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A bassist, or bass player, is a musician who plays a bass instrument such as a double bass, bass guitar, keyboard bass or a low brass instrument such as a tuba or sousaphone. Different musical genres tend to be associated with one or more of these instruments. Since the 1960s, the electric bass has been the standard bass instrument for funk, R&B, soul music and roll, jazz fusion, heavy metal and pop music; the double bass is the standard bass instrument for classical music, bluegrass and most genres of jazz. Low brass instruments such as the tuba or sousaphone are the standard bass instrument in Dixieland and New Orleans-style jazz bands. Despite the associations of different bass instruments with certain genres, there are exceptions; some new rock bands and bassist used a double bass, such as Lee Rocker of Stray Cats, Barenaked Ladies and Tiger Army. Larry Graham, Bernard Edwards, Mick Hogan, Andy Fraser, Mel Schacher used Electrick Bass guitar; some funk, R&B and jazz, fusion groups use synth keyboard bass rather than electric bass.

Bootsy Collins, Stevie Wonder and Kevin McCord used synth bass. Some Dixieland bands use double bass or electric bass instead of a tuba. In some jazz groups and jam bands, the basslines are played by a Hammond organ player, who uses the bass pedal keyboard or the lower manual for the low notes. Electric bassists play the bass guitar. In most rock, pop and country genres, the bass line outlines the harmony of the music being performed, while indicating the rhythmic pulse. In addition, there are many different standard bass line types for different genres and types of song. Bass lines emphasize the root note, with a secondary role for the third, fifth of each chord being used in a given song. In addition, pedal tones and bass riffs are used as bass lines. While most electric bass players play chords, chords are used in some styles funk, R&B, soul music, jazz and heavy metal music. A short list of notable bassists includes: Mark Adams Jeff Ament Victor Bailey Steve Bailey Ronnie Baker Michael "Flea" Balzary Robert "Kool" Bell Rex Brown Jack Bruce Jean-Jacques Burnel Cliff Burton Geezer Butler Tony Campos Alain Caron Liam Carey Justin Chancellor Stanley Clarke Adam Clayton Tommy Cogbill Bootsy Collins Melvin Lee Davis John Deacon Steve Di Giorgio Mike Dirnt Donald'Duck' Dunn Jimmy Earl Nathan East Paul McGuigan Mani Tommy Caldwell Bernard Edwards David Ellefson John Entwistle Dave Farrell Andy Fraser Billy Gould Roger Glover Simon Gallup Colin Greenwood Kim Gordon Nate Dominy Larry Graham Stuart Hamm Jimmy Haslip Steve Harris Marco Hietala Peter Hook David Hood Anthony Jackson Paul Jackson Jr. James Jamerson Neil Jason Jerry Jemmott Darryl Jones John Paul Jones Mick Karn Joseph Karnes Carol Kaye Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister Mark King Abraham Laboriel Geddy Lee Ryan Martinie Paul McCartney Kevin McCord Marcus Miller Monk Montgomery John Myung Jason Newsted Pino Palladino Jaco Pastorius John Patitucci Wayne Pedzwater Scott Pilgrim Guy Pratt Pino Presti Chuck Rainey Mel Schacher Steven Severin Billy Sheehan Ben Shepherd Paul Simonon Chris Squire Sting Jeroen Paul Thesseling Fred Thomas Robert Trujillo Sid Vicious Mikey Way Roger Waters Tina Weymouth Doug Wimbish Nicky Wire Victor Wooten Bill Wyman For a long list, see the List of contemporary classical double bass players.

