Bassel Khartabil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Bassel Khartabil
Bassel Khartabil (Safadi).jpg
Native name باسل خرطبيل
Born (1981-05-22)May 22, 1981
Damascus, Syria
Died Oct-Nov 2015 (age 34) [1][2]
Nationality Syrian
Occupation Software engineer
Known for Aiki Framework, Openclipart, Open Font Library, Fabricatorz, Mozilla, Creative Commons
Awards Index on Censorship 2013 Digital Freedom Award

Bassel Khartabil (Arabic: باسل خرطبيل‎), also known as Bassel Safadi (Arabic: باسل صفدي‎), (22 May 1981, Damascus – 3 October 2015) was a Palestinian Syrian open-source software developer. On 15 March 2012, the one-year anniversary of the Syrian uprising, he was detained by the Syrian government at Adra Prison in Damascus.[3] Between then and 3 October 2015, he had been transferred to an unknown location, probably to be judged by a military court,[4][5] on 7 October 2015, Human Rights Watch and 30 other human rights organizations issued a letter demanding that Khartabil's whereabouts be disclosed.[6] On 11 November 2015, rumors surfaced that Khartabil had been secretly sentenced to death;[7][8] in August 2017, it was revealed by his wife on Facebook[9][10] that Khartabil had been executed by the Syrian regime shortly after his disappearance in 2015.[11][12]

Khartabil was born in Damascus and raised in Syria, where he specialized in open source software development, he was chief technology officer (CTO) and co-founder of collaborative research company Aiki Lab[13] and was CTO of Al-Aous,[14] a publishing and research institution dedicated to archaeological sciences and arts in Syria. He has served as project lead and public affiliate for Creative Commons Syria,[15] and has contributed to Mozilla Firefox, Wikipedia, Openclipart, Fabricatorz, and Sharism.[16] He "is credited with opening up the Internet in Syria and vastly extending online access and knowledge to the Syrian people."[17]

His last work included an open, 3D virtual reconstruction[18][19] of the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria,[20] real time visualization, and development with Fabricatorz for the web programming framework Aiki Framework. This was later created and displayed in his honor.[21]


On 15 March 2012, Khartabil was detained amid arrests in the Mazzeh district of Damascus by Military Security Branch 215,[22] that day marked the one-year anniversary of the Syrian uprising, with pro- and anti-government protesters demonstrating in Damascus and elsewhere in the country.[23]

Khartabil was interrogated and allegedly tortured for five days by Military Branch 215. One week after his arrest, security forces reportedly took him to his home where they confiscated his computers and his files, he was then transferred to the Interrogation Division Branch 248 and detained there incommunicado for 9 months. On 9 December 2012, Khartabil was brought before a military prosecutor who charged him with "spying for an enemy State" under Articles 272 and 274 of the Syrian Criminal Code. Khartabil was then sent to the Adra Prison in Damascus.[22]

On 12 December 2013, a request for written answer on the question of Khartabil's imprisonment was raised before the European Parliament to the Commission (Vice-President/High Representative), stating that "his voluntary work, always non-violent in nature, was greatly valued by Syrians of all backgrounds, and it is strongly suspected that his arrest was part of an effort to restrict access to online communities and discourses and stifle free expression in Syria."[24] On 18 March 2014, the written answer from High Representative/Vice-President Catherine Ashton was published, stating that "The HR/VP deplores the ongoing imprisonment of Bassel Safadi Khartabil, shares the concerns at his situation and follows it very closely."[25]

On 21 April 2015, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention (WGAD) adopted an Opinion on Khartabil's case, calling his detention "arbitrary" and asking for his immediate release.[22][26] The WGAD concluded that Kharbatil's detention violated Articles 9, 14 and 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Syria ratified in 1969.

