The Corio Bay is one of numerous bays in the southwest corner of Australias Port Phillip, and is the bay on which abuts the City of Geelong. The nearby suburb of Corio takes its name from Corio Bay, the names Corayo and Jillong had since been Anglicised to Corio and Geelong. The Port of Geelong is located on the shores of Corio Bay, before the initial settlement of Geelong, a sandbar across the bay from Point Lillias to Point Henry prevented ships from entering the inner harbour. Ships were required to anchor in the bay, and cargo was brought into Geelong on small barges. At times it was possible to walk across the bay on the sandbar at low tide, the first channel through the sandbar was started in 1853, providing less than 4 metres draught for ships. This channel was straightened out and dredged at a depth of 6 metres in the 1860s, in 1881 a new channel started that took 12 years to complete. It was named the Hopetoun Channel after Lord Hopetoun who opened it on December 20,1893, management of the channels and port was the responsibility of the Geelong Harbour Trust that was formed in December 1905.
In 1981, the Port of Geelong Authority took over from the trust, the authority was privatised by the State Government in mid 1996, being sold to TNT Logistics for $49.6 million. It was re-branded as GeelongPort, the shores of Corio Bay have been a popular playground for Geelong residents. Since the 1930s Eastern Beach has been a swimming location. Boating is popular, with a number of boat ramps. The bay is the home of the Royal Geelong Yacht Club that was established in 1859, sometimes and dolphins can be seen in the bay. Eastern Beach Waterfront Geelong Limeburners Bay Timeline of Geelong history Freedom bay cruise, Corio bay
The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, is a perennial river in east-central Victoria, Australia. The lower stretches of the river are where the city of Melbourne was established in 1835, the river was a major food source and meeting place for indigenous Australians from prehistoric times. Shortly after the arrival of European settlers land clearing forced the remaining Wurundjeri to neighbouring territories, originally called Birrarung by the Wurundjeri, the current name was mistranslated from another Wurundjeri term in the Boonwurrung language, Yarro-yarro, meaning ever-flowing. The river was utilised primarily for agriculture by early European settlers, the landscape of the river has changed dramatically since 1835. The course has been disrupted and the river widened in places. The first of many Crossings of the Yarra River to facilitate transport was built in Princes Bridge, beginning with the Victorian gold rush it was extensively mined, creating the Pound Bend Tunnel in Warrandyte, and the Big and Little Peninsula Tunnels above Warburton.
Widening and dams, like the Upper Yarra Reservoir have helped protect Melbourne from major flooding, the catchments upper reaches are affected by logging. Industrialisation ultimately led to the destruction of the marshlands at the confluence of the Yarra, the mouth and including Swanson and Appleton Docks are used for container shipping by the Port of Melbourne which is the busiest on the continent. The city reach which is inaccessible to larger watercraft, has increased use for both transport and recreational boating. In recent years however recreational use of the river is threatened by high levels of pollution in its lower stretches, the upper reaches remain relatively healthy. The annual Moomba festival celebrates the Yarra Rivers increasing cultural significance to Melbourne, the river was called Birrarung by the Wurundjeri people who occupied the Yarra Valley and much of Central Victoria prior to European settlement. It is thought that Birrarung is derived from Wurundjeri words meaning ever flowing, another common term was Birrarung Marr, thought to mean river of mist or river bank.
However it is believed that Yarra means waterfall, flow, or refers to running or falling water, descriptive of any river or creek in the area, not just the Yarra. The name Yarra Yarra is said to mean ever flowing river, between 8000 BC and 6000 BC, the basin flooded forming Port Phillip Bay and moving the mouth of the Yarra over 50 km inland. A dry period combined with sand bar formation may have dried the bay out as recently as between 800 BC and 1000 AD extending the Yarra to Bass Strait during this period. The area surrounding the Yarra River and modern day Melbourne was originally inhabited by Natives of the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin nation and it is believed that the area was occupied by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years. The rivers resources were utilised sustainably by the Wurundjeri until the advent of early European settlement in the early-mid-19th century and he selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that this will be the place for a village.
