Curry is a dish originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent. The common feature is the use of combinations of spices or herbs. The use of the term is limited to dishes prepared in a sauce. Curry dishes prepared in the states of India may be spiced with leaves from the curry tree. There are many varieties of dishes called curries, such dishes are called by specific names that refer to their ingredients and cooking methods. Traditionally, spices are used whole and ground, cooked or raw, and they may be added at different times during the cooking process to produce different results. Curry powder, a commercially prepared mixture of spices, is largely a Western creation, such mixtures are commonly thought to have first been prepared by Indian merchants for sale to members of the British Colonial government and army returning to Britain. Dishes called curry may contain fish, poultry, or shellfish, many instead are entirely vegetarian, eaten especially among those who hold ethical or religious proscriptions against eating meat or seafood.
Curries may be dry or wet. Dry curries are cooked with very little liquid which is allowed to evaporate, wet curries contain significant amounts of sauce or gravy based on yoghurt, coconut milk, coconut cream, legume purée, or broth. The first curry recipe in English was published in 1747 by Hannah Glasse, archaeological evidence dating to 2600 BCE from Mohenjo-daro suggests the use of mortar and pestle to pound spices including mustard, fennel and tamarind pods with which they flavoured food. Black pepper is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia and has known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. The establishment of the Mughal Empire, in the early 16th century, influenced some curries, Curry was introduced to English cuisine starting with Anglo-Indian cooking in the 17th century as spicy sauces were added to bland boiled and cooked meats. The 1758 edition of Hannah Glasses The Art of Cookery contains a recipe To make a currey the Indian way, Curry was first served in coffee houses in Britain from 1809, and has been increasingly popular in Great Britain, with major jumps in the 1940s and the 1970s.
During the 19th century, curry was carried to the Caribbean by Indian indentured workers in the British sugar industry, since the mid-20th century, curries of many national styles have become popular far from their origins, and increasingly become part of international fusion cuisine. It is usual to distinguish broadly between northern and southern styles of Indian cuisine, recognising that within those categories are innumerable sub-styles and variations. The distinction is made with reference to the staple starch, wheat in the form of unleavened breads in the north, rice in the east, rice. Bengali cuisine, which refers to the cuisine of Bangladesh and the West Bengal state of India, includes curries, including seafood, Mustard seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes, as are poppy seeds
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC, Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. Curing extends the life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork, charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in East and Southeast Asia and it is highly prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Muslim dietary law, the sale of pork is illegal or severely restricted in Israel and in certain Muslim countries, particularly those where sharia law is part of their constitution. The pig is one of the oldest forms of livestock, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC and it is believed to have been domesticated either in the Near East or in China from the wild boar. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of this creature allowed early humans to domesticate it much earlier than other forms of livestock.
Pigs were mostly used for food, but people used their hides for shields and shoes, their bones for tools and weapons, and their bristles for brushes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pork. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, in 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers, the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only raw meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard, the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Due to the nature of the meat in Western culinary history. The year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates, Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies widely from place to place, the meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But pork is widely consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Feijoada for example, the dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings, tail
Coriander, known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves, Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a plant growing to 50 cm tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, the flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, with the petals pointing away from the center of the umbel longer than those pointing toward it. The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 3–5 mm in diameter, the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na written in Linear B syllabic script which evolved to koriannon or koriandron. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander, deriving from coriandrum and it is the common term in North American English for coriander leaves, due to their extensive use in Mexican cuisine. Coriander grows wild over an area of Western Asia and southern Europe, prompting the comment, It is hard to define exactly where this plant is wild.
Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemar Cave in Israel, Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC. Coriander was brought to the British colonies in North America in 1670, all parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Coriander is used in cuisines throughout the world, the leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro. Coriander potentially may be confused with culantro, an Apiaceae like coriander, culantro has a distinctly different spiny appearance, a more potent volatile leaf oil and a stronger aroma. The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overtones, some people find the leaves to have an unpleasant soapy taste or a rank smell and avoid them. Chopped coriander leaves are a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal, as heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish immediately before serving.
