SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bast fibre

Bast fibre is plant fibre collected from the phloem or bast surrounding the stem of certain dicotyledonous plants. It provides strength to the stem; some of the economically important bast fibres are obtained from herbs cultivated in agriculture, as for instance flax, hemp, or ramie, but bast fibres from wild plants, as stinging nettle, trees such as lime or linden and mulberry have been used in the past. Bast fibres are classified as soft fibres, are flexible. Fibres from monocotyledonous plants, called "leaf fibre", are classified as hard fibres and are stiff. Since the valuable fibres are located in the phloem, they must be separated from the xylem material, sometimes from the epidermis; the process for this is called retting, can be performed by micro-organisms either on land or in water, or by chemicals or by pectinolytic enzymes. In the phloem, bast fibres occur in bundles that are glued together by calcium ions. More intense retting separates the fibre bundles into elementary fibres, that can be several centimetres long.

Bast fibres have higher tensile strength than other kinds, are used in high-quality textiles, yarn, composite materials and burlap. An important property of bast fibres is that they contain a special structure, the fibre node, that represents a weak point, gives flexibility. Seed hairs, such as cotton, do not have nodes; the term "bast" derives from Proto-Germanic * bastaz. It may have the same root as Middle Irish basc. Plants that have been used for bast fibre include flax, jute, kudzu, milkweed, okra, paper mulberry and roselle hemp. Bast fibres are processed for use in carpet, rope, traditional carpets, hessian or burlap, sacks, etc. Bast fibres are used in the non-woven and composite technology industries for the manufacturing of non-woven mats and carpets, composite boards as furniture materials, automobile door panels and headliners, etc. From prehistoric times through at least the early 20th century, bast shoes were woven from bast strips in the forest areas of Eastern Europe. Where no other source of tanbark was available, bast has been used for tanning leather.

International Jute Study Group Bast Fibre cords in Viking ships Bast fibre production with hemp

Lydia Wahlström

Lydia Katarina Wahlström was a Swedish historian and feminist. She was one of the founders of the National Association for Women's Suffrage and its chairman in 1907–1911. Wahlström was born in Lundby, Västmanland, the youngest, by eleven years, of the four daughter of the vicar Johan Gustaf Wahlström and Ida Schmidt, her elder sister served as her first teacher and she said, in some ways raised as a boy, she enjoyed dressing like one. She studied at the Wallinska skolan in Stockholm, was accepted at the Uppsala University in 1888, became a Bachelor of Arts in history, Nordic languages and Political science and made a disputation in 1898; as a student, she founded the first organisation for female students at Uppsala University, whose members wore their students caps in public though it was considered unsuitable for their gender. Wahlstrom wanted to be a pastor like her father but this was impossible, although she tried to get this changed, she tutored in Christianity in Uppsala, managed a girls' school in England and was made principal at the Åhlinska skolan in Stockholm.

She was a co-founder of the Swedish Society for Woman Suffrage together with Signe Bergman, Anna Whitlock and Ann-Margret Holmgren. In 1902, two motions regarding women suffrage reform were presented to the Swedish Parliament. One was from the Minister of Justice Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, who suggested that married men be given two votes, as they could be regarded to vote in place of their wives as well; the other motion was presented by Carl Lindhagen. The Hammarskjöld suggestion aroused anger among women's rights activists, who formed a support group for the Lindhagen motion. On 4 June 1902, Landsföreningen för Kvinnans Politiska Rösträtt was founded: a local Stockholm society, it became a national organization the year after, she belonged to its leading speakers and writers, represented the LKPR, the Swedish suffrage movement, internationally on several occasions. Her academic titles gave scientific credibility to the movement, she served as chairman of FKPR in 1907–1911, she was one of few members to confess to be a political conservative.

