Nightlife is a collective term for entertainment that is available and generally more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. It may include pubs, nightclubs, live music, cabarets, cinemas and these venues often require a cover charge for admission. Nightlife entertainment is often more adult-oriented than daytime entertainment, people who prefer to be active during the night-time are called night owls. Nightlife has been a vibrant area of research for sociologists, nightlife establishments including pubs, bars and nightclubs function as third places, according to Ray Oldenburg in The Great Good Place. Some sociologists have argued that vibrant city nightlife scenes contribute to the development of culture as well as political movements, there is debate about the degree to which nightlife contributes positively to social capital and the public goods of society. David Grazian points out that nightlife can replicate the same structures of race, nightlife venues must be licensed to serve alcohol under the Licensing Act 2003.
Venues with door security are required to ensure that the security staff are licensed by the Security Industry Authority. Since the introduction of the Licensing Act 2003, pubs and bars have been able to apply to operate until later, for nightclubs, this has become a form of competition as patrons can stay in the same pub or bar rather than move on to a club
Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres. Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea, Equatorial Guinea is the only sovereign African state in which Spanish is an official language. As of 2015, the country has an population of over 1.2 million. Equatorial Guinea consists of two parts, an insular and a mainland region, the insular region consists of the islands of Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island south of the equator. Bioko Island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the countrys capital, the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on the north and Gabon on the south and it is the location of Bata, Equatorial Guineas largest city, and Oyala, the countrys planned future capital.
Rio Muni includes several small islands, such as Corisco, Elobey Grande. The country is a member of the African Union, since the mid-1990s, Equatorial Guinea has become one of sub-Saharan Africas largest oil producers. The country ranks 144th on the UNs 2014 Human Development Index, the UN says that less than half of the population has access to clean drinking water and that 20% of children die before reaching the age of five. Reporters Without Borders ranks President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo among its predators of press freedom, the report rates Equatorial Guinea as a Tier 3 country, the lowest ranking, Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. Pygmies probably once lived in the region that is now Equatorial Guinea. Bantu migrations between the 18th and 19th centuries brought the coastal ethno-linguistic groups as well as the Fang people, elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who migrated from Cameroon to Río Muni and Bioko in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations.
The Annobón population, originally native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island, the Portuguese explorer Fernando Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to discover the island of Bioko in 1472. He called it Formosa, but it took on the name of its European discoverer. The islands of Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474, Spain thereby tried to gain access to a source of slaves controlled by British merchants. Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of Equatorial Guinea was administered by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, based in Buenos Aires. From 1827 to 1843, the United Kingdom had a base on Bioko to combat the slave trade, in 1844, on restoration of Spanish sovereignty, the area became known as the Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea. Spain had neglected to occupy the area in the Bight of Biafra to which it had right by treaty
The Benguela Current /bɛŋˈɡweɪlə/ is the broad, northward flowing ocean current that forms the eastern portion of the South Atlantic Ocean gyre. The current extends from roughly Cape Point in the south, to the position of the Angola-Benguela front in the north, the current is driven by the prevailing south easterly trade winds. Inshore of the Benguela Current proper, the easterly winds drive coastal upwelling, forming the Benguela Upwelling System. The cold, nutrient rich waters that upwell from around 200–300 m depth in turn fuel high rates of phytoplankton growth, and sustain the productive Benguela ecosystem. Eddies from the warm South Indian Ocean Agulhas current along South Africas east coast do round the Cape of Good Hope from time to time to join the Bengulela current, the Benguela current is 200 to 300 km wide and widens further as it flows north and northwest. Its western, seaward edge is ill-defined, with temporary and seasonal eddies. Northward winds along the coast result in Ekman transport offshore and upwelling of nutrient rich water to the euphotic zone.
