Computerized batch processing is the running of "jobs that can run without end user interaction, or can be scheduled to run as resources permit." The term "batch processing" originates in the traditional classification of methods of production as job production, batch production, flow production. Early computers were capable of running only one program at a time; each user had sole control of the machine for a scheduled period of time. They would arrive at the computer with program and data on punched paper cards and magnetic or paper tape, would load their program and debug it, carry off their output when done; as computers became faster the setup and takedown time became a larger percentage of available computer time. Programs called monitors, the forerunners of operating systems, were developed which could process a series, or "batch", of programs from magnetic tape prepared offline; the monitor would run the first job of the batch. At the end of the job it would regain control and load and run the next until the batch was complete.
The output of the batch would be written to magnetic tape and printed or punched offline. Examples of monitors were IBM's Fortran Monitor System, SOS, IBSYS for IBM's 709x systems in 1960. Third-generation computers capable of multiprogramming began to appear in the 1960s. Instead of running one batch job at a time, these systems can have multiple batch programs running at the same time in order to keep the system as busy as possible. One or more programs might be awaiting input, one running on the CPU, others generating output. Instead of offline input and output, programs called spoolers read jobs from cards, disk, or remote terminals and place them in a job queue to be run. In order to prevent deadlocks the job scheduler needs to know each job's resource requirements—memory, magnetic tapes, mountable disks, etc. so various scripting languages were developed to supply this information in a structured way. The most well-known is IBM's Job Control Language. Job schedulers select jobs to run according to a variety of criteria, including priority, memory size, etc.
Remote batch is a procedure for submitting batch jobs from remote terminals equipped with a punch card reader and a line printer. Sometimes asymmetric multiprocessing is used to spool batch input and output for one or more large computers using an attached smaller and less-expensive system, as in the IBM System/360 Attached Support Processor. From the late 1960s onwards, interactive computing such as via text-based computer terminal interfaces, graphical user interfaces became common. Non-interactive computation, both one-off jobs such as compilation, processing of multiple items in batches, became retrospectively referred to as batch processing, the term batch job became common. Early use is found at the University of Michigan, around the Michigan Terminal System. Although timesharing did exist, its use was not robust enough for corporate data processing. Non-interactive computation remains pervasive in computing, both for general data processing and for system "housekeeping" tasks. A high-level program is today most called a script, written in scripting languages shell scripts for system tasks.
That includes UNIX-based computers, Microsoft Windows, macOS, smartphones. A running script one executed from an interactive login session, is known as a job, but that term is used ambiguously. "There is no direct counterpart to z/OS® batch processing in PC or UNIX® systems. Batch jobs are executed at a scheduled time or on an as-needed basis; the closest comparison is with processes run by an AT® or CRON command in UNIX, although the differences are significant." Batch applications are still critical in most organizations in large part because many common business processes are amenable to batch processing. While online systems can function when manual intervention is not desired, they are not optimized to perform high-volume, repetitive tasks; therefore new systems contain one or more batch applications for updating information at the end of the day, generating reports, printing documents, other non-interactive tasks that must complete reliably within certain business deadlines. Some applications are amenable to flow processing, namely those that only need data from a single input at once: start the next step for each input as it completes the previous step.
In this case flow processing lowers latency for individual inputs, allowing them to be completed without waiting for the entire batch to finish. However, many applications require data from notably computations such as totals. In this case the entire batch must be completed before one has a usable result: partial results are not usable. Modern batch applications make use of modern batch frameworks such as Jem The Bee, Spring Batch or implementations of JSR 352 written for Java, other frameworks for other programming languages, to provide the fault tolerance and scalability required for high-volume processing. In order to ensure high-speed processing, batch applications are integrated with grid computing solutions to
Andrew Letham Graham was a Canadian professional ice hockey player. Graham played left wing for six seasons in the National Hockey League for the Ottawa Senators and Hamilton Tigers, he was born in Ontario. He won the Stanley Cup with Ottawa in 1921 and retired in 1926, he appeared in the 1915 Stanley Cup Finals with the Ottawa Hockey Club against the Vancouver Millionaires, a losing effort. Graham participated in World War 1 and did not play any competitive hockey between the 1915–16 and 1919–20 seasons. While serving in Europe he was exposed to poison gas which permanently affected his physical condition and his level of play. On July 2, 1939 Graham was injured with severe lacerations to his scalp when his car flew over a fence and turned over in a ditch in a single vehicle accident in Ottawa, he died less than five years on January 18, 1944 of a sudden heart attack in Wrightville, Quebec while sitting in the grill room of the Regal Hotel, St. Joseph's Boulevard. Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database
Svenska Scoutrådet was until 2012 the national Scouting and Guiding federation of Sweden. The council was dissolved in September 2013, after a restructuring process creating the new single national Scout association, Scouterna. Scouting in Sweden was founded in 1908, Guiding followed in 1910; the Swedish Boy Scouts were among the charter members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922, the Girl Guides were among the founders of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1928. The members of the Swedish Scouting federation were: Svenska Scoutförbundet Svenska Missionskyrkans Ungdom Scout KFUK-KFUMs Scoutförbund Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund Since 2012 all of the member organizations have been incorporated into Scouterna. Svenska Scoutförbundet founded in 1909, was Sweden's largest Scouting organization with 55,000 members, their approach to Scouting was interreligious. Headquarter were in Tellusborgsvägen Stockholm. Vässarö is a Scout camp site located on the island of Vässarö in the archipelago of Öregrund.
