Bastille Day is the common name given in English-speaking countries to the national day of France, celebrated on 14 July each year. In French, it is formally called la Fête nationale and and le 14 juillet; the French National Day is the anniversary of Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, a turning point of the French Revolution, as well as the Fête de la Fédération which celebrated the unity of the French people on 14 July 1790. Celebrations are held throughout France; the oldest and largest regular military parade in Europe is held on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées in Paris in front of the President of the Republic, along with other French officials and foreign guests. Jacques Necker, the Finance Minister, sympathetic to the Third Estate, was dismissed on 11 July 1789; the people of Paris stormed the Bastille, fearful that they and their representatives would be attacked by the royal army or by foreign regiments of mercenaries in the king's service, seeking to gain ammunition and gunpowder for the general populace.
The Bastille was a fortress-prison in Paris which had held people jailed on the basis of lettres de cachet, arbitrary royal indictments that could not be appealed and did not indicate the reason for the imprisonment. The Bastille held a large cache of ammunition and gunpowder, was known for holding political prisoners whose writings had displeased the royal government, was thus a symbol of the absolutism of the monarchy; as it happened, at the time of the attack in July 1789 there were only seven inmates, none of great political significance. Preceding this on 14 July itself, was the siege of Hôtel des Invalides; the crowd was reinforced by mutinous Gardes Françaises, whose usual role was to protect public buildings. They proved a fair match for the fort's defenders, Governor de Launay, the commander of the Bastille and opened the gates to avoid a mutual massacre; however because of a misunderstanding, fighting resumed. According to the official documents, about 200 attackers and just one defender died in the initial fighting, but in the aftermath, de Launay and seven other defenders were killed, as was Jacques de Flesselles, the prévôt des marchands, the elected head of the city's guilds, who under the feudal monarchy had the competences of a present-day mayor.
Shortly after the storming of the Bastille, late in the evening of 4 August, after a stormy session of the Assemblée constituante, feudalism was abolished. On 26 August, the Declaration of the Citizen was proclaimed; as early as 1789, the year of the storming of the Bastille, preliminary designs for a national festival were underway. These designs were intended to strengthen the country's national identity through the celebration of the events of 14 July 1789. One of the first designs was proposed by Clément Gonchon, a French textile worker, who presented his design for a festival celebrating the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille to the French city administration and the public on 9 December 1789. There were other proposals and unofficial celebrations of 14 July 1789, but the official festival sponsored by the National Assembly was called the Fête de la Fédération; the Fête de la Fédération on 14 July 1790 was a celebration of the unity of the French nation during the French Revolution.
The aim of this celebration, one year after the Storming of the Bastille, was to symbolise peace. The event took place on the Champ de Mars, located far outside of Paris at the time; the work needed to transform the Champ de Mars into a suitable location for the celebration was not on schedule to be completed in time. On the day recalled as the Journée des brouettes, thousands of Parisian citizens gathered together to finish the construction needed for the celebration; the day of the festival, the National Guard assembled and proceeded along the boulevard du Temple in the pouring rain, were met by an estimated 260,000 Parisian citizens at the Champ de Mars. A mass was celebrated by bishop of Autun; the popular General Lafayette, as captain of the National Guard of Paris and a confidant of the king, took his oath to the constitution, followed by King Louis XVI. After the end of the official celebration, the day ended in a huge four-day popular feast and people celebrated with fireworks, as well as fine wine and running nude through the streets in order to display their great freedom.
On 30 June 1878, a feast was arranged in Paris to honour the French Republic. On 14 July 1879, there was another feast, with a semi-official aspect; the day's events included a reception in the Chamber of Deputies and presided over by Léon Gambetta, a military review at Longchamp, a Republican Feast in the Pré Catelan. All through France, Le Figaro wrote, "people feasted much to honour the storming of the Bastille". In 1880, the government of the Third Republic wanted to revive the 14 July festival; the campaign for the reinstatement of the festival had been underway for nearly a decade, sponsored by the notable politician Léon Gambetta and scholar Henri Baudrillant. On 21 May 1880, Benjamin Raspail proposed a law, signed by sixty-four members of government, to have "the Republic adopt 14 July as the day of an annual national festival". Ther
Howard Spencer Richmond was an American music publisher and music industry executive. He established The Richmond Organization, Inc. one of the largest independent music publishing organizations in the world, had a hand in commercialising and promoting many pop and rock songs since the 1940s. Richmond was born in New York, he attended the Loomis Chaffee School from 1931 to 1935, graduating in 1935, thereafter, the University of Pennsylvania. He began working in the music business in 1935, soon establishing his own press office in New York City to publicize clients who included Glenn Miller, Frank Sinatra, Dinah Shore, the Andrews Sisters, Woody Herman. During World War II he served in the Army Air Corps, before helping Buddy Robbins to establish the Robbins Artist Bureau known as the American Artists Bureau. In 1949, Richmond set up his first music publishing business, Cromwell Music, with the help of Al Brackman and Abe Olman, soon had a hit with "Hop-Scotch Polka" by Guy Lombardo; this was followed by the no. 1 "Music!