The intensity of the event is determined by wind strength. Variations in wind strength cause pulses of upwelling, which propagate to the south along the coast with speeds of 5 to 8 m/s. The pulses are similar to a Kelvin wave, except on a scale of 30 to 60 km instead of 1000 km, pulses of upwelling induce biological production. In the Benguela system, phytoplankton growth requires a period of upwelling followed by a period of stratification, the phytoplankton bloom usually lags the upwelling event by 1 to 4 days and blooms for 4 to 10 days. In order for zooplankton to have a food supply, the phytoplankton blooms must not occur too far apart. Pulses of upwelling in the Benguela system regularly have a duration of 10 days, an optimal period for biological production. It is estimated that the new production in the Benguela system is 4.7 × 10^13 gC/y. The Benguela oxygen minimum zone starts around a depth of 100 m and is a few hundred meters thick, bacteria that use sulpher rather than oxygen reside in the oxygen minimum zone.
The most abundant fishes in the Benguela system are Sardinops and Engraulis, Sardinops ocelata was intensely fished beginning in the 1950s and peaking in 1968 with landings over 1.3 million tons. Since then, the Sardinops fishery has declined and the Engraulis capensis fishery has taken over, similar to the Pacific El Niño, a thick slab of warm, nutrient poor water enters the northern part of the Benguela upwelling system off the Namibia coast about once per decade. During the Benguela Niño, salty waters from the Angola Current move southward and this slab of warm salty water extends to 150 km offshore and to 50 m depth
Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa. The city is a port on the Komo River, near the Gulf of Guinea, as of 2013 its census population was 703,904. The area was inhabited by the Mpongwé tribe long before the French acquired the land in 1839, in 1846, the Brazilian slave ship LElizia, carrying slaves from the Congo, was captured near Loango by the French navy which was tasked with contributing the British Blockade of Africa. Fifty-two of the slaves were resettled on the site of Libreville in 1849. It was the port of French Equatorial Africa from 1934 to 1946 and was the central focus of the Battle of Gabon in 1940. In 1910, French Equatorial Africa was created, and French companies were allowed to exploit the Middle Congo. It soon became necessary to build a railroad that would connect Brazzaville, the terminus of the navigation on the Congo River. Construction of the Congo-Ocean Railway began in 1921, and Libreville was surpassed by the growth of Pointe-Noire.
Libreville was named in imitation of Freetown and grew slowly as a trading post. It only received its first bank branch when Bank of West Africa opened a branch in 1930, since independence, the city has grown rapidly and now houses nearly half the national population. From north to south, major districts of the city are the residential area Batterie IV, Quartier Louis, Mont-Bouët and Nombakélé, Glass and Lalala, a residential area. The citys port and train station on the Trans-Gabon Railway line to Franceville lie in Owendo, inland from these districts lie poorer residential areas. North-west of the Equatorial Guinea is where the city stands, labeling the city as a part of North-west Gabon, in terms of the countrys surrounding boundaries, north is Cameroon, east is Congo, and south-east is the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It rides the shores of the South Atlantic Ocean, which is on the countrys west coast for reference, additionally, in terms of aquatic geography, the Komo River passes through the city and empties into the ocean.
The Komo River stands as a potential source of power for the city which could generate supportive amounts of energy. Several city districts provide distinct and separate benefits throughout the city as well, in terms of night life, the Quartier Louis sector is most renown. One of this zones sides includes the coast and this influences the possibilities in terms of activities available in the area. Commercial areas within Libreville are housed in the Mont-Bouët and Nombakélé which feature several shopping centers, industry within the capital city is heavy in Oloumi, integrating production separately from the districts that focus upon other aspects
Tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C in every month of the year and feature wet and dry seasons, as Tropical savanna climates do. Tropical monsoon climates however features its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm and this latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical savanna climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation and less than 100 – of precipitation. In essence, a monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the winter solstice for that side of the equator, there are generally two versions of a tropical monsoon climate, Less pronounced dry seasons. Regions with this variation of the monsoon climate typically see copious amounts of rain during the wet season.
However, unlike most tropical climates, a sizeable amount of precipitation falls during the dry season. In essence, this version of the monsoon climate generally has less pronounced dry seasons than tropical savanna climates. Extraordinarily rainy wet seasons and pronounced dry seasons and this variation features pronounced dry seasons similar in length and character to dry seasons observed in tropical savanna climates. However, this is followed by a period of extraordinary rainfall. In some instances, up to 1,000 mm of precipitation is observed per month for two or more consecutive months, Tropical savanna climates generally do not see this level of sustained rainfall. Tropical monsoon climates are most commonly found in South and Central America, there are sections of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean and North America that feature this climate. The major controlling factor over a tropical climate is its relationship to the monsoon circulation. The monsoon is a change in wind direction.