In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts, the leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried or frozen. The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds, the word coriander in food preparation may refer solely to these seeds, rather than to the plant. The seeds have a citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool. It is described as warm, nutty and orange-flavoured and they are used extensively for grinding and blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in regions and usually have a volatile oil content around 0. 4-1. 8%
Berastagi, meaning rice store, is a town and district of Karo Regency situated on crossroads on the main route linking the Karo highlands of Northern Sumatra to the coastal city of Medan. Berastagi town is located around 66 kilometers south of Medan and about 1,300 meters above sea level, the village rose to significance when Dutch settlers in Sumatra opened a boarding school there in the 1920s. With located around Barisan Mountains area, the annual temperature of the district is 18 °C. During the day, the temperature rises over 25 °C, but at night to early morning it could drop to as low as 12 to 16 °C, it is could be reach 9 °C on rainy season. The weather could be a fair sunny around the day but it will change to foggy, the main economic activities in Berastagi, centre on the colourful fruit and vegetable market and on tourism. Berastagi is famous for its passion fruit, the main attractions of the town are the two active volcanoes, Mount Sibayak, with its hot springs, and Mount Sinabung.
Each mountain can be climbed in one day, but a guide is needed, the town is a stop on the way to Lake Toba. The dominant ethnic and linguisitic group is Karo Batak, Berastagi is 11 km from the capital Karo Regency government in Kabanjahe. Airport bus from Kabanjahe directly to the new Kuala Namu International Airport v. v. is available and it borders Barusjahe and Tigapanah to the east, Simpang Empat, to the west, Deli Serdang Regency to the north and Kabanjahe to the south. There are 9 administrative villages, called desa, in Berastagi district and it is the smallest, and most densely populated district of Karo Regency. It is the second-most populous district in Karo Regency, after Kabanjahe, there are 28 mosques,29 churches, and 2 Buddhist temples in the subdistrict. 97% of primary-age children are in school, but only 77% of high-school-age children, there are 26 junior schools,8 middle schools, and 9 high schools within the district. Agriculture is much less important in Berastagi than the rest of Karo Regency, crops include scallions, common beans, potatoes, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomatoes and chayote.
Rice is not a significant crop, Fruit grown include oranges, passionfruit and avocados. There is significantly more industry in Berastagi district than the rest of Karo Regency, Berastagi Fruit Market, or Pasar Buah in Indonesian is selling local fruits and included souvenir. Milk Pasteurisation factory, a factory with selling pasteurized milk with cows inside, abbreviated of Taman Hutan Raya, is a forest with a lot various types of trees located around the town welcome gate. Investment Agency - Tourism Berastagi travel guide from Wikivoyage
Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Mashriq or Levant and the Persian Gulf. The cuisines are often old and resemble and culture of great trading in spices, herbs. The three main regions, known as the Maghreb, the Mashriq, and the Khaleej have many similarities and these kitchens have been influenced by the climate, cultivating possibilities, as well as trading possibilities. The kitchens of the Maghreb and Levant are relatively young kitchens which were developed over the past centuries, the kitchen from the Khaleej region is a very old kitchen. The kitchens can be divided into the urban and rural kitchens, the Arabian cuisine uses specific and sometimes unique foods and spices. Some of those foods are, Meat and chicken are the most used, with beef, other poultry is used in some regions, and fish is used in coastal areas like the Mediterranean sea, Atlantic Ocean or the Red sea. Dairy products, dairy products are used, especially yogurt, Buttermilk.