Music! Music!", written by Stephan Weiss and Bernie Baum and recorded by Teresa Brewer. Richmond expanded and restructured the firm, under the umbrella name of The Richmond Organization attracting writers providing songs and record producers looking to find them. One key to Richmond's expansion was his emphasis on promoting records through radio stations and their disc jockeys, rather than on promoting songs through live performances. In the early 1950s, Richmond had particular success through promoting the songs and work of folk performers, notably Lead Belly, Woody Guthrie and The Weavers, who included Pete Seeger. Richmond promoted the Weavers' version of Lead Belly's song "Goodnight Irene" by sending copies of the record to disc jockeys across the US - a technique that had not been used before - and the result was sales of over 250,000 sheet music copies and 500,000 records. Richmond worked with Woody Guthrie, providing him with a tape recorder to record his songs, many of which subsequently became commercially successful.
Another song, published and promoted by Richmond was "Kisses Sweeter Than Wine", first performed and recorded by The Weavers and a hit for Jimmy Rodgers. The song was copyrighted in the names of Joel Newman and Paul Campbell, both pseudonyms used by Richmond, though Pete Seeger claimed that its tune was derived from a traditional Irish melody, modified by Lead Belly, with new lyrics by Seeger and Lee Hays. Similar concerns over authorship have been expressed in relation to "The Lion Sleeps Tonight", otherwise known as "Wimoweh", on which "Paul Campbell" is credited as co-writer. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, many of the pop songs published by Richmond found success; these included "I Believe", "Fly Me to the Moon", "As Long As He Needs Me", "What Kind of Fool Am I?", "Those Were the Days", as well as songs initiated by Ledbetter, Guthrie and others such as "If I Had a Hammer", "Rock Island Line", "We Shall Overcome" and "Turn! Turn! Turn!". He developed the company's interests outside of the United States, working with English and French songwriters such as Lionel Bart, Anthony Newley, Leslie Bricusse and Charles Aznavour.
In the 1960s and 1970s, he developed links with writers such as Shel Silverstein and, through the subsidiary company Essex Music, British rock musicians including Pink Floyd, The Who, David Bowie, The Moody Blues and Black Sabbath. In 1969, together with Johnny Mercer and Abe Olman, Richmond co-founded the National Academy of Popular Music and the Songwriters’ Hall of Fame to honor songwriters for their contributions to popular music. In 1983, he received the Songwriters Hall of Fame's first Abe Olman Publisher of the Year Award. Richmond continued as Chairman of the Board of The Richmond Organization and The Essex Music Group, although from the 1990s active control was in the hands of his sons and Frank Richmond. Richmond died at his home in Rancho Mirage, California, on May 20, 2012. Active New York entities
A Creature I Don't Know is the third studio album by British singer-songwriter Laura Marling, released on 9 September 2011. The album was announced in June 2011, along with a preview of a new song, featured in a video posted on Laura Marling's official YouTube channel; the first track from the album to receive radio airplay was "Sophia", on 25 July 2011 on BBC Radio 1. The "When The Bell Tolls" tour of America and England was announced on 25 July, took place in September and October 2011 to support the album. Marling began working on the album during the lull, it was a solitary time which she remembered as "a lot of sitting in cafés, newspaper crosswords and scrawling in notebooks before any songs took shape". This gestation period was, according to Marling, essential. "I think. And I can get fixated on an idea, it will start with something from a book I've found interesting, I'll think about it and I'll have conversations with myself about it, obviously it seeps into my conscious and a song will be written about it", she told The Guardian.
"The songs had been written, or more there was nothing left to say, but I think I waited for a month or so before I did anything with them. Most of them were demoed sitting here, with a microphone hanging there", she added. Marling started writing the material alone, as well as working out the vocal arrangements before she played any of the songs to her band and producer. "It was quite an interesting way of doing it, because it allowed me to put my stamp on it before anybody else put their stamp on it. With the first two albums – Charlie produced Alas I Cannot Swim, it's as much his album as it is mine, with I Speak Because I Can, the style of the drumming and the bass playing is much a representation of the characters who were playing on that album, Ethan stepping in as well; this time I thought:'Well, I've got the confidence now, I know what I want it to sound like, so before anybody else gets their grubby mitts on it, why don't I put my stamp on it?'" the singer said. Marling has been described as an avid reader, some of the album's songs bear direct references to works of literature.