Personal life[edit]

Khartabil was arrested a few days before his marriage contract to Noura Ghazi, a lawyer and human rights activist, was to be signed, the contract was finalized later that year, while Khartabil was in prison. The couple first met in Douma in April 2011 after coming back from a demonstration.[27]

On Valentine's Day 2015, Noura made public a love letter she wrote Bassel where she reflects on what has taken place in Syria in the time he had been imprisoned:

Bassel, I am very afraid, I am afraid about the country that is being slaughtered, divided, bleeding, being destroyed.. Ouch Bassel, I am very afraid that our dream is changing from seeing ourselves being the generation freeing their country to the one witnessing its destruction. Ouch Bassel, I am very afraid …

— Noura Ghazi, A Love Letter to Jailed Syrian-Palestinian Bassel Khartabil[28]


WPAP Art by Miald Amin

For its 2012 list of Top Global Thinkers, Foreign Policy named Khartabil together with Rima Dali as #19 for "insisting, against all odds, on a peaceful Syrian revolution."[29]

On 21 March 2013 Khartabil was awarded Index on Censorship's Digital Freedom Award,[30][31] although still detained at the time in Adra Prison, Bassel was able to communicate his gratitude through Dana Trometer and Jon Phillips receiving the award on his behalf, wherein he paid "respect to all the victims of the struggle for freedom of speech, and, especially for those non-violent youths who refused to carry arms and deserve all the credit for this award."[32]

Imprisonment and public outcry[edit]

Khartabil was arrested and put in prison on 15 March 2012, he was moved about from one prison to another, including a high-security military prison. At times he was able to get letters out to friends and family while in Adra Prison, but at other times he was allegedly tortured and kept in confinement, without contact; in 2015, he was reportedly executed, but this was not confirmed until 2017.

#FREEBASSEL campaign[edit]

After his detention became widely known in early July 2012, a global campaign was launched calling for his immediate release.[33][34][35] Notable Internet companies like Mozilla,[36][37] Wikipedia, Global Voices,[38] EFF[39] and Creative Commons[40][41] wrote letters to the Syrian government urging his immediate release. Notable individuals like Lawrence Lessig,[42] Joi Ito,[43][44] Mitchell Baker,[45] Jillian York,[46][47] Mohamed Nanabhay[48] and Barry Threw[49] wrote public letters of support. Al Jazeera,[50] Framablog,[51] and Hackernews[52] wrote about the effort.

In October 2012, Amnesty International released a document with information suggesting that Khartabil has been ill-treated and even tortured,[53][54] on 23 October, the Taiwan chapter of Amnesty International led a letter-writing event at Insomnia Cafe to raise awareness about Khartabil in Taipei, Taiwan.[55][56][57] On 26 November, he was named one of the top 100 global thinkers by Foreign Policy for his resistance.[58]

In December, he was moved to a military prison to await a military trial;[59][60] in response, a fasting campaign was launched to raise awareness about Khartabil's deteriorating incarceration situation.[61] On 25 January 2013, reports circulated about the pending trial and fears of his execution,[62] on 15 March[63] the #FREEBASSEL project organized a #FREEBASSELDAY campaign with Creative Commons, Mozilla, and other community leaders, leading to public artworks, meetups, press, and videos.[64][65][66][67][68][69]

Poster of the #FREEBASSEL campaign

On 22 May, commemorating Khartabil's 32nd birthday—the second time he spent a birthday in prison as well as the 799th day of the Syrian conflict—the Index on Censorship,[70][71] Creative Commons,[72] and the #FREEBASSEL campaign launched Project Sunlight,[73] to uncover more information about Khartabil's condition and location,[74] his mother wrote, "I just want him free, I pray for him to be free and I pray for all his friends who believe and work on Bassel's freedom."[75]

At the Index on Censorship Awards, Jon Phillips said of Khartabil, "Locking up Bassel only locks out his personal freedom. By locking up Bassel, his Syrian captors are accidentally locking out themselves from the future...thousands of people that Bassel’s work helped, now help him by spreading the message #FREEBASSEL. This is what truly builds Syria and connects it to the global connected future, this award proves that his lock-up, is NOT a lock-out of his digital freedom."[76]

A letter supporting him was sent to the European Union Parliament later that year.[77]

In 2014, Marc Weidenbaum gathered participants to create 38 musical pieces that might be used as a soundscape for an immersive, completed digital visualization of ancient Palmyra.[78] A second iteration of #FREEBASSELDAY involved a Wikipedia "edit-a-thon", meetups, the creation of a cookbook in Khartabil's honor, and press mentions.[79]