The river was instrumental in the establishment of Melbourne along its banks from 1835 onwards, the new settlements main port was sited near Queensbridge, the place where saltwater met freshwater
Barwon River (Victoria)
The Barwon River is a perennial river of the Corangamite catchment, located in The Otways and the Bellarine Peninsula regions of the Australian state of Victoria. The river flows adjacent to the settlement of Winchelsea and the city of Greater Geelong, from its highest point including its source confluence, the river descends 295 metres over its 160-kilometre course. The river is crossed by a number of bridges in Geelong, of particular note is the unusual one lane truss bridge in Newtown, Geelong. The Breakwater in East Geelong was constructed by Foster Fyans to supply drinking water, water from the river feeds agriculture and industry. The river is a recreation spot for Geelong, with parklands such as Balyang Sanctuary along the banks. The rivers name is derived from the Aboriginal word Barwon, meaning magpie or great wide, in the Australian Aboriginal Wathawurrung language the names for the river are Worragong, with no clearly defined meaning, meaning lagoon at mouth, and Barrwang, meaning magpie.
The dam is now the water supply for Geelong. Buckleys Falls Buckleys Falls is located between Highton and Fyansford, a weir and water race was built above the falls in 1876 to provide power for the Fyansford Paper Mill. The falls were named by John Helder Wedge after escaped convict William Buckley who lived in the area with Aborigines for 32 years from 1803, the Breakwater The Breakwater is located in the current Geelong suburb of the same name. Originally built to prevent salt water moving upstream, it now keeps the level through Geelong constant and is an important crossing point. Construction on the weir started in late 1838 under Captain Foster Fyans and was completed by May 1840, built by convicts, the weir failed in flood in 1844, not being fully rebuilt until 1849. Little changed to the breakwater until it was rebuilt by the Country Roads Board for modern traffic in the mid 1960s, barrage A second weir was built over the Barwon River further downstream. Located near where the river enters Lake Connewarre, the barrage again keeps water levels constant upstream for waterskiiers, and prevents saltwater moving upstream into Reedy Lake.
Ordered upstream to downstream Barwon River Bridge The Barwon River Bridge at Winchelsea was erected in 1867 for the Council of the Shire of Winchelsea, replacing an earlier timber structure of 1849. The three span arch structure was built of bluestone by James Sinclair at a cost of £4,602 and officially opened by Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, on 3 December 1867. The Barwon River Bridge is the structure erected at this historic crossing place and has since 1867 provided an important link with Geelong. The Barwon River Bridge, which is still in use, has recently been rehabilitated. A new reinforced concrete structure, located beside the bluestone bridge, Geelong Ring Road The Geelong Ring Road bridge carries four lanes of freeway over the river
William Barak, was the last traditional ngurungaeta of the Wurundjeri-willam clan, first inhabitants of present-day Melbourne, Australia. He became a spokesman for Aboriginal social justice and an important informant on Wurundjeri cultural lore. Barak was born in the early 1820s at Brushy Creek near present-day Croydon and his mother, came from the Nourailum bulluk at Murchison, Victoria. His father, was an important member of the Wurundjeri clan, Barak was said to have been present as a boy when John Batman met with the tribal elders to purchase the Melbourne area in 1835. Before he died he described witnessing the signing of the treaty in a ceremony he called a tanderem, ninggalobin and Billibellary were the leading song makers and principal Wurundjeri leaders in the Melbourne region. European colonisation had caused disruptions to initiation ceremonies, in response these three men gathered at South Yarra in the late 1830s and inducted the young William Barak into Aboriginal lore. At the end of the ceremony Barak presented his uncle, Barak attended the government’s Yarra Mission School from 1837 to 1839.
