeland that felt capital-B BIG"; the original broadcast was watched by 1.39 million viewers. "All In" at Showtime "All In" on IMDb "All In" at