A shortlist of notable double bass players includes: Giovanni Bottesini bassist, conductor Domenico Dragonetti (1

Golden Park

Golden Park is a 5,000-seat baseball stadium in Columbus, United States, that opened in 1926. Located on the Chattahoochee River in Downtown Columbus, it is not home to any professional baseball team; the exterior of the Golden Park is a red brick façade and has many well-landscaped sidewalks that connect to the Chattahoochee RiverWalk. Doug Redmond led the park to the most successful park attendance record in 1992. Golden Park is named after Theodore Earnest Golden SR, co-founder of Goldens' Foundry and Machine Co.. Golden led the effort in Columbus for the city's first South Atlantic League team. Golden Park was renovated in 1994 in anticipation of the softball events of the 1996 Summer Olympics that were held in the city of Columbus. In 2013, Golden Park was the home of the Beep Baseball World Series Championship game; the Taiwan Homerun Team beat the Austin Blackhawks by a score of 5-2.. It was the home field of the Columbus Catfish from 2003-2008. Golden Park Golden Park views - Ballparks of the Minor Leagues Baseball in Columbus, Georgia, by Cecil Darby

Caleb Strong

Caleb Strong was a Massachusetts lawyer and politician who served as the sixth and tenth Governor of Massachusetts between 1800 and 1807, again from 1812 until 1816. He assisted in drafting the Massachusetts State Constitution in 1779 and served as a state senator and on the Massachusetts Governor's Council before being elected to the inaugural United States Senate. A leading member of the Massachusetts Federalist Party, his political success delayed the decline of the Federalists in Massachusetts. A successful Northampton lawyer prior to 1774, Strong was politically active in the rebel cause during the American Revolutionary War, he played an influential role in the development of the United States Constitution at the 1788 Philadelphia Convention, and, as a US Senator, in the passage of its 11th Amendment. He played a leading role in the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the federal court system. Adept at moderating the sometimes harsh political conflict between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans and popular in Massachusetts, he navigated the state in a Federalist direction through the early years of the 19th century as the rest of the country became progressively more Republican.

Although he sought to retire from politics after losing the 1807 governor's race, the advent of the War of 1812 brought him back to the governor's office as a committed opponent of the war. He refused United States Army requests that state militia be placed under army command, in 1814 sought to engage Nova Scotia Governor John Coape Sherbrooke in peace talks; the state and federal government's weak defense of Massachusetts' northern frontier during Strong's tenure contributed to the successful drive for Maine's statehood, granted in 1820. Caleb Strong was born on January 9, 1745, in Northampton, one of the principal towns of Hampshire County on the Connecticut River in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, his parents were Phebe Lyman Strong and Caleb Strong, the latter a descendant of early Massachusetts settlers such as John Strong, a 1630 immigrant to Massachusetts, one of the founders of Northampton and the lead elder of the church for many years. Caleb was their only son, he received his early education from Rev. Samuel Moody, entered Harvard College in 1760, graduating four years with high honors.

He was shortly thereafter afflicted with smallpox, which temporarily blinded him and prevented him from engaging in the study of law for several years. He studied law with Joseph Hawley, was admitted to the bar in 1772, began the practice of law in Northampton. Hawley was a political mentor, shaping Strong's views on relations between the colonies and Great Britain. Strong and Hawley were both elected to the Massachusetts Provincial Congress in 1774; when the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, Strong was unable to serve in the military because of his damaged sight, but he was otherwise active in the Patriot cause. He served on the Northampton Committee of Safety and in other local offices, but refused service in the Continental Congress, he was a delegate to the 1779 Massachusetts Constitutional Convention, was elected to the committee that drafted the state constitution, ratified in 1780. He served on the first governor's council and in the state senate from 1780 to 1789. Strong's legal practice thrived during the tumultuous war years, was one of the most successful in Hampshire County.

He became a judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1775, was appointed county attorney of Hampshire County the following year, a post he held until 1800. On more than one occasion he was offered a seat on the state's supreme court, but rejected the position on account of its inadequate salary. Strong was described by a contemporary as meticulously detailed in his preparation of legal paperwork and a persuasive advocate when speaking to a jury. In 1781 Strong was one of the lawyers who worked on a series of legal cases surrounding Quock Walker, a former slave seeking to claim his freedom. One of the cases, Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Nathaniel Jennison established that slavery was incompatible with the new state constitution. Strong was elected as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the U. S. Constitution in 1787. A committed Federalist, Strong opposed the idea of the Electoral College as a means of electing the president, instead supporting the idea that the legislature should choose him.

