click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bassas da India

Bassas da India is an uninhabited circular French atoll, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. Located in the southern Mozambique Channel, about halfway between Mozambique and Madagascar and around 110 km northwest of Europa Island, the rim of the atoll averages around 100 metres in width and encloses a shallow lagoon of depth no greater than 15 m. Overall, the atoll is about 10 km in diameter, rising steeply from the seabed 3,000 metres below to encircle an area of 80 km2, its exclusive economic zone, 123,700 km2 in size, is contiguous with that of Europa Island. The atoll consists of ten barren rocky islets, with no vegetation, totalling 20 hectares in area; those on the north and east sides are 2.1 to 3.0 metres high, while those on the west and south sides are 1.2 metres high. The reef, whose coastline measures 35.2 km, is covered by the sea from three hours before high tide to three hours afterward. The region is subject to cyclones, making the atoll a long-time maritime hazard and the site of numerous shipwrecks.

Jaguar Seamount and Hall Tablemount lie about 40 and 70 kilometres further southwest. The Bassas da India was first recorded by Portuguese explorers in the early sixteenth century as the "Baixo da Judia"; the Judia was the Portuguese ship that discovered the feature by running aground on it in 1506. The name became "Bassas da India" due to transcription errors by cartographers; the Santiago broke up on the shoal in 1585. It was rediscovered by the Europa in 1774, whence the name "Europa Rocks"; the Malay was lost 27 July 1842 on the Europa Rocks. In 1897, the shoal became a French possession being placed under the administration of a commissioner residing in Réunion in 1968. Madagascar became independent in 1960 and claims sovereignty over the shoal since 1972. Mooring at Bassas da India requires a permit from the French Government. Fishing without such a permit may result in the boat being expelled or confiscated. Several illegal tourism charters departing from Mozambique or South Africa have been seized since 2013 by the French navy.

Warne, Kennedy. "A tale of two atolls". National Geographic. Pp. 62–75. Wikimedia Atlas of Bassas da India "Oceandots". Archived from the original on 23 December 2010. Retrieved 2009-03-14. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Sailing Directions: East Africa and the South Indian Ocean "French Southern and Antarctic Lands"; the World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency

Mr. Belloc Objects to "The Outline of History"

Mr. Belloc Objects to "The Outline of History" is a 1926 short book written by the British novelist H. G. Wells as a rebuttal of the criticism of historian Hilaire Belloc. In 1926, Belloc published his A Companion to Mr. Wells's "Outline of History" as a critique of Wells’ earlier historical textbook, The Outline of History. A devout Roman Catholic, Belloc was offended by Wells’ treatment of Christianity in The Outline. Wells published his Outline in 1920 as a universal history – one that deals with more than "reigns and pedigrees and campaigns". Wells had embarked upon his Outline as a result of his work with the League of Nations and a desire to aid world peace by providing the world "common historical ideas"; the Outline proved to be an all-encompassing work. Wells had a panel of specialists at his disposal to check his work. Although the panel revealed many inevitable "gaps and misproportions", Wells reserved the right to "maintain his own judgments"; as a result, The Outline contained what were alleged by Belloc to be a number of biased statements, intolerant statements and false assumptions.

Materialistic determinism was viewed as a central philosophy underlying the Outline, with Wells portraying human progress to be both a blind and inevitable rise from the darkness of religious superstition to the light of scientific utopia. Hilaire Belloc was argumentative of Wells' critics to take aim at The Outline. A devout Roman Catholic and staunch defender of the faith, Belloc attacked Wells' portrayal of religion in general and the Catholic Church in particular, he accused Wells of prejudiced provincialism and attacked his tacitly anti-Christian stance, stating that he had devoted more space in his "history" to the Persian campaign against the Greeks than he had to the figure of Christ. Belloc’s anger led him to take personal shots at Wells, accusing the writer of having "the grievous fault of being ignorant that he is ignorant", he accused Wells of having the "strange cocksuredness of the man who knows only the old conventional textbook of his schooldays and mistakes it for universal knowledge."Belloc wrote a series of twenty-four articles attacking The Outline, publishing them in Catholic magazines such as Universe, Southern Cross and Catholic Bulletin.

