Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both. It is named after the English naturalist Henry Walter Bates, after his work on butterflies in the rainforests of Brazil. Batesian mimicry is the most known and studied of mimicry complexes, such that the word mimicry is treated as synonymous with Batesian mimicry. There are many other forms however, some similar in principle, others far separated, it is contrasted with Müllerian mimicry, a form of mutually beneficial convergence between two or more harmful species. However, because the mimic may have a degree of protection itself, the distinction is not absolute, it can be contrasted with functionally different forms of mimicry. The sharpest contrast here is with aggressive mimicry, where a predator or parasite mimics a harmless species, avoiding detection and improving its foraging success; the imitating species is called the mimic.
The predatory species mediating indirect interactions between the mimic and the model is variously known as the receiver, dupe or operator. By parasitizing the honest warning signal of the model, the Batesian mimic gains an advantage, without having to go to the expense of arming itself; the model, on the other hand, is disadvantaged, along with the dupe. If impostors appear in high numbers, positive experiences with the mimic may result in the model being treated as harmless. At higher frequency there is a stronger selective advantage for the predator to distinguish mimic from model. For this reason, mimics are less numerous than models, an instance of frequency dependent selection; some mimetic populations have evolved multiple forms, enabling them to mimic several different models and thereby to gain greater protection. Batesian mimicry is not always perfect. A variety of explanations have been proposed for this, including limitations in predators' cognition. While visual signals have attracted most study, Batesian mimicry can employ deception of any of the senses.
Henry Walter Bates was an English explorer-naturalist who surveyed the Amazon rainforest with Alfred Russel Wallace in 1848. While Wallace returned in 1852, Bates remained for over a decade, his field research included collecting a hundred species of butterflies from the families Ithomiinae and Heliconiinae, as well as thousands of other insects specimens. In sorting these butterflies into similar groups based on appearance, inconsistencies began to arise; some appeared superficially similar to others so much so that Bates could not tell some species apart based only on wing appearance. However, closer examination of less obvious morphological characters seemed to show that they were not closely related. Shortly after his return to England he read a paper on his theory of mimicry at a meeting of the Linnean Society of London on 21 November 1861, published in 1862 as'Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley' in the society's Transactions, he elaborated on his experiences further in The Naturalist on the River Amazons.
Bates put forward the hypothesis that the close resemblance between unrelated species was an antipredator adaptation. He noted that some species showed striking coloration, flew in a leisurely manner as if taunting predators to eat them, he reasoned that these butterflies were unpalatable to birds and other insectivores, were thus avoided by them. He extended this logic to forms that resembled such protected species, mimicking their warning coloration but not their toxicity; this naturalistic explanation fitted well with the recent account of evolution by Wallace and Charles Darwin, as outlined in his famous 1859 book The Origin of Species. Because this Darwinian explanation required no supernatural forces, it met with considerable criticism from anti-evolutionists, both in academic circles and in the broader social realm. Most living things have predators and therefore are in a constant evolutionary arms race to develop antipredator adaptations, while the predator adapts to become more efficient at defeating the prey's adaptations.
Some organisms have evolved to make detection less for example by nocturnality and camouflage. Others have developed chemical defences such as the deadly toxins of certain snakes and wasps, or the noxious scent of the skunk; such prey send clear and honest warning signals to their attackers with conspicuous aposematic patterns. The brightness of such warning signs is correlated with the level of toxicity of the organism. In Batesian mimicry, the mimic copies the coloration of an aposematic animal, known as the model, to deceive predators into behaving as if it were distasteful; the success of this dishonest display depends on the level of toxicity of the model and the abundance of the model in the geographical area. The more toxic the model is, the more it is that the predator will avoid the mimic; the abundance of the model species is important for the success of the mimic because of frequency dependent selection. When the model is abundant, mimics with imperfect model patterns or different coloration from the model are still avoided by predators.
This is because the predator has a strong incentive to avoid lethal organisms, given the likelihood of encountering one. However, in areas where the model is scarce or locally extinct, mimics are driven to accurate aposematic coloration; this is because predators attack imperfect
Sheldon Johnson is an American politician and former member of the Minnesota House of Representatives. A member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, he represented District 67B, which included portions of the Dayton's Bluff, Beaver Lake Heights, Highwood Hills, Mounds Park, Conway and Battle Creek neighborhoods of Saint Paul in Ramsey County in the Twin Cities metropolitan area. Johnson was born in Minnesota, he graduated from Braham High School earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in social work from Bethel College and a Master of Arts in psychology from the University of Saint Thomas. Johnson first ran for state representative in 2000 after incumbent Representative Steve Trimble a Democrat, did not seek reelection, he defeated Democrat Aly Xiong in the primary election and Republican Scott Zimmer in the general election. In the 2002 general election, he defeated Republican Ken Lehman, the Green Party's Roger Alton Westall, the Independence Party's John Klein. In 2004 and 2006 he defeated Republican Gregory W. LeMay, in 2008 he defeated Republican David Carlson, in 2010 he defeated Republican Cheryl Golden-Black.
Johnson chaired the Commerce and Labor Subcommittee for the Telecommunications Regulation and Infrastructure Division during the 2007–08 and 2009–10 biennia. Johnson is a retired Ramsey County corrections officer, he is Presbyterian, has two adult daughters. Sheldon Johnson at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present
Kota Chambal Tigers abbreviated as KCT, is franchise cricket team representing Kota, Rajasthan in the Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League. It is one of the six founding member teams of RCL 2016; the franchise is owned by Plum Sports Holdings Limited. Kota Chambal Tigers are the crowned champions as they won the inaugural edition of RCL in 2016. Kota Chambal Tigers is a premier franchise of Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League owned by Plum Sports Holdings Limited. At the inaugural season of Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League, Kota Chambal Tigers was one of the six teams that were formed. Mr. Aakarshit Madaan and Mr. Abhishek Bajaj are the founders of Plum Sports Holdings Limited and thus the owners of the KCT franchise; the logo of Kota Chambal Tigers has a Tiger within a crest having Lime Navy Blue colours. The reason for having a tiger in the logo is because of the presence of Tigers in and around the Chambal Region of Rajasthan and denotion of Tigers as a symbol of Strength and Courage -, reflection of players of Kota Chambal Tigers.
The colors - Lime and Navy Blue is representative of the Jersey colours of Kota Chambal Tigers. International Stadium is a cricket ground in Rajasthan; the ground as established in 1974 with name of Municipal Stadium. The ground hosts Ranji matches for Rajasthan cricket team. Till date the ground has hosted six first-class matches and a List A matches; the ground hosted RCL T20 2016 from 16 February to 24 February with six teams from all across Rajasthan and 18 matches, in total. In the first season of Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League 2016, Kota Chambal Tigers started their campaign on 18 February 2016 against Jaipur Pink City Royals, held on a stalemate, for which Super Over method was adopted where Kota Chambal Tigers emerged victorious. Dishant Yagnik was awarded Man of the Match for his quick runs and brilliant captaincy under pressure. In the league stage, Kota Chambal Tigers cruised ahead of all others in first four matches with brilliant performances from Dishant Yagnik, Rajesh Bishnoi Sr. Divya Pratap Singh Hada, Rituraj Singh, Mahipal Lomror among others.
The team hit a speed-breaker with their fifth and final match of RCL 2016 league stage matches, where Jodhpur Jodhana Royals beat Kota at their homeground. They qualified for Knockout rounds with a peak position on the table. Kota Chambal Tigers was set out to have a semi-finals with Ajmer Meru Warriors where with help of an explosive start from Divya Pratap Singh Hada and a masterful half-century from Dishant Yagnik helped Kota Chambal Tigers attain a total of 191 runs at the end of 20 overs. Ajmer could never capitalise over the required Run Rate and fell short by 10 runs with help of a great all-around bowling performance from bowlers of Kota Chambal Tigers. Chandrapal Singh was awarded Man of the Match award for his brilliant all-round performance with bat and ball; the final was played between Kota Chambal Tigers and Jodhpur Jodhana Royals at International Stadium, Kota on 23 February 2016. Kota won the toss and elected to bat and put up a respectable total of 141 with middle-order pitching in a hundred runs.
Jodhpur got on to a solid start but failed to capitalise as wickets kept falling at regular intervals and required run-rate was too much for them to handle. They were bowled out in 19 overs with 18 runs short of Kota's score. Gaurav Sharma took four wickets, with Naresh Nama picking up three, both having an economy of less than three runs per over. Gaurav Sharma was awarded Man of the Match for his all-round performance with both Bat as well as Ball by Mohd. Kaif and Mr. Amin Pathan, Chairman of Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League. Kota won the match as well as Rajasthan Rajwada T-20 Cricket League 2016 Inaugural Edition; the first season of Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League was a Live telecast on NEO Sports and NEO Prime. The launch of second season took place at Tivoli Gardens, Delhi on 29 July 2016. RCL unveiled the two new teams to be playing in Rajasthan Rajwada Cricket League 2017 and the jerseys of all the eight teams that will be participating; the guests in attendance were Sh. Om Birla and Sh.
Amin Pathan, Minister of State, Rajasthan Government and Siddharth Trivedi. On 5 December 2016, Kota unveiled Farveez Maharoof as Kota Chambal Tigers' mentor and a new addition to their squad; the unveiling of rest of the squad followed, which included Dishant Yagnik, Nathu Singh, Mahipal Lomror and Salman F. Khan among others; the stage is all set for the second season of RCL to be played at International Cricket Stadium, Rajasthan from 6 February to 24 February 2017