Although he opposed proposals that the number of senators should be equal for all states, he changed his mind, enabling passage of the Connecticut Compromise. To temper the power of the states, he introduced language requiring tax legislation to originate in the House of Representatives. Illness of his wife forced him to return to Massachusetts before the work was completed, so he did not sign the document, he was a vocal supporter of its adoption by the state's ratifying convention. When the Constitution came into force in 1789, Strong was chosen by the state legislature to serve in the United States Senate; as what is now known as a Class 2 Senator he came up for reelection in 1792, when he was again chosen. He was one of the principal drafters of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established the federal courts, he was instrumental in 1793 and 1794 in the development and passage by Congress of the 11th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This measure was enacted in response to Chisholm v. Georgia, a Supreme Court decision in which a private individual sued the state of Georgia.

The amendment expanded the sovereign immunity of states to limit suits against them by private individuals from other states. Strong was one of a small

Bernardo, New Mexico

Bernardo is a tiny unincorporated community in Socorro County, New Mexico at the northern junction of US 60 and Interstate 25. Bernardo was named around 1902 after a friend of a leading merchant in nearby Belen; the main point of interest is the nearby Bernardo Wildlife Management Area, visited by large flocks of sandhill cranes and other birds. Bernardo is in the Albuquerque Basin on the west bank of the Rio Grande just north and upstream from that river's confluence with the Rio Puerco. There is an RV park and Horse Motel on the west side of I-25, across from the Waterfowl Management Area, on the old Route 66; the landscape in the area consists of cultivated fields, grassland and ephemeral river. Ladron Peak is just to the west and Bernardo State Game Refuge is just east of the settlement. Collectors of rocks and minerals may find petrified and opalized wood on east side of the Rio Grande near the route 60 bridge. Just 7 miles east of the Bernardo interchange is Micah Village an Intentional Community.

The United States Geological Survey operates a gauging station on the Rio Puerco near Bernardo. It measures sediment concentrations of more than 600,000ppm, over fifty years has measured an average of 113,000ppm, making Rio Puerco the fourth most sediment-laden river on Earth. During drought periods, the Rio Puerco may dry up completely. A conveyance channel of the Rio Grande runs past Bernardo. In March 2007 the U. S. Senate set aside ten million dollars for flood damage repairs to levees in the region, including the levee between Abeytas and Bernardo; the New Mexico Department of Water Game and Fish manages the Bernardo Wildlife Management Area, a unit of the Ladd S. Gordon Waterfowl Complex, it covers 1,700 acres that have been set aside to provide a winter habitat for waterfowl such as ducks and geese and for sandhill cranes. A flock containing as many as 5,000 cranes may congregate at one time in the area. There are three observation decks along a 2.8 miles dirt road near the Rio Grande. A separate 3 miles loop goes through some of the huge, undeveloped area of grasslands along a deep channel of the Rio Puerco.

Fields of parched corn and of alfalfa are planted to provide bird food. The birds are wary of predators such as coyotes who may lurk in the standing corn, but sections are pulled down for them so they can eat in safety. In the winter some of the fields may be flooded, or there may be ponds where the cranes roost for safety. Mule deer sometimes share the fields with the birds. Citations Sources

Azadi (album)

Azadi is the fourth studio album and the fifth overall album of the Pakistani sufi rock band, Junoon. The album was released in 1997 and established the Sufi rock sound that the band pioneered on their previous album, Inquilaab; the album was popular worldwide. Music videos were released for the two singles from the album, "Sayonee" and "Yaar Bina". "Sayonee" is Junoon's biggest hit to date, topping all charts in South Asia and gaining significant airplay on satellite channels across the Middle East. The album sold 1 million units in India alone. Azadi was the band's debut album in India; the album's first single, "Sayonee", became an instant hit in South Asia and the Middle East, shooting to the top of all the Asian charts, staying at #1 on both Channel V and MTV Asia for over 2 months. Azadi hit platinum sales status in a record of 4 weeks. Zee TV invited Junoon to perform at the star-studded Zee Cine Awards in Mumbai in March 1998, where the group received accolades from the creme de la creme of India's entertainment industry.