In 1926, Belloc assembled the voluminous articles into a single volume entitled A Companion to Mr. Wells’s "Outline of History". Wells responded to Belloc’s articles with a series of six of his own, found little interest in the academic dispute outside the Catholic publications; as an incentive, he offered the Catholic magazines the use of the articles for no payment. Wells responded to the refusal in a letter to the Universe: A month the editor of the Universe offered Wells the opportunity of correcting definite points of fact upon which he might have been misrepresented; the editor added the stipulation that Wells would not be allowed to defend his views or examine Belloc's logic. Wells turned to secular publications, found no interest, he edited his articles and assembled them into a single volume, his Mr. Belloc Objects to “The Outline of History”. Like Belloc, Wells resorted to personal attacks, accusing Belloc of being "the sort of man who talks loud and fast for fear of hearing the other side", declaring that "his apparent arrogance is the protection of a fundamentally fearful man."Belloc retaliated with Mr. Belloc Still Objects

Maryland Route 577

Maryland Route 577 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. Known as Reliance Road, the state highway runs 3.70 miles from MD 392 at Reliance north to MD 313 near Federalsburg. MD 577 follows the Dorchester–Caroline county line for its entire length; the state highway is considered to be in Caroline County for maintenance purposes. The first section of MD 577 was paved near its northern terminus by 1910 and reconstructed as a state highway in 1935; the highway was completed south to Reliance in 1942. MD 577 begins at an intersection with MD 392 0.03 miles west of the Delaware state line. The state highway heads northwest along the Caroline–Dorchester county line, passing through farmland. MD 577 reaches its northern terminus at an intersection with MD 313 south of Federalsburg. Reliance Road continues north toward Federalsburg as MD 313, while southbound MD 313 follows Eldorado Road into Dorchester County; the section of MD 577 for 1 mile south of the MD 313 junction was paved by 1910. That portion was repaved in 1935 as a state highway.

The remainder of MD 577 south to Reliance was completed in 1942. MD 577 follows the Caroline–Dorchester county line for its entire length; the state highway is considered to be in Caroline County for maintenance purposes. Maryland Roads portal MDRoads: MD 577

1966 Masters Tournament

The 1966 Masters Tournament was the 30th Masters Tournament, held April 7–11 at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia. Jack Nicklaus, age 26, earned his third Green Jacket in an 18-hole Monday playoff and became the first back-to-back champion at the Masters, he ended regulation at even-par 288, tied with Gay Brewer. Nicklaus shot a 70 in the extra round on Monday to defeat Brewer. Nicklaus' score the previous year in 1965 was lower at 271, a record which stood for 32 years. On Sunday, Brewer shot a 33 on the front nine and had eight pars as he came to the 72nd hole with a one-shot lead. After hitting his approach shot onto the green, he three-putted from 75 feet, missing a 5-foot putt for par to win; this was the last Masters. The 36-hole cut at 153 was the highest to date, exceeded only in 1982. A close friend of Nicklaus was among four that died in a private plane crash in Tennessee on Wednesday, while en route to Augusta from Columbus, Ohio. Nicklaus learned of the incident late that night and responded with a 68 in the first round, but fell back with a 76 on Friday.

It was the fifth of 18 major titles for Nicklaus, his only successful defense of a major. Three months he completed the first of his three career grand slams at Muirfield in the Open Championship. Back-to-back winners at Augusta were Nick Faldo and Tiger Woods. Terry Dill won the seventh Par 3 contest on Wednesday with a score of 22. Brewer rebounded and won the tournament the next year, while Nicklaus' attempt at three consecutive titles ended early with a rare missed cut. Jacobs never won a major. S. Open in 1964 at Congressional. CBS commentator Jack Whitaker referred to the gallery at the end of the 18-hole Monday playoff as a "mob" and was banned from the next five Masters. ^ Holes 1, 2, 4, 11 were renamed. 1. Masters championsJack Burke Jr. Doug Ford, Claude Harmon, Ben Hogan, Herman Keiser, Cary Middlecoff, Byron Nelson, Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer, Henry Picard, Gary Player, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Art Wall Jr. Jimmy Demaret, Ralph Guldahl, Craig Wood did not play; the following categories only apply to Americans2.