"Salinas" was inspired by a book about John Steinbeck. "Sophia" was written under the influence of Robertson Davies's philosophical novel The Rebel Angels. The album's other main topics are "love, desire, devils, devotion and the roles women play". Upon its release, A Creature I Don't Know received acclaim from music critics. At Metacritic it holds an aggregate score of 82 out of 100 points, indicating'universal acclaim' based on 26 professional reviews. Aggregating website AnyDecentMusic? reports a score of 8.0 based on 31 professional reviews. According to the Q review, the immediate impression upon hearing the album "is that of growth". "The unconvincing estuary English is long gone, replaced by a womanly panoply of burrs and incantatory dips that make sense of past Joni Mitchell comparisons but in truth don't adhere to any single accent", Keith Cameron writes. While "the album's first third settles into a woozy jazz ballad territory", still, "the true grit of Laura Marling prevails amid the easy listening, saves her third album’s deep well of substance from being smothered by its potent reserve of style", he argues.
"It's testimony to her abilities that one can imagine her carrying the orchestral glimmer just as as death’s head balladry. Either way, the reviewer concludes; the New Musical Express reviewer marks changes in the singer's style: "Gone is Marling's pure and strident alto voice, the sturdy re-telling of the folk-pop handbook and any suspicion that she fitted seamlessly into the heart sore singer-songwriter tradition. The voice is lower, the songs take too many wilful left turns for them still to be classified as'folk' and the emotions have taken flight. We're still in the realm of her senses, but she's casting away the things of childhood and facing adulthood head on and clear-eyed". According to the review, "if I Speak Because I Can was a towering musical achievement, A Creature I Don't Know is an emotional triumph". "This real-life fairytale is made up of myriad difficult home truths but Marling's hejira, her flight to freedom, makes for compelling listening", Priya Elan concludes. Speaking of possible influences, Joshua Love of Pitchfork mentions Fairport Convention, Leonard Cohen, Fiona Apple, Tori Amos, PJ Harvey.
Yet, "Laura Marling's music feels timeless... Her songs feel divorced from time, lacking clues or signposts to indicate whether her stories and scenes might be set 500 years ago or yesterday… Often with Marling it's not clear whether these songs are springing forth from a 21-year-old Englishwoman or some deathless, wandering spirit", writes the reviewer, regarding the album "...a brave artistic approach", calling Marling "an commanding <performer>" and praising her "scarily impressive self-possession". This timeless quality of the album's music is being picked on by the Uncut reviewer, too. "Laura Marling was born in Hampshire in 1990… Yet she might just as have been born in Brooklyn in 1950, or Liverpool in the 1980. From the moment Marling emerged, aged 18, with her remarkably assured debut, Alas I Cannot Swim, her music seemed to float high above the specifics of time and place", writes Graeme Thomson; the Mitchell comparison crops up in the BBC Music, The Scotsman, The Independent
2 Mai or Două Mai is a village in the Limanu commune, Constanța County, Romania. It is found on the shoreline at a distance of 6 km north of Vama Veche and 5 km south from Mangalia. Doi Mai is a summer vacation destiantion, its name was chosen to celebrate the 2nd of May 1864, when Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza dissolved the Legislative Assembly of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia to promote his reforms. Nine years earlier Northern Dobruja was given to Romania through the treaty of Berlin after it had been taken from the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Russian voluntary eunuchs of the Old Believers sect, being persecuted in their homeland of the Russian Empire, found refuge here in the 19th century, amongst the Greek fishermen, Romanian shepherds and Tatar horse breeders, which had huts and rudimentary houses in the area
The following is a list of buildings at Eastern Michigan University in Ypsilanti, Michigan. EMU is home to many notable structures, including three high-rise residence halls and the multi-building Eastern Michigan University Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places. Today EMU is composed of more than 122 buildings across 800 acres of its academic and athletic campus; the oldest remaining buildings on campus are Welch Hall. The university was started as Michigan State Normal School. In 1899, it became the Michigan State Normal College when it created the first four-year curriculum for a normal college in the nation. None of the original buildings from the Michigan State Normal School have survived, as many of the buildings were wood frame and did not age well. In 1914, Pease Auditorium was built making it the campus' first auditorium. By 1939, residence halls were established allowing students to live on campus. With the addition of departments and the large educational enrollment after WWII, the school became Eastern Michigan College in 1956.