LKPR was supported by women with both left- and right-wing political sympathies. In practice, the political neutrality was abandoned by the resolution of 20 June 1911, when the LKPR decided to form a voters' boycott against all politicians opposing women's suffrage and support those in favor. In reality, this meant that the organisation was no longer politically neutral, as the main opposition of women's suffrage was the Conservatives, while Liberals and the Social Democrats were in favor of women's suffrage as soon as full male suffrage had been introduced, made in 1909. Wahlström, as a conservative, therefore left her position as chairperson and was replaced by her predecessor, the more apolitical Anna Whitlock. Wahlström was active within the Fredrika Bremer Association. Lydia Wahlström published many works about history, she died in Stockholm, aged 84. Greger Eman. Nya himlar över en ny jord: om Klara Johanson, Lydia Wahlström och den feministiska vänskapskärleken. - Lund, 1993. Barbro Hedwall.

Susanna Eriksson Lundqvist. Red.. Vår rättmätiga plats. Om kvinnornas kamp för rösträtt.. Förlag Bonnier. ISBN 978-91-7424-119-8

Lucien François

Lucien François is a Belgian lawyer. Lucien François joined the University of Liège in 1951, earning Doctor of Law and Doctor of Social Sciences degrees, he subsequently studied abroad at the Faculties of Law in Paris and Florence. He taught at the University of Liège as associate lecturer, ordinary professor and extraordinary professor, he was a temporary member of the Division of International Labour Standards of International Labor Organization, Member of the Committee of Social Council of Europe. He was Assistant Chief of staff to Minister of Justice Jean Gol, State Counselor, Judge at the Constitutional Court of Belgium, Judge Emeritus since 2004, he has written books on labour law and theory of law, the most important of, Le cap des tempêtes, Essai de microscopie du droit, first published in 2001. He is the translator in French, with Pierre Gothot, of L'Ordinamento Giuridico of Santi Romano. La distinction entre ouvriers et employés en droit allemand, français et italien, Liège, Editions de la Faculté de droit de Liège et, La Haye, Martinus Nijhoff, 1963 Introduction au droit social, Liège, Editions de la Faculté de droit de Liège, 1974 Le problème de la définition du droit, Liège, Editions de la Faculté de droit de Liège, 1978 Théorie des relations collectives du travail en droit belge, Bruylant, 1980.

Le cap des Tempêtes, Essai de microscopie du droit, Paris, LGDJ, Bruylant, 2001. Bruxelles, Académie Royale de Belgique, Coll. L'Académie en poche, Bruxelles, 2017. « La nature juridique du règlement d’atelier, Etude de droit allemand, belge et français », Annales de la Faculté de droit de Liège, 1961, p. 563 à 663. Fac. dr. Liège, 1964, p. 413 à 441. Fac. dr. Liège, 1967, p. 93 à 133. 53,1969, p. 115 158. Du Centre de philosophie du droit de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 5 L’égalité, p. 131 et suiv.. Revue Université Bruxelles, 1982, p. 383 et suiv.. Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, p. 189 et suiv.. A more general bibliography is available on the depository of texts of the University of Liège; the work applies an analytical approach to addressing issues that the philosophy and sociology of law deal with most as a global vision of complex realities. The author describes an element common to the juridical phenomenon. For this basic building block or elementary particle he has coined the term "jureme".

He explores the various positions and combinations of the jureme. He hypothesizes that a microscopic examination allows the fitting of their diversity of structures and forms, with a basic similarity of composition; the methodology employs the radical distinction between what is and what should be as well as the constant concern to isolate and to make apparent what, in the way the law is expressed, tends to show it in its best light. The title refers to an expression used by Italian philosopher Norberto Bobbio. Lucien François attempts to characterize the difference between a law and an ultimatum from for example, a bandit demanding "your money or your life!" One possible claim is. Rejecting this claim by acknowledging the law's defects requires a substitute, thus the title. Lucien François suggests that such an analysis requires a "microscopic" method, proceeding from the simple to the complex, he starts by describing minutely the smallest specific legal element and shows how this irreducible particle allows, through a series of transformations and combinations, the composition of any legal phenomenon.

The book’s starting point is that the State and the law are spoken about without precise definitions. Such definitions are critical; this uncertainty extends to the notion of legal rules and legal norms