The Free Bassel website as of January 2017

Rebecca MacKinnon wrote about Khartabil and the Zone 9 Bloggers in the World Policy Journal,[80] and Wikipedia hosted an editathon for Zone 9 bloggers.[81] On Human Rights Day, Global Voices led a campaign to raise awareness about his imprisonment.[82][83][84]

In March 2015, the Electronic Frontier Foundation hosted a Wikipedia edit-a-thon for #FREEBASSELDAY;[85][86] in addition, the Creative Commons Arab World organized a virtual Arabic Wikipedia edit-a-thon to translate and expand pages related to Bassel and his interests.[87][88] He was later profiled[89] with the launch[90] of the EFF's Offline[91] project, "sharing the stories of imprisoned technologists and technology users."[90]

In 2017, the #FREEBASSEL campaign asked supporters to do five public acts in honor of Khartabil, to be posted on social media.[92]

Transfer and execution[edit]

On 12 September 2015, Jaysh al-Islam shelled and stormed the prison, taking control of two buildings,[93][94] until early October Khartabil was still in Adra Prison in the suburbs of Damascus, Syria.[22] By 3 October, military police took him from his cell in Adra with a 'top secret' sealed order from the Military Field Court,[95] he was transferred to an unknown location.[4][5]

On 6 October, Amnesty International released a new report on Khartabil's status.[96] A day later, Human Rights Watch and 30 other human rights organizations issued a letter demanding that Khartabil's whereabouts be disclosed,[6] on 17 October, Creative Commons Board of Directors approved a resolution calling for Khartabil's release.[97] On 21 October, the New Palmyra project was launched to carry on his 3D modeling work and other creative uses of data about Palmyra.[98][99] A day later, the MIT Media Lab offered Khartabil a position of research scientist at the Center for Civic Media to work with Ethan Zuckerman on projects to make Syria's history available to the world.[100][101] On 9 November, an anthology of essays in Khartabil's honor, entitled The Cost of Freedom: A Collective Inquiry, was released under a Creative Commons public domain license.[102][103] Two days afterward, unconfirmed rumors surfaced that Khartabil had been sentenced to death.[7][8]

In August 2017, Khartabil's wife and friends reported they had seen a copy of official documents confirming he had been executed after his transfer from Adra prison in 2015.[11]


The Electronic Frontier Foundation[104] and the Wikimedia Foundation[105] as well as Global Voices[106] released statements mourning his loss.

Creative Commons announced the creation of the Bassel Khartabil Memorial Fund, to support projects in line with his ideas and work throughout his life,[107] on 11 August, the Mozilla Foundation announced the creation of the Bassel Khartabil Free Culture Fellowship, organized by Mozilla, Wikimedia, Creative Commons, the Jimmy Wales Foundation, #NEWPALMYRA and other groups. It is aimed at supporting individuals developing free culture, particularly under adverse circumstances.[108]


Models of ancient Palmyra[edit]

A digital reconstruction of the Temple of Bel from the New Palmyra project

Starting in 2005, Khartabil began collecting photographs of the ancient architecture and archaeology sites in Palmyra, in the hopes of reconstructing the city online, using 3D models and virtual spaces.

His efforts were put on hold when he was imprisoned, and some of his early work was lost; in 2015 his friends and colleagues launched the New Palmyra Project to bring that dream to life. Since then, many of the most famous structures in Palmyra have been modeled, and some life-size models built of structures that were destroyed in the Syrian Civil War.

As of 2017, most of the buildings and statues captured by the New Palmyra Project have been completely destroyed by ISIL.

Writing and art[edit]

Khartabil wrote hundreds of letters while in prison, including some while he was in a high-security military prison, where writing was prohibited, he also produced some paintings and poetry. For a short time, he published some of his writing to an anonymous prison blog[109] and Twitter account, via a friend.