The large enrollment boosted the number of buildings and residence halls on campus. Between 1900 and the 1950s, around 20 buildings were constructed on the present-day campus. Today, the university is composed of an academic and athletic campus spread across 800 acres, with 122 buildings; the EMU campus includes several buildings with sculpture by Corrado Parducci. The oldest remaining building on campus is Starkweather Hall, which opened in 1896, three days before Welch Hall; the Ypsilanti Water Tower, built in 1889, while not speaking part of the campus, does border EMU on two sides. Hoyt and Pittman Halls, are the tallest buildings in Ypsilanti by floor count. Eastern Michigan University's Historic District, comprising Welch, Starkweather, McKenny and Sherzer Halls, is on the National Register of Historic Places The district was established in 1984. Pease Auditorium is listed on the National Register of Historic Places independently from the Historic District, receiving the designation in 1984.
Many of EMU's colleges are housed in specific buildings. EMU's newest academic building is the Everett L. Marshall Building, EMU's first "green" building on campus; the building features extensive use of natural lighting and stair treads and furniture made of recycled materials. Flooring throughout the building is made from recycled and renewable resources. Other significant buildings include Pray-Harrold. EMU has several administrative buildings that serve as student life locations. Bruce T. Halle Library houses one of the largest collections of children's literature in the United States; the building has as an automated retrieval system capable of housing 1 million items. While the most-used books are still on shelves, the majority of the school's books are stored within this system, which runs several stories underneath the library itself. Other buildings of historical significance include McKenny Union, Pierce Hall, Starkweather Hall, Welch Hall. McKenny was the first student union on the campus of a teachers' college when it opened in 1931.
Pierce Hall was dedicated as part of the centennial celebrations of the Normal College in 1949. The residents of Ypsilanti donated the money to construct the 120-foot tower. Starkweather Hall is the oldest building still standing on EMU's campus, Welch Hall is the second oldest building on campus. In parts of Starkweather, the original doorknobs remain, bearing the initials "SCA" for the Student Christian Association, for whom the building was constructed. Starkweather Hall was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Eastern has two food courts, an all-you-care-to-eat cafeteria, a marketplace, seven cafes, three convenience stores; the larger dining facilities on campus are geographically located near residence halls. EMU has several athletic and recreation facilities used for various sporting events and entertainment events; the EMU Convocation Center hosts convocation and concerts. In 2008, Bruce Springsteen performed at Oestrike Stadium in support of Barack Obama during his presidential campaign.
"Big Bob's. EMU has 12 on-campus residence halls, four on-campus apartment complexes, two university-owned houses. Many residence halls were built after World War II and named after influential professors and EMU presidents. Nine buildings that were once part of EMU's campus no longer stand; these buildings include the Old Main Building, The Conservatory, an unnamed wooden gymnasium, The Old Gymnasium, the Old Post Mansion, the Business and Finance Building and Goodison Hall, both designed by R. S. Gerganoff, Pine Grove Terrace Apartments. Goodison was among the first residence halls built on Eastern Michigan’s campus; the finance building went by various names such as the Health Center, the Frederick Alexander Music Building (1961–198
América CV was a Spanish television network in the United States, created as a result of the joint venture agreement between Sherjan Broadcasting and Caribevision Holdings. The network's name was a combination of the names of the two companies's broadcasting outlets, América TeVe and CV Network. CaribeVisiòn launched in 2007 with owned-and-operated stations in New York City, Chicago and San Juan until November 2009. Being re-branded to CV Network, the network and its related owned-and-operated stations, as well as Sherjan's América TeVe, were brought under the common ownership and management of a new entity, América-CV Network, LLC, its sister company, América-CV Station Group, Inc.. Sherjan Broadcasting & Caribevision Holdings added their additional programming content to the network's existing programming over time. On July 31, 2012, the four stations contributed by Caribevision Holdings to the joint venture took affiliation with MundoFox, which soft-launched the day after, with the official launch coming August 13.
The fifth station, Miami's Channel 41, remained independent. In January 2013, WFUN, left the Mundo Fox affiliation, launched Teveo, a news channel directed at the Spanish-speaking community in Miami. In the late summer of 2016, WPXO abruptly disaffiliated from MundoMax. WPXO-LD 34.1 New York WFUN-LD 48.1 Miami, FL WJPX 24.1 San Juan, PR WOCK-CD 13.1 Chicago, IL