Butter and cream are used extensively. Herbs and spices, The amounts and types used generally varies from region to region, Some of the included herbs and spices are sesame, Black pepper, turmeric, cumin, Parsley and sumac. Spice mixtures include baharat, Ras el hanout, Harissa, hot beverages are served more than cold, coffee being on the top of the list in the Middle-eastern countries and tea on top of the Maghreb countries. In Jordan, Some part of Syria and Algeria tea is more important as a beverage. Other Arabian drinks include Andalucian Horchata and Maghrebi avocado smoothie, rice is the staple and is used for most dishes, wheat is the main source for bread. Bulgur and semolina are used extensively, lentils are widely used in all colours, as well as fava beans, scarlet runner beans, green peas, lupini beans, white beans and brown beans. Vegetables, Arabian cuisine favors vegetables such as carrots, zucchini, okra, potatoes are eaten as vegetables in Arabian culture. Fruits, Arabian cuisine favors fruits such as Pomegranate, Figs, citruses, Cantaloupe, Honeydew melon, almonds, pine nuts and walnuts are often included in dishes or eaten as snacks.
Greens, parsley and mint are popular as seasonings in many dishes, while spinach and sauces, the most popular dressings include various combinations of olive oil, lemon juice, parsley or garlic, as well as tahini. Labaneh is often seasoned with mint, onion, or garlic, the Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula, Middle-East and North-Africa relied on a diet of dates, dried fruit, wheat, barley and meat. The meat came from animals such as cows, sheep
Its fruit and leaves are used in Southeast Asian cuisine and its essential oil is used in perfumery. Its rind and crushed leaves emit an intense citrus fragrance, in English, the fruit is known as kaffir lime or makrut lime. The etymology of the name kaffir lime is uncertain, but most likely was used by Muslims because the plant grew in an area populated by non-Muslims, the Arabic word for non-Muslims is kafir. Citrus hystrix is known as kabuyaw, or kulubot, in the Philippines, the City of Cabuyao in the Province of Laguna got its name from the said fruit. Citrus hystrix is a bush,6 to 35 feet tall, with aromatic. These hourglass-shaped leaves comprise the leaf blade plus a flattened, leaf-like stalk, the fruit is rough and green, and ripens to yellow, it is distinguished by its bumpy exterior and its small size, approximately 4 cm wide. The leaves are the most frequently used part of the plant, dried, the leaves are widely used in Thai and Lao cuisine and Cambodian cuisine. The leaves are used in Vietnamese cuisine to add fragrance to chicken dishes, the leaves are used in Indonesian cuisine for foods such as soto ayam and are used along with Indonesian bay leaf for chicken and fish.
They are found in Malaysian and Burmese cuisines and it is used widely in South Indian cuisine. The rind is used in Lao and Thai curry paste, adding an aromatic. The zest of the fruit, referred to as combava, is used in creole cuisine to impart flavor in infused rums and rougails in Martinique, Réunion, in Cambodia, the entire fruit is crystallized/candied for eating. The juice and rinds of the peel are used in medicine in some Asian countries. The juice finds use as a cleanser for clothing and hair in Thailand, lustral water mixed with slices of the fruit is used in religious ceremonies in Cambodia. Citrus hystrix is grown worldwide in suitable climates as a shrub for home fruit production. It is well suited to gardens and for large garden pots on patios, terraces. The compound responsible for the aroma was identified as --citronellal. Kaffir/Makrut lime fruit peel contains an essential oil comparable to lime fruit peel oil, calamondin - ×Citrofortunella mitis Citrus depressa Citrus hybrid
Dinuguan is a Filipino savory stew of pork offal and/or meat simmered in a rich, spicy dark gravy of pig blood, garlic and vinegar. The most popular term dinuguan and other regional naming variants come from their word for blood. Possible English translations include pork blood stew or blood pudding stew and it is frequently considered an unusual or alarming dish to foreigners though it is rather similar to European-style blood sausage, or British and Irish black pudding in a saucy stew form. It is perhaps closer in appearance and preparation to the Polish soup Czernina or a more ancient Spartan dish known as melas zomos whose primary ingredients were pork, vinegar. Dinuguan can be served without using any offal, using only choice cuts of pork, in Batangas, this version is known as sinungaok. It can be made from beef and chicken meat, the latter being known as dinuguang manok, Dinuguan is usually served with white rice or a Philippine rice cake called puto. The Northern Luzon versions of the dish namely the Ilocano dinardaraan, the Itawis of Cagayan have a pork-based version that has larger meat chunks and more fat, which they call twik.