In 1998, Junoon won the "Best International Group" title at the Channel V Music Awards, where they performed along with worldwide icons Sting, The Prodigy and Def Leppard. Azadi was nominated for Best International Album, having achieved the prestigious honour of being the highest selling album in Pakistan and Bangladesh 1998 and 1999. Junoon headlined the BBC Mega Mela in 1998, the largest Asian festival outside of the South Asia; the album made the band famous throughout the world. All music written & composed by Sabir Zafar. Except for "Khudi", written by Allama Iqbal. All information is taken from the CD. JunoonAli Azmat - vocals Salman Ahmad- lead guitar, backing vocals Brian O'Connell - bass guitar, backing vocalsAdditional musiciansUstad Aashiq Ali: Tambourin, TablaProductionProduced by John Alec & Salman Ahmad Engineered & Mixed by John Alec Junoon's Official Website

Bourrée fantasque

Bourrée fantasque is a piece of music for solo piano by Emmanuel Chabrier, being one of his last major completed works. Bourrée fantasque is dedicated to the pianist Édouard Risler, who in fact did not play the work in public until after the composer's death; the first public performance was given by Madeleine Jaeger on 7 January 1893 at the Société Nationale de Musique in Paris. It was composed around April 1891, following a visit to his native Auvergne the previous summer, when Chabrier's health was deteriorating. According to Alfred Cortot it is "one of the most exciting and original works in the whole literature of French piano music". Unlike much nineteenth century writing for the pianoforte, the instrument is treated like an orchestra, "foreshadows innovations in pianistic technique introduced by Ravel in Gaspard de la nuit and Debussy in the late Études"; the manuscript is at the Bibliothèque nationale de France. In a letter to Risler dated 12 May 1891, Chabrier wrote, "I have made you a little piano piece which I think is quite amusing and in which I have counted about 113 different sonorities.

Let us see how you will make this one shine! It should be bright and crazy!". The precision of the notation in each bar, dynamics from ppp to tutta forza, pedal indications, bear witness to his wish to obtain an exceptional tonal variety and richness; the piece lasts around six minutes. In 2/4 time, the piece opens with the repeated notes of the main theme hammered out in the middle register of the piano, put through its paces; the middle section changes mood with a freely-modulating caressing melody before the original theme returns pp, worked in combination with the second theme, until the main bourrée theme "rampages from top to bottom of the keyboard subjected to increasing elaboration and bravura treatment". In relation to the Bourrée fantasque Koechlin affirmed that Chabrier was the forerunner of modern French composers through the boldness of his writing technique, use of certain chord progressions, use of modal atmosphere and ancient modes –, never artificial or imitative, but a natural means of poetic expression.

Chabrier's unfinished orchestration consists of 16 pages of score, or about one third of the work, with all tempi and indications for performance marked. 1898 by Felix Mottl, first performance 27 March 1898, Orchestre Lamoureux, Felix Mottl. 1924 by Charles Koechlin, first performance 25 January 1925, Paris Conservatoire Orchestra, Philippe Gaubert. 1994 by Robin Holloway, first performance 8 February 1994, Queen Elizabeth Hall, English Northern Philharmonia, Paul Daniel. In addition John Iveson made an arrangement for ten brass instruments, recorded by the Philip Jones Brass Ensemble in 1983. Jean-Jacques Etchevery created a ballet of the same title using Chabrier's music for the Opéra-Comique in 1946. George Balanchine created a ballet based on the piece and three others by Chabrier for New York City Ballet in 1949. Video on YouTube, Robert Casadesus playing the Bourreé fantasque