"Jail is not walls, not the executioner and guards. It is the hidden fear in our hearts that makes us prisoners"


  1. ^ "Bassel Khartabil: Syrian internet freedom activist 'executed'". BBC News. 2 August 2017. 
  2. ^ "Syria: Extrajudicial execution of Bassel Khartabil a grim reminder of Syrian prison horrors". Amnesty International. 2 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "#FREEBASSEL: a campaign to free Bassel Khartabil from Syrian jail". Al Bawaba. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "WE NEED EVERYBODY'S HELP TO #FREEBASSEL". 3 October 2015. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Amira Al Hussaini (3 October 2015). "Fears for Imprisoned Syrian Blogger Bassel Khartabil, Transferred to an Unknown Location". Global Voices. 
  6. ^ a b "Syria: Disclose Whereabouts of Detained Freedom of Expression Advocate". Human Rights Watch. 7 October 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "IGF 2015 Flyer on Bassel Khartabil". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  8. ^ a b "#FreeBassel: Death Sentence Rumored for Syrian Web Developer". Global Voices. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "Noura Ghazi Safadi". Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  10. ^ The Associated Press (2 August 2017). "Widow Confirms Open Software Pioneer Was Executed in Syria". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  11. ^ a b "Horrific: Reports that Bassel Khartabil Has Been Executed in Syria". Jimmy Wales Foundation. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  12. ^ "One of Syria's most famous activists has been executed in prison, widow confirms". The Independent. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  13. ^ "Aiki lab". 
  14. ^ الأوس للنشر. "الأوس للنشر". 
  15. ^ "Syria". 
  16. ^ "Threatened Voices / Bloggers / Bassel (Safadi) Khartabil". 
  17. ^ "Request for Written Answer on the Question of the Imprisonment of Bassel Safadi Khartabil". European Parliament. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  18. ^ "#NEWPALMYRA". 
  19. ^ Forte, Andrea; Andalibi, Nazanin; Greenstadt, Rachel (2017). "Privacy, Anonymity, and Perceived Risk in Open Collaboration: A Study of Tor Users and Wikipedians". Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing. CSCW '17. New York, NY, USA: ACM: 1800–1811. doi:10.1145/2998181.2998273. ISBN 9781450343350. 
  20. ^ "Bassel Safadi discusses project involving 3D reconstruction of ancient city of Palmyra at San Francisco Art Institute, live from Syria via Skype". Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  21. ^ "How a 3D-printed monument is helping an ancient Syrian city rise again". CBC News. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  22. ^ a b c d "UN Calls for the Release of Freedom of Speech Advocate Bassel Khartabil". Alkarama. 23 June 2015. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  23. ^ "As revolt against Assad enters 2nd year, 'up to 500,000' Syrians may flee crackdown". Al Arabiya. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  24. ^ "Request for Written Answer on the Question of the Imprisonment of Bassel Safadi Khartabil". European Parliament. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  25. ^ "Answer given by High Representative/Vice-President Ashton on behalf of the Commission on the Question of the Imprisonment of Bassel Safadi Khartabil". European Parliament. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  26. ^ "Netizen Report: U.K. Spied on Human Rights Organizations in Egypt, South Africa". Slate. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  27. ^ "Stories from the Syrian Revolution: Love in the Time of Revolution is a Revolution". Free Syrian Translators. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  28. ^ "A Love Letter to Jailed Syrian-Palestinian Bassel Khartabil". Global Voices. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  29. ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers: 19 RIMA DALI, BASSEL KHARTABIL". Foreign Policy. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  30. ^ "Imprisoned internet pioneer Bassel Khartabil wins Index on Censorship Digital Freedom Award". Creative Commons. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  31. ^ "Bassel Khartabil Wins Index on Censorship Digital Freedom Award". Fabricatorz. 21 March 2013. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  32. ^ "Winners – Index Awards 2013". Index on Censorship. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  33. ^ "Activists launch #FREEBASSEL campaign to bring about release of Syrian web entrepreneur, well-known in technology communities". Al Jazeera. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  34. ^ Galperin, Eva. "Open Source Developer Bassel Khartabil Detained in Syria". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  35. ^ Wang, Rong; Chu, Kar-Hai (17 April 2017). "Networked publics and the organizing of collective action on Twitter: Examining the #Freebassel campaign". Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. doi:10.1177/1354856517703974. 
  36. ^ McAllister, Neil. "Mozilla Foundation and EFF join hunt for Syrian open source developer". The Register. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  37. ^ Tam, Donna (11 July 2012). "Free-software activists hope for detained engineer's freedom". The Register. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  38. ^ "Bassel (Safadi) Khartabil". Global Voices. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  39. ^ "Bassel Khartabil Letter of Support". 30 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  40. ^ Ito, Joi (29 June 2012). "Please help us Free Bassel, open source developer and CC volunteer". Creative Commons. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  41. ^ "Re: Call for the release of Bassel Khartabil". 29 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  42. ^ Lessig, Lawrence (4 July 2012). "On the fight for liberty: 4 July 2012". Lawrence Lessig. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  43. ^ Ito, Joi (29 June 2012). "Please help us Free Bassel, open source developer and CC volunteer". Lawrence Lessig. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  44. ^ Ito, Joi (29 June 2012). "クリエイティブ・コモンズのボランティアでもあるオープンソース開発者、Bassel氏解放への支援呼びかけ". Joi Ito. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  45. ^ Baker, Mitchell (5 July 2012). "Please help us Free Bassel, open source developer and CC volunteer". Mitchell Baker. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  46. ^ York, Jillian (30 June 2012). "Free Bassel". Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  47. ^ "Contributor Imprisoned in Syria". 
  48. ^ Nanabhay, Mohamed (1 July 2012). "bassel-safadi-at-the-cc-arab-world-workshop-in". Jillian York. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  49. ^ Threw, Barry (29 June 2012). "Please Help Free Bassel Khartabil #FREEBASSEL". Barry Threw. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  50. ^ "Activists launch #FREEBASSEL campaign to bring about release of Syrian web entrepreneur, well-known in technology communities". Al Jazeera. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  51. ^ "#FREEBASSEL Lettre de soutien au syrien Bassel Khartabil". Creative Commons. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  52. ^ Wijers, Bjorn (3 July 2012). "Opensource contributor Bassel Khartabil detained in Syria. Needs help". YCombinator Hackernews. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  53. ^ "Call for the Release of Bassel Khartabil". Creative Commons. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  54. ^ Doctorow, Cory (31 October 2012). "Free/open source programmer and Creative Commons activist Bassel Khartabil faces torture in notorious Syrian prison". Boing Boing. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  55. ^ "Amnesty Taiwan Syria Urgent Action - FREE BASSEL". Insomnia Blog. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  56. ^ "AMNESTY TAIWAN: SYRIA URGENT ACTION - #FREEBASSEL Letter". 27 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  57. ^ "AMNESTY TAIWAN: SYRIA URGENT ACTION - #FREEBASSEL". 19 October 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  58. ^ "Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  59. ^ "Open Source Developer Bassel Khartabil Moved to Syrian Military Prison". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  60. ^ Randaree, Bilal (20 December 2012). "Concerns over fate of Syrian prisoner". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  61. ^ Al Hussaini, Amira (17 December 2012). "#FastforBassel Campaign Launched for Syrian Netizen Facing Military Trial". Global Voices. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  62. ^ Izi, Touria (25 March 2013). "Fears that Syria may execute jailed software activist". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  63. ^ "The FreeBasselDay Event". 18 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  65. ^ "Free Bassel, Free Culture". The Huffington Post. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  66. ^ "#FreeBassel: One Year Later, Syrian Netizen Remains in Prison". Global Voices Online. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  67. ^ "Family of Syria Internet guru appeals for EU help". The EU Observer. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  68. ^ "#freebassel: Syrischer Netzaktivist sitzt seit einem Jahr im Gefängnis". Netzpolitik. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  69. ^ "Seit einem Jahr in Hafts". Taz. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  70. ^ "Birthday wishes for Bassel Khartabil". Index on Censorship. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  71. ^ "Today is Bassel's second birthday in prison". Index on Censorship. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  72. ^ Harmon, Elliot. "Bassel Khartabil's Second Birthday in Prison". Creative Commons. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  73. ^ "MoPad: freebassel". 