Vässarö was long used for farming but was bought in 1936 by sea captain Ragnar Westin, who planned to use it for his retirement. But in 1942 his ship was torpedoed and he died. In his will he stated. In 1956 the first confirmation camp for Boy Scouts was held; the first camp for Girl Guides was 1966. Svenska Missionskyrkans Ungdom Scout known as "SMU-Scout" was the Guide and Scout Organization of the Mission Covenant Youth of Sweden, Sweden's second largest Scouting organization with 18,500 members, its headquarters were in Stockholm. The organization was open to both boys and girls. Since 2007, all dutiess at national level within SMU have been transferred to the collaborative organization equmenia; the members were distributed into 545 local Scout groups, which in turn are assembled in seven districts. These districts were shared with the Mission Covenant Church of Sweden. Since SMU-Scout was an integral part of equmenia, the board of trustees in equmenia delegated the Scouting issues to a Scout Committee in order to deal with other issues as well.
The remunerated chairman of the board, was the chairman of the Scout Committee. Since 2012 SMU-Scout has been incorporated into Scouterna, the national Scouting and Guiding organisation of Sweden; the organization had a campsite called Skräddartorp, Ludvika with accommodation for 1,000 participants. The programme for boys started in 1931 and for girls in 1936. Boys and girls got the same programme in 1957 but still in different sections; the sections became co-ed in 1972. Nyingscout started in 1974 and Seniorscout in 1988. In 1961, SMU-Scout applied for membership in Svenska Scoutrådet, granted in 1963. KFUK-KFUMs Scoutförbund was Sweden's third largest Scouting association with 12,500 members; the headquarters were in Stockholm. Scouternas almanacka was a wall almanac sold annually by KFUK-KFUMs Scoutförbund, starting in 1945; each month is represented by a season-related nature illustration. While most illustrations depict children, some others depict anthropomorphic animals. For many years, Kerstin Frykstrand was famous for the illustrations.
Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund was a Scouting organization in Sweden with 6,000 members. It was headquartered in Stockholm. Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund, was a Scouting association in Sweden with 600 members, it was founded in 1912, headquartered in Stockholm. From 2010 it functioned as an "ideological district" within Svenska Scoutförbundet. Equmenia Scouterna Official Website Scouterna in English Svenska Scoutförbundet Official website Vässarö Official website Vässarö Official website equmenia Official website in Swedish NSF Official website
Kamal Bose was an Indian cinematographer, who shot most of Bimal Roy classics, including Parineeta, Do Bigha Zamin, Bandini and Sujata. He successful transitioned into the coloured film era, shot Qurbani and Dayavan. During his career, he won the Filmfare Award for Best Cinematographer record five times, Anokhi Raat, Dastak, Dharmatma. Bose was an important part of auteur Bimal Roy's team, starting with Anjangarh, one of the last major films of the New Theatres in Kolkata, however Kolkata based film industry was now on the decline, thus Roy shifted base to Bombay along with his team, which included Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Nabendu Ghosh, Asit Sen and Salil Chaudhury, by 1952 he has restarted the second phase of his career with Maa for Bombay Talkies. Thereafter Bose collaborated with Roy in all his subsequent films, adaptation of Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novel by the same name, in same year came the neo-realism classic, Do Bigha Zamin, which not only won the Filmfare Best Movie Award but became the first Indian film to win the International Prize at the Cannes Film Festival.