U. S. Open champions Tommy Bolt, Julius Boros, Billy Casper, Gene Littler, Dick Mayer, Ken Venturi 3; the Open champions Tony Lema 4. PGA champions Jerry Barber, Dow Finsterwald, Jay Hebert, Lionel Hebert, Dave Marr, Bobby Nichols, Bob Rosburg 5. U. S. Amateur and Amateur champions Deane Beman, William C. Campbell, Charles Coe, Richard Davies, Bob Murphy, Harvie Ward Other champions forfeited their exemptions by turning professional.6. Members of the 1965 U. S. Walker Cup teamDon Allen, Dave Eichelberger, Downing Gray, John Mark Hopkins, Dale Morey, Billy Joe Patton, Ed Tutwiler, Ed Updegraff 7; the first eight finishers and ties in the 1965 U. S. AmateurTommy Barnes Jr. Ron Cerrudo, Bob Dickson, Jimmy Grant, Bert Greene, Rod Horn, Cesar Sanudo, James Vickers 8. Top 24 players and ties from the 1965 Masters TournamentTommy Aaron, George Bayer, Frank Beard, Terry Dill, Wes Ellis, Al Geiberger, Paul Harney, Tommy Jacobs, Mason Rudolph, Doug Sanders, Dan Sikes 9. Top 16 players and ties from the 1965 U.

S. OpenGay Brewer, Ray Floyd, Billy Maxwell, Steve Oppermann, Dudley Wysong 10. Top eight players and ties from 1965 PGA ChampionshipJacky Cupit, Gardner Dickinson, Rod Funseth, Bob McCallister, Bo Wininger 11. Members of the U. S. 1965 Ryder Cup teamDon January, Johnny Pott 12. Two players selected for meritorious records on the fall part of the 1965 PGA TourCharles Coody, Randy Glover 13. One player, either amateur or professional, not qualified, selected by a ballot of ex-Masters championsMike Souchak 14. One professional, not qualified, selected by a ballot of ex-U. S. Open championsBob Goalby 15. One amateur, not qualified, selected by a ballot of ex-U. S. Amateur championsBunky Henry 16. Two players, not qualified, from a points list based on finishes in the winter part of the 1966 PGA TourPhil Rodgers, R. H. Sikes 17. Foreign invitationsPeter Alliss, Michael Bonallack, Peter Butler, Bob Charles, Chen Ching-Po, Neil Coles, Bruce Crampton, Roberto De Vicenzo, Bruce Devlin, Rodney Foster, Jean Garaïalde, Harold Henning, Jimmy Hitchcock, Bernard Hunt, Tomoo Ishii, George Knudson, Cobie Legrange, Kel Nagle, Lionel Platts, Luis Silverio, Ramón Sota, Dave Thomas, George Will Numbers in brackets indicate categories that the player would have qualified under had they been American.

Source Thursday, April 7, 1966 Source Friday, April 8, 1966 Source Saturday, April 9, 1966 Source Sunday, April 10, 1966 Source Final round Cumulative tournament scores, relative to par Monday, April 11, 1966 Cumulative tournament scores, relative to par Source: Masters.com – Past winners About.com – 1966 Masters Augusta.com – 1966 Masters leaderboard and scorecards

Robert J. Bulkley

Robert Johns Bulkley was a United States Democratic Party politician from Ohio. He served in the United States House of Representatives, in the United States Senate from 1930 until 1939 Bulkley was born to a wealthy family in Cleveland, Ohio in 1880, he attended the private University School before graduating from Harvard University and law school, commenced the practice of law in Cleveland, Ohio in 1906. Bulkley served two terms in the House from 1911-1915 from the 21st District on Cleveland's East Side. During World War One he served as chief of the legal section of the War Industries Board, he was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1930 to fill the vacancy created by the death of Theodore E. Burton. Bulkley lost a bid for a second full term in 1938 to Robert A. Taft. After his term in the Senate ended, he resumed his practice of law. While a member of the House of Representatives, Bulkley became an expert on banking, he helped frame the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and the Federal Farm Loan Act, which would not pass until 1916.