In Asia, during the summer there is a flow of air. In the “winter” an offshore air flow is prevalent, the change in direction is due to the difference in the way water and land heat. October is the hottest month no matter whether is it in the southern or northern hemisphere and this is because October is the shoulder season of the year as if it is the end of the wet season and no winter winds blowing. Changing pressure patterns that affect the seasonality of precipitation occur in Africa though it generally differs from the way it operates in Asia
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate regular return services, a passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the transport systems of many waterside cities and islands. However, ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services, the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis. Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, see When Horses Walked on Water, Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in three of the African Great Lakes viz, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa.
It operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland. Some ferries carry mainly tourist traffic, but most carry freight, in Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave. The busiest single ferry route is across the part of Øresund. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and car & train ferries departed up to seven times every hour, in 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime. The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors. This means that the ferries lack natural stems and sterns, due to the same circumstances and port-side are dynamic and depending of in what direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants, kiosks, large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece.
In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes mainly for heavy traffic, on the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands, in 2014 İDO transported 47 million passengers, the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada
Malabo /məˈlɑːboʊ/ is the capital of Equatorial Guinea and the province of Bioko Norte. It is located on the north coast of the island of Bioko, formerly known by the Bubis, its indigenous inhabitants, as Etulá, the city has a population of approximately 187,302 inhabitants. Spanish is the language of the city and of the country as well. Spanish is the language and practically the only one used, except some French. Malabo is the oldest city in Equatorial Guinea, many buildings in the city are built in a colonial style, dating from the times of Spanish rule, coexisting with modern buildings built since independence. The downtown streets have a design, with pedestrian areas. This phenomenon causes a feeling of architecture attenuated by the low height of buildings in a combination of architectural Westernization, Oyala is a planned city currently under construction in mainland Equatorial Guinea which was designed to replace Malabo as the capital. The institutions of governance of Equatorial Guinea began the process of locating to Oyala in February 2017, in 1472, in an attempt to find a new route to India, the Portuguese navigator Fernão do Pó, encountered the island of Bioko, which he called Formosa.
Later the island was named after its discoverer, Fernando Pó, at the beginning of 16th century, specifically in 1507, the Portuguese Ramos de Esquivel made a first attempt at colonization on the island of Fernando Pó. He established a factory in Concepción and developed plantations of sugarcane, the area stretching from the Niger Delta to the mouth of Ogüé River -in the current Gabon- and included, besides the islands of Fernando Pó and Annobon, the islets of Corisco and Elobeyes. In 1821, the British captain Nelly approached the island of Fernando Pó and he found it abandoned and founded the establishments of Melville Bay and San Carlos. Thus arose, on 25 December 1827, Port Clarence on the ruins of a previous Portuguese settlement, the name was chosen in honor of the Duke of Clarence, who became King William IV. The Bubis indigenous to the island called it Ripotó, the population of the capital was increased by the arrival of slaves freed by the British. Theses freedmen were settled in Port Clarence before the establishment of Sierra Leone as a colony for freed slaves, the descendants of these freed slaves remained on the island.
It took another decade to implement this direct control, the capital already had more dynamic and Protestant religious missions which were very successful. Both factors helped to change the attitude of Spain, in addition to internal reasons already alluded, Spain again took control of the island in 1855 and the capital, Port Clarence, was renamed Santa Isabel, in honor of Queen Isabel II. The capital of the island of Fernando Pó became the capital of Equatorial Guinea, the son of King Moka, surrendered to the Spaniards. His uncle Sas Ebuera, head of the Bubi warriors, claimed to represent legitimate Bubi rule, after the Spanish killed Sas Ebuera, Malabo did become king unopposed, but with no authority
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a place may be described as a souk, bazaar. Some markets operate on most days, others may be once a week. The term, market comes from the Latin mercatus, the exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun, ” which roughly translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town. ”Markets have existed since ancient times. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria and these markets were typically situated in the towns centre where they were surrounded by alleyways occupied by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, in ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum. In the Graeco-Roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. They would sell small surpluses from their farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment.