When he joined the Native Mounted Police in 1844, he was given the name of William Barak, in early 1863, Barak moved to Coranderrk Station, near Healesville, Victoria with about thirty others. Upon the death of Simon Wonga in 1875, Barak became the Ngurungaeta of the clan and he worked tirelessly for his people and was a successful negotiator on their behalf. He was a respected man and leader, with standing amongst the Indigenous people. Barak died at Coranderrk in 1903 and is buried at the Coranderrk cemetery and he was about 85 years old. Barak is now best remembered for his artworks, which both traditional Indigenous life and encounters with Europeans. Most of Baraks drawings were completed at Coranderrk during the 1880s and 1890s and they are now highly prized and exhibited in leading public galleries in Australia. His work is on permanent display in the National Gallery of Victoria Ian Potter Centre at Federation Square, ceremony is housed at the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery. In 2006 a permanent sound installation called Proximities was installed on the bridge and it was designed by David Chesworth and Sonia Leber.
Its central section features a song sung in Woiwurrung by Wurundjeri Elder. In 2015 a 279-foot-tall image of William Barak was used to form the facade of an apartment building called Swanston Square in Melbourne. The portrait is formed by the white balconies against a black wall, remembering Barak at the National Gallery of Victoria
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Parramatta is a suburb of Sydney, Australia,23 kilometres west of its central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River. Parramatta is the seat of the City of Parramatta, one of four cities within the Sydney metropolitan area. Parramatta, founded by the British in 1788, the year as Sydney, is the oldest inland European settlement in Australia. Since 2000, government agencies such as the New South Wales Police Force, Parramatta is a major business and commercial centre, and home to Westfield Parramatta, the ninth largest shopping centre in Australia. It is colloquially known as Parra, radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in Parramatta from around 30,000 years ago. The Darug people who lived in the area before European settlement regarded the area as rich in food from the river, the Parramatta Eels Rugby League club chose their symbol as a result of this phenomenon. Parramatta was founded in 1788, the year as Sydney. As such, Parramatta is the second oldest city in Australia, during 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the most likely place for a successful large farm.
Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River and the point at which the river became freshwater, as a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the name Rose Hill after George Rose, Secretary for the British Treasury. In 1791 he changed the name to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people, a neighbouring suburb acquired the name Rose Hill. In an attempt to deal with the crisis, Phillip in 1789 granted a convict named James Ruse the land of Experiment Farm at Parramatta on the condition that he develop a viable agriculture. There, Ruse became the first person to grow grain in Australia. The Parramatta area was the site of the pioneering of the Australian wool industry by John Macarthurs Elizabeth Farm in the 1790s, Philip Gidley Kings account of his visit to Parramatta on 9 April 1790 is one of the earliest descriptions of the area. Walking four miles with Governor Phillip to Prospect he saw undulating grassland interspersed with magnificent trees, Governor Arthur Phillip built a small house for himself on the hill of The Crescent.
It was used as a retreat by Governors until the 1850s, the house, Old Government House, is currently a historic site and museum within Parramatta Park and is Australias oldest surviving public building. In 1803, another incident occurred in Parramatta, involving a convicted criminal named Joseph Samuel. Samuel was convicted of murder and sentenced to death by hanging, in the second attempt, the noose slipped off his neck. In the third attempt, the new rope broke, Governor King was summoned and pardoned Samuel, as the incident appeared to him to be divine intervention
John Pascoe Fawkner
John Pascoe Fawkner was an early pioneer and politician of Melbourne, Australia. In 1835 he financed a party of settlers from Van Diemens Land, to sail to the mainland in his ship. Fawkners party sailed to Port Phillip and up the Yarra River to found a settlement which became the city of Melbourne, John Pascoe Fawkner was born near Cripplegate London in 1792 to John Fawkner and his wife Hannah née Pascoe, whose parents were Cornish. The colony landed at Sullivan Bay, near modern-day Sorrento, for several months the colony struggled to survive. There were some 27 convict escape attempts, including that of William Buckley, in 1806 the family obtained a farm, upon which he worked without horses, without capital, and with scarcely any other appliances than a spade and a hoe. At eighteen years of age he apprenticed himself to a builder and a sawyer, in Hobart the young Fawkner assisted his father in his bakery, timber business and brewery and soon afterwards fell into trouble. A letter dated 19 October 1814 from Lieut and this gives a misleading account of what had occurred.