The Bulkley Building located in Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland, Ohio is named after him. Bulkley was married February 1909 to Katherine Pope of Helena, Montana. United States Congress. "Robert J. Bulkley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Smith–Magenis syndrome

Smith–Magenis Syndrome has features including intellectual disability, facial abnormalities, difficulty sleeping, numerous behavioral problems such as self-harm. Smith–Magenis syndrome affects an estimated between 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 25,000 individuals, it is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by an abnormality in the short arm of chromosome 17 and is sometimes called the 13p- syndrome. Facial features of children with Smith–Magenis syndrome include a broad and square face, deep-set eyes, large cheeks, a prominent jaw, as well as a flat nose bridge. Eyes tend to be deep-set and appear close together there is a slant upwards. Eyebrows are heavy with lateral extension; the mouth is the most noticeable feature, both upper and lower lips are full, the mouth is wide. The mouth curves the upper lip curves outwards, due to a fleshy philtrum; these facial features become more noticeable as the individual ages, as Mandible growth outstrips that of the maxilla leading to a clear midface hypoplasia. There is a mild brachycephaly.

Disrupted sleep patterns are characteristic of Smith–Magenis syndrome beginning early in life. Affected people may be sleepy during the day, but have trouble falling asleep and awaken several times each night, due to an inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin. People with Smith–Magenis syndrome have engaging personalities, but all have a lot of behavioral problems; these behavioral problems include frequent temper tantrums and outbursts, anger, compulsive behavior, anxiety and difficulty paying attention. Self-harm, including biting, head banging, skin picking, is common. Repetitive self-hugging is a behavioral trait -- Magenis syndrome. People with this condition may compulsively lick their fingers and flip pages of books and magazines, as well as possessing an impressive ability to recall a wide range of small details about people or subject-specific trivia. Other symptoms can include short stature, abnormal curvature of the spine, reduced sensitivity to pain and temperature, a hoarse voice.

Some people with this disorder have ear abnormalities. Affected individuals may have eye abnormalities that cause nearsightedness and other problems with vision. Heart and kidney defects have been reported in people with Smith–Magenis syndrome, though they are less common. Smith–Magenis syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to low copy repeats of specific segments of chromosome 17. Most people with SMS have a deletion of genetic material from a specific region of chromosome 17. Although this region contains multiple genes researchers discovered that the loss of one particular gene the retinoic acid induced 1 or RAI1 is responsible for most of the characteristic features of this condition. Other genes within the chromosome 17 contribute to the variability and severity of the clinical features; the loss of other genes in the deleted region may help explain why the features of Smith–Magenis syndrome vary among affected individuals. A small percentage of people with Smith–Magenis syndrome have a mutation in the RAI1 gene instead of a chromosomal deletion.

These deletions and mutations lead to the production of an abnormal or nonfunctional version of the RAI1 protein. RAI1 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes, including several that are involved in controlling circadian rhythm, such as CLOCK; the groups led by James Lupski and Sarah Elsea are in the process of studying the exact function of this gene in relation to Smith Magenis Syndrome. SMS is not inherited; this condition results from a genetic change that occurs during the formation of reproductive cells or in early fetal development. People with Smith–Magenis syndrome most have no history of the condition in their family. SMS is confirmed by blood tests called chromosome analysis and utilize a technique called FISH; the characteristic micro-deletion was sometimes overlooked in a standard FISH test, leading to a number of people with the symptoms of SMS with negative results. The recent development of the FISH for 17p11.2 deletion test has allowed more accurate detection of this deletion.

However, further testing is required for variations of Smith–Magenis syndrome that are caused by a mutation of the RAI1 gene as opposed to a deletion. Children with SMS are given psychiatric diagnoses such as autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder and/or mood disorders. Treatment for Smith–Magenis syndrome relies on managing its symptoms. Children with SMS require several forms of support, including physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. Support is required throughout an affected person's lifetime. Medication is used to address some symptoms. Melatonin supplements and trazodone are used to regulate sleep disturbances. In combination with exogenous melatonin, blockade of endogenous melatonin production during the day by the adrenergic antagonist acebutolol can increase concentration, improve sleep and sleep timing and aid in improvement of behaviour. Other medications are sometimes used to regulate violent behavior.

The eponym Smith–Magenis refers to two scientists who described the condition in 1986, Ann C. M. Smith, a genetic counselor at the National Institutes of Health, R. Ellen Magenis, a pediatrician, medical