The most important ingredient of Dinuguan recipe is obviously the pigs blood, pork blood is used in many other Asian cuisines either as coagulated blood acting as a meat extender or as a mixture for the broth itself
Halāl, spelled hallal or halaal, is any object or action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. The term covers and designates food and drink as well as matters of daily life and it is one of five Ahkam—fard, halal, haram —that define the morality of human action in Islam. Mubah is used to mean permissible or allowed in Islam, growth regions include Indonesia and Turkey. The European Union market for food has an estimated annual growth of around 15 percent and is worth an estimated US$30 billion. Several food companies offer halal processed foods and products, including foie gras, spring rolls, chicken nuggets, lasagna, pizza. Halal ready meals are a consumer market for Muslims in Britain. The most common example of food is pork. While pork is the meat that categorically may not be consumed by Muslims. The criteria for non-pork items include their source, the cause of the animals death and it depends on the Muslims madhab. Muslims must ensure that all foods, as well as items like cosmetics.
Frequently, these products contain animal by-products or other ingredients that are not permissible for Muslims to eat or use on their bodies, foods that are not considered halal for Muslims to consume include blood and intoxicants such as alcoholic beverages. If there is no food available and a Muslim is forced by necessity. Globally, halal certification has been criticized by anti-Halal lobby groups. The critics argue that the results in added costs, a requirement to officially certify intrinsically-halal foods, leads to consumers subsidising a particular religious belief. Australian Federation of Islamic Councils spokesman Keysar Trad told a journalist in July 2014 that this was an attempt to exploit anti-Muslim sentiments, the food must come from a supplier that uses halal practices. Dhabīḥah is the method of slaughter for all meat sources, excluding fish and other sea-life. This method of slaughtering animals consists of using a knife to make a swift, deep incision that cuts the front of the throat, the carotid artery, trachea.
The head of an animal that is slaughtered using halal methods is aligned with the qiblah, in addition to the direction, permitted animals should be slaughtered upon utterance of the Islamic prayer Bismillah in the name of God
Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African and tropical island plants in the grass family. Some species are cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because of their scent. Common names include lemon grass, barbed wire grass, silky heads, citronella grass, cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, hierba Luisa, or gavati chaha, amongst many others. Lemongrass is widely used as a herb in Asian cuisines. It has a citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered. It is commonly used in teas and curries and it is suitable for use with poultry, fish and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo, lemongrass oil is used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that oil has antifungal properties. Despite its ability to repel insects, such as mosquitoes. Lemongrass works conveniently as well as the created by the honeybees Nasonov gland. Because of this, lemongrass oil can be used as a lure when trapping swarms or attempting to draw the attention of hived bees, citronella grass grow to about 2 m and have magenta-colored base stems.
These species are used for the production of oil, which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent in insect sprays and candles. The principal chemical constituents of citronella and citronellol, are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants, besides oil production, citronella grass is used for culinary purposes, as a flavoring. Citronella is usually planted in gardens to ward off insects such as whitefly adults. Its cultivation enables growing some vegetables without applying pesticides, intercropping should include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the field. Lemongrass oil, used as a pesticide and preservative, is put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India as a preservative. The oil injects natural fluidity into the palm leaves. While both can be used interchangeably, C. citratus is more suitable for cooking, in India, C. citratus is used both as a medical herb and in perfumes
The chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. In Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa and in other Asian countries, the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, chilies were brought to Asia by Portuguese navigators during the 16th century. Worldwide, some 3.8 million hectares of land produce 33 million tons of chili peppers, India is the worlds biggest producer and exporter of chili peppers. Guntur in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh produces 30% of all the chilies produced in India, Andhra Pradesh as a whole contributes 75% of Indias chili exports. Chili peppers have been a part of the diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BCE. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers are consumed, upon their introduction into Europe, chilies were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries.
Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Indigenous people shared them with travelers, diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. It was introduced in India by the Portuguese towards the end of 15th century, today chilies are an integral part of South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. There is a correlation between the chili pepper geographical dissemination and consumption in Asia and the presence of Portuguese traders, India. The chili pepper features heavily in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, Chili peppers journeyed from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where they became the national spice in the form of paprika. To Japan, it was brought by the Portuguese missionaries in 1542, in 1995 archaeobotanist Hakon Hjelmqvist published an article in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift claiming there was evidence for the presence of chili peppers in Europe in pre-Columbian times.
According to Hjelmqvist, archaeologists at a dig in St Botulf in Lund found a Capsicum frutescens in a layer from the 13th century, Hjelmqvist thought it came from Asia. Hjelmqvist said that Capsicum was described by the Greek Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum, around the first century CE, the Roman poet Martialis mentioned Piperve crudum in Liber XI, XVIII, allegedly describing them as long and containing seeds. Green and red peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano, New Mexico, peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings, bell peppers, sweet peppers, and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them, the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. Capsaicin is the component in pepper spray, a less-than-lethal weapon
Minangkabau people, known as Minang, is an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia. This custom is called Lareh Bodi Caniago and is known as Adat perpatih in Malaysia, today 4.5 million Minangs live in the homeland of West Sumatra, while about 4.5 million more are scattered throughout many Indonesian and Malay Peninsular cities and towns. The Minangkabau are strongly Islamic, but follow their ethnic traditions, the Minangkabau adat was derived from animist and Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before the arrival of Islam, and remnants of animist beliefs still exist even among some practising Muslims. The present relationship between Islam and adat is described in the tradition founded upon Islamic law, Islamic law founded upon the Quran. As one of the worlds most populous matrilineal ethnicity, Minangkabau gender dynamics have been studied by anthropologists. With the arrival of the Dutch and other Muslim groups, the traditions have gradually influenced by both western and conservative Islamic thought.
Based on the Raffles vision, Minangkabau is believed to have been the cradle of the Malay race and their West Sumatran homelands was the seat of the Pagaruyung Kingdom and the location of the Padri War. The name Minangkabau is thought to be a conjunction of two words and kabau, there is a legend that the name is derived from a territorial dispute between the Minangkabau and a neighbouring prince. To avoid a battle, the local people proposed a fight to the death between two water buffalo to settle the dispute, the prince agreed and produced the largest, most aggressive buffalo. The Minangkabau produced a hungry baby buffalo with its small horns ground to be as sharp as knives, seeing the adult buffalo across the field, the baby ran forward, hoping for milk. The big buffalo saw no threat in the buffalo and paid no attention to it. But when the baby thrust his head under the big belly, looking for an udder, the sharpened horns punctured and killed the bull, and the Minangkabau won the contest.
The roofline of traditional houses in West Sumatra, called Rumah Gadang, curve upward from the middle and end in points, until the 20th century the majority of the Sumatran population lived in the highlands. The highlands are well suited for human habitation, with fresh water, fertile soil, a cool climate. It is probable that wet rice cultivation evolved in the Minangkabau Highlands long before it appeared in parts of Sumatra. By the 16th century, the time of the report after the reign of Adityawarman. They were the King of the World, the King of Adat, and the King of Religion, the Minangkabau kings were charismatic or magical figures, but did not have much authority over the conduct of village affairs. It was around the 16th century that Islam started to be adopted by the Minangkabau, the first contact between the Minangkabau and western nations occurred with the 1529 voyage of Jean Parmentier to Sumatra
Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the worlds most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the economic and political centre. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, the city has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the countrys independence was declared in 1945. Jakarta is listed as a city in the 2012 Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their names, Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Djakarta. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta, the origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language.
Jayakarta translates as victorious deed, complete act, or complete victory, Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York. In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten, initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavias canals, mansions. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, many green spaces. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality.
The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles, the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, in 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre, through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Companys first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682