In December 1819 transported convict, Eliza Cobb, and John Pascoe Fawkner loaded up a cart and they were married on 5 December 1822, with a permit from Governor George Arthur. They established a bakery, timber business, bookshop, a newspaper The Launceston Advertiser in 1829, soon after Eliza had received a pardon, Fawkner obtained a licence to run the Cornwall Hotel in 1826. In April 1835, John Pascoe Fawkner purchased the schooner, Enterprize. John Batman led a party to Port Phillip District in May 1835. He explored an area in what is now the northern suburbs of Melbourne, as far north as Keilor. When the Enterprize was ready to leave in August 1835, at the last moment creditors prevented Fawkner from joining the voyage, on 15 August 1835, Enterprize entered the Yarra River. After being hauled upstream, she moored at the foot of the present day William Street, on 30 August 1835 the settlers disembarked to build their store and clear land to grow vegetables. The Fawkners arrived in the Port Phillip District, on Friday,16 October 1835, Fawkners diary reads, Warped up to the Basin, landed 2 cows,2 calves and the 2 horses.
Fawkner was keen to secure his place in history and he opened Melbournes first hotel on the corner of William Street and Flinders Lane. He published the Melbourne Advertiser on 1 January 1838 which was the districts first newspaper, the Advertisers first nine or ten weekly editions were handwritten in ink. The old wooden printing press brought to Tasmania by Lt, Governor David Collins in 1803, and some worn typeface were eventually obtained from Launceston and the first printed edition appeared on 5 March 1838
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
A schooner /ˈskuːnər/ is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts, the foremast being shorter than the main and no taller than the mizzen if there is one. While the schooner was originally gaff-rigged, modern schooners typically carry a Bermuda rig, such vessels were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century. They were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, the most common type, with two masts, were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, and offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper, schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility. They could sail in shallow waters, and while being smaller than other ships of the time period. Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast, most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants and Dutch nobility.
Following the arrival of the Dutch monarch William of Orange on the British throne and this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Royal Transport was quickly noted for its speed and ease of handling, North American shipbuilders quickly developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term comes from scoon. The Dutch word schoone means nice, good looking, robinson replied, A schooner let her be. The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745, naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a childish fable, but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as unknown and uncertain, the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconers, Universal Dictionary of the Marine.
Although a schooner may have up to four masts, the schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig, the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were rigged, and the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area. A Bermuda rigged schooner typically has four sails, a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail. An advantage of the schooner is that it is easily handled and reefed by a small crew. The main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, and so little to prepare the wind for the mainsail
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions, although the term is not only a metonym for the State. The Crown is a sole that represents the legal embodiment of executive, legislative. These monarchies are united by the union of their monarch. The concept of the Crown developed first in the Kingdom of England as a separation of the crown and property of the nation state from the person. The concept spread through English and British colonisation and is now rooted in the lexicon of the other 15 independent realms. In this context it should not be confused with any physical crown, the concept of the Crown took form under the feudal system. Though not used this way in all countries that had this system, in England, all rights, for instance, was granted by the Crown to lords in exchange for feudal services and they, in turn, granted the land to lesser lords. One exception to this was common socage—owners of land held as socage held it only to the Crown.
The Crown as ultimate owner of all property owns any property which has become bona vacantia, the monarch is the living embodiment of the Crown and, as such, is regarded as the personification of the state. He office cannot exist without the office-holder, the Crown represents the legal embodiment of executive and judicial governance. While the Crowns legal personality is usually regarded as a sole, it can, at least for some purposes. Historically, the Crown was considered to be indivisible, two judgments—Ex parte Indian Association of Alberta and Ex parte Quark —challenged that view. The Crown in each of the Commonwealth realms is a similar, because both Canada and Australia are federations, there are crowns in right of each Canadian province and each Australian state. The Succession to the Crown Law 2013 defined the Crown, for the purposes of implementