Bath, Somerset

Bath is the largest city in the county of Somerset, known for and named after its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles southeast of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.

Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy, Fashion Museum, the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.

Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.

In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.

If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the bath

Telecommunications in Azerbaijan

Telecommunications in Azerbaijan provides information about television, radio and mobile telephones, the Internet in Azerbaijan. The Azerbaijan economy has been markedly stronger in recent years and, not the country has been making progress in developing ICT sector. Nonetheless, it still faces problems; these include an immature telecom regulatory regime. The Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan, as well as being an operator through its role in Aztelekom, is both a policy-maker and regulator. Telephones - main lines in use: 1,820,000 Country comparison to the world: 64Telephones - mobile cellular: 11,000,000 Country comparison to the world: 75 Azerbaijan's telephone system is a combination of old Soviet era technology used by Azerbaijani citizens and small- to medium-size commercial establishments, modern cellular telephones used by an increasing middle class, large commercial ventures, international companies, most government officials. General assessment:' inadequate.

Domestic: local - the majority of telephones are in Baku or other industrial centers - about 700 villages still do not have public telephone service. International: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable. There are three major mobile phone operators in Azerbaijan: Azercell and Nar. Azercell and Nar offer 2G, 3G and 4G services. All three networks are modern and reliable with shops located in major towns and cities where one can purchase a sim card or get assistance if needed. Most unlocked mobile phones are able to be used on roaming. Azercell and Azerfon are recommended to tourists due to the variety of tariffs available and the help available in a variety of languages. Other mobile phone operators include AzEuroTel, Caspian Telecom and Catel Eurasiacom; as of June 2014 95% of all main lines are digitized and provide excellent quality services for the region. The remaining 5% is in modernization process. Azerbaijan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable providing international connectivity to the rest of the World.

Additionally the old Soviet system by microwave radio relay and landline connections to other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States is still available, by satellite earth stations. The main backbones of Azerbaijani networks are made by E3 or STM-1 lines via microwave units across whole country with many passive retranslations. There are two major private companies in Azerbaijan that connects the country to the global Internet network; these are Delta Telekom companies. As of 2014, Azerbaijan has 9 AM stations, 17 FM stations, one shortwave station. Additionally, there are 4,350,000 radios in existence. Primary network provider is the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan. According to MCIT, the FM radio penetration rate is 97% according to 2014 data. Radio broadcast stations: 26 Radio Respublika - FM 105.0 MHz İctimai FM - FM 90 MHz Naxçıvan Dövlət radiosu - FM 103 MHz Naxçıvanın səsi - FM 103 MHz ARAZ FM - FM 103.3 MHz Antenn FM - FM 101 MHz ANS ChM - FM 102 MHz Avto FM - FM 107.7 MHz Azad Azərbaycan FM - FM 106 MHz Bürc FM FM 100.5 MHz Kəpəz FM - FM 90.3 MHz Lider FM - FM 107 MHz Media FM - FM 105.5 MHz Space FM - FM 104 MHz Xəzər FM - FM 103 MHz Radios: 175,000 Azerbaijan has a total of 47 television channels, of which 4 are public television channels and 43 are private television channels of which 12 are national television channels and 31 regional television channels.

According to the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies of Azerbaijan, the television penetration rate is 99% according to 2014 data. The penetration rate of cable television in Azerbaijan totaled 28.1% of households in 2013, from a study by the State Statistical Committee of the Azerbaijan Republic. 39% of the cable television subscriber base is concentrated in major cities. The penetration rate is 59.1% in the city of Baku. Television broadcast stations: 43 Televisions: 170,000 Internet service providers: 15 29 Country code: AZE Internet Internet hosts: 46,856 Country comparison to the world: 98Internet users: 2.200,000 Country comparison to the world: 70Internet penetration: 77% Ministry of Communications and Information Technologies This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website Sidorenko, Alexey: "The Internet in Azerbaijan" in the Caucasus

Gennadiy Shatkov

Gennadi Ivanovich Shatkov was a boxer from the USSR, who competed in the Middleweight division during the major part of his career. Shatkov was born in Leningrad and began boxing at 12 at Zhdanov Young Pioneer Palace in Leningrad, where he was trained by Ivan Pavlovich Osipov, his first success was the 3rd place at the 1949 USSR Youth Championship in Rostov on Don. Shatkov trained at Burevestnik in Leningrad, he became Honoured Master of Sports of the USSR in 1957 and was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1957. During his career he won 215 fights out of 227, he won the Middleweight gold medal at the 1956 Melbourne Olympic games. He competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics in the Light Heavyweight division but lost to Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. in the quarterfinals. Shatkov won gold medals at 1955 European Championship and 1959 European Championship, became USSR Champion in 1955, 1956 and 1958, won gold medal in the I Summer Spartakiad of the Peoples of the USSR in 1956. Along with his sports career Shatkov had a notable scientific one.

After graduating from a secondary school he entered Leningrad State University in 1951, received Candidate of Judicial Sciences degree there in 1962, became a docent of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law and was appointed prorector of the university in 1964. Three of his other wins were against illnesses, he had an acute stroke in 1969 and two strokes in 1988. It took him five years to recover from the first one, he managed to restore impellent speech after all three strokes. During years that passed after the first stroke he wrote three books, he died in Saint Petersburg on January 14, 2009, aged 76. Below are the results of Gennadiy Shatkov, a middleweight boxer from the Soviet Union, who competed at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics: Round of 16: Defeated Ralph Hosack points Quarterfinal: Defeated Giulio Rinaldi walk-over Semifinal: Defeated Víctor Zalazar KO 2 Final: Defeated Ramón Tapia KO 1 Below are the results of Gennadiy Shatkov, a light heavyweight boxer from the Soviet Union, who competed at the 1960 Rome Olympics: Round of 16: Defeated Ray Cillien points Quarterfinal: Lost to Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. points Profile in the Olympic Encyclopedia databaseOlympics