Their association continued with Naukri, Baap Beti, Amaanat, Sujata and Bandini, which won Bose his first Filmfare Award was noted for his masterly use of black and white, to bring "texture and form in simplicity mixed with richness" in the way he captured the starkness and gloom of the prison environment, while depicting women at work. His lighting in film, Devdas was noted as it enhanced the emotional torment of the tight-lipped protagonist, played by Dilip Kumar. Meanwhile, he shot, directorial debut of Bimal Roy's editor and assistant Hrishikesh Mukherjee, the film is still remembered for its panoramic shots. Roy died in 1966, thereafter Bose started working with Asit Sen, went on to receive critical acclaim for his B & W cinematography in Apradhi Kaun?, his one-night tragedy, Anokhi Raat and the psychiatric ward tragedy, starring Rajesh Khanna and Waheeda Rehman, Safar marked his transition in to colour films. The first two films won him his second and third Filmfare Awards. Though Bose continued to work with Sen for another decade, none of the films achieved the commercial success of those early films.
His next important collaboration was with actor-director Feroze Khan, which began with latter's debut the action-thriller Apradh, thereafter he shot all of Khan's subsequent directorial ventures, including his next Dharmatma' Shot in Afghanistan, the film was noted for its scenes featuring Buzkashi, a Central Asian sport on horses, including the aerial shots, which in turn won him another Filmfare award. In the 1980s, he shot, the glamorous, Qurbani and Dayavan, his last film with Khan. In his late 70s, Bose did one more film Chauraha, he died in October 1995, at the age of 80. His son, Palash Bose is a commercial photographer based in Mumbai. Anjangarh Mantramugdha Parineeta Pardesi Naukri Baap Beti Do Bigha Zamin Devdas Amaanat Musafir Apradhi Kaun? Sujata Parakh Kabuliwala Bandini Ezhu Rathrikal Anokhi Raat Khamoshi Safar My Love Dastak Apradh Annadata Dharmatma Bairaag Qurbani Vakil Babu Janbaaz Dayavan Chauraha Filmfare Award Best Cinematographer 1964: Bandini 1970: Anokhi Raat 1971: Khamoshi 1972: Dastak 1976: Dharmatma Gulzar.
Condor of Bermuda was a maxi yacht campaigning under the leadership and funding of London-based international businessman Bob Bell. Called Condor but renamed Heath's Condor for the 1977–78 Whitbread Round the World Race after Bell's association with Heath's Insurance Co. There is no link with former British prime minister Edward Heath of Morning Cloud yachting fame. Condor was later renamed Condor of Bermuda, as government policy in the UK during the 1970s exiled the financing of such a campaign by making the funding and domiciling of such an endeavour from the home countries a practical impossibility. Condor of Bermuda is a polished mahogany race boat; the two boats were colloquially known as The Grand Piano and Plastic Condor or the Brown Bus by those who had sailed on both. Condor of Bermuda was a maxi yacht campaigning from 1977 to 1983, it was the first yacht to race with a carbon fibre mast in 1977 in the Whitbread Around the world Race. After developing a substantial lead, Heath's Condor was uncompetitive in the first leg, due to a catastrophic rig failure.
Won the second leg Second in the third leg First in the fourth Placed last on elapsed time due to first leg. Condor was the primary competition for Whitbread outsider Pen Duick VI – a French sponsored, uranium ballasted unrecognised entrant to the 1977/78 Whitbread Around the World Race. Current record holder for: Last British vessel to win a leg of the Around the World Yacht Race see Volvo Ocean Race Narrowest margin for victory – 1981 Sydney to Hobart Won line honours in the tragic 1979 Fastnet race in record time. Won the Sydney to Hobart, the closest finish, winning by just seven seconds against Apollo III during a gruelling match race up the River Derwent. Damaged on a reef in Tahiti in 1980. Salvaged, re-campaigned. See: Marlin Brando's Island, Tetiaroa. Won Heather Cup – Auckland Anniversary Regatta. 1984–87: Converted into a luxury cruise yacht Sailed in the South Pacific, Great Barrier Reef, completed several Sydney-Hobart's under the cruising category, with original owner Bob Bell. Last seen in Thailand.
Saltimbocca spelled saltinbocca, is an Italian dish made of veal lined or wrapped with prosciutto and sage. The original version of this dish is saltimbocca alla Romana, which consists of veal and sage, rolled-up and cooked in dry white wine and butter. Marsala is sometimes used. Sometimes the veal and prosciutto are not rolled-up but left flat. An American twist replaces the veal with pork. Braciola Scaloppine List of veal dishes List of Italian dishes Il nuovo Cucchiaio d'Argento, 5th ed. Vera Rossi Lodomez, Franca Matricardi, Franca Bellini, Renato Gruau. How to prepare Saltimbocca alla Romana VIDEO Saltimbocca alla Romana A popular Italian meat dish