  74. ^ Phillips, Jon. "FREEBASSEL SUNLIGHT: Celebrate Bassel's Birthday". Fabricatorz. 
  75. ^ "Bassel Khartabil's Second Birthday in Prison". Creative Commons. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  76. ^ Harmon, Elliot (21 March 2013). "Imprisoned internet pioneer Bassel Khartabil wins Index on Censorship Digital Freedom Award". Creative Commons. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  77. ^ "The imprisonment of Bassel Safadi Khartabil". 12 December 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  78. ^ Weidenbaum, Marc (23 January 2014). "Disquiet Junto Project 0108: Free Bassel Create a soundscape for the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra". Disquiet Junto. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  79. ^ "In Syria, a detained Internet activist remains in limbo". CNET. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  80. ^ MacKinnon, Rebecca (1 September 2014). "Joining Zone Nine". World Policy Journal. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  81. ^ Glaser, April (3 October 2014). "A Wikipedia Edit-a-thon for the Zone 9 Bloggers, A Great Way to Raise Awareness". EFF. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  82. ^ "Break the Silence Campaign". Global Voices Online. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  83. ^ "Romper el silencio: Campaña por activistas de derechos humanos encarcelados". Global Voices Online. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  84. ^ "On Human Rights Day, We Remember Jailed Human Rights Defenders". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  85. ^ "Wikipedia Edit-a-thon: FreeBassel Day 2015". EFF. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  86. ^ "#FreeBassel Day 2015: Wikipedia Edit-a-thon at EFF". Creative Commons. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  87. ^ "This is not a protest! Edit for #FreeBassel". Creative Commons. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  88. ^ "MEETUP/SAN FRANCISCO/FREEBASSEL DAY 2015 Announcement". Freebassel. 15 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 
  89. ^ "Bassel (Safadi) Khartabil". 
  90. ^ a b Danny O'Brien (24 September 2015). "Taken Offline: Years in Prison for a Love of Technology". 
  91. ^ "Offline : Imprisoned Bloggers and Technologists". 
  93. ^ "11 dead in rebel shelling on Damascus: activists". The Daily Star. 12 September 2015. 
  94. ^ "Rebels storm Syria's largest prison near Damascus: monitor". 11 September 2015. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. 
  95. ^ Artists and Writers Celebrate the Work of Missing Syrian Developer Bassel Safadi, Global Voices. 5 June 2017
  97. ^ "Creative Commons Board of Directors approves resolution calling for Bassel Khartabil release". Creative Commons. 
  98. ^ "A Jailed Activist's 3-D Models Could Save Syria's History From ISIS". WIRED. Wired. Retrieved 21 October 2015. 
  99. ^ "New Palmyra". Retrieved 21 October 2015. 
  100. ^ "MIT Media Lab offers research position to Bassel Khartabil". MIT News. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  101. ^ "MIT Media Lab reaches out to jailed Syrian activist with research position in Center for Civic Media - Joi Ito's Web". Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  102. ^ Ruehling, Barbara. "Cost of Freedom Book to be released!". Retrieved 10 November 2015. 
  103. ^ "Cost of Freedom: A Collective Inquiry" (PDF and EPUB downloads). 9 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015. 
  104. ^ "Bassel Khartabil, In Memoriam". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
  105. ^ "Wikimedia Foundation mourns the loss of Bassel Khartabil, Syrian Wikimedian and global open culture advocate". Wikimedia Foundation. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
  106. ^ Hamadeh, Talal (1 August 2017). "Global Voices Honors the Life of Open Web Activist Bassel Khartabil, Executed by the Syrian Regime · Global Voices". Global Voices. Retrieved 6 August 2017. 
  107. ^ "Announcing the Bassel Khartabil Memorial Fund". Creative Commons. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017. 
  108. ^ "Honoring Our Friend Bassel: Announcing the Bassel Khartabil Free Culture Fellowship". The Mozilla Blog. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  109. ^ "meinsyrianjail". meinsyrianjail. Retrieved 5 August 2017. 

External links[edit]