Major producers such as the estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting, the nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. At Pompeii multiple markets served the population of approximately 12,000, produce markets were located in the vicinity of the Forum, while livestock markets were situated on the citys perimeter, near the amphitheatre. A long narrow building at the north-west corner of the Forum was some type of market, on the opposite corner stood the macellum, thought to have been a meat and fish market. Market stall-holders paid a tax for the right to trade on market days. Some archaeological evidence suggests that markets and street vendors were controlled by local government, a graffito on the outside of a large shop documents a seven-day cycle of markets, Saturn’s day at Pompeii and Nuceria, Sun’s day at Atella and Nola, Moon’s day at Cumae. etc.
The presence of an official commercial calendar suggests something of the importance to community life. Markets were important centres of social life, in early Western Europe, markets developed close to monasteries, castles or royal residences. Priories and aristocratic manorial households created considerable demand for goods and services - both luxuries and necessities and these centres of trade attracted sellers and would stimulate the growth of the town. A charter would protect trading privileges in return for an annual fee, from the 11th and 12th century, the number of markets and fairs burgeoned
Douala is the largest city in Cameroon, and the capital of Cameroons Littoral Region. Consequently, it handles most of the major exports, such as oil and coffee, metals. As of 2010 the city and its area had an estimated population that surpassed 3,000,000 inhabitants. The city sits on the estuary of the Wouri River and its climate is tropical, during World War I a bitter battle was fought for control of Douala. The city surrendered to British and French forces on September 27,1914, a joint Anglo-French condominium governed the city until a comprehensive agreement ceded it to the French. After the independence of Cameroon, Douala grew rapidly, local industries and other opportunities have attracted an unprecedented influx of migrants, especially from the western region of Cameroon. People from other countries in the region have permanently settled in the city, they include Nigerians, Chadians. In recent times city authorities have been overwhelmed by increasing population, services are stretched.
Douala is the first city in tropical Africa to have a natural gas supply. It was ranked in 2015 as the most expensive city in Africa and it has had the highest standard of living among all African cities for the majority of the last 40 years. A very high number of European and Asian expatriates live in the city due to its highly developed infrastructure and peaceful environment for successful business, the first Europeans to visit the area were the Portuguese in about 1472. At the time the estuary of the Wouri River was known as the Rio dos Camarões, by 1650, it had become the site of a town formed by immigrants, said to have arrived from Congo, who spoke the Douala language. During the 18th century it was the center of the slave trade. In 1826 Douala appeared to be made of four different villages located in four specific locations, between 1884 and 1895 the city was a German protectorate. The colonial politics focused on commerce and some exploration of the unoccupied territories, in 1885, Alfred Saker organized the first mission of the British Baptist Church.
In the same year the city known as Kamerun was renamed Douala and became the capital of the territory until 1902, in 1907 the Ministry of Colonies was established and Douala had 23,000 citizens. After World War I, in 1919, the German colonial territories became French, france received a mandate to administer Douala. A treaty was signed with the local chiefs, from 1940 to 1946, it was the capital of Cameroon
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the worlds oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earths surface and about 29 percent of its surface area. It separates the Old World from the New World, the Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean, in contrast, the term Atlantic originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. The Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of years ago. The term Aethiopian Ocean, derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century, many Irish or British people refer to the United States and Canada as across the pond, and vice versa.
The Black Atlantic refers to the role of ocean in shaping black peoples history. Irish migration to the US is meant when the term The Green Atlantic is used, the term Red Atlantic has been used in reference to the Marxian concept of an Atlantic working class, as well as to the Atlantic experience of indigenous Americans. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies, the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, to the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific.
Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23. 5% of the ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23. 3%. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3, the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S, the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2000 m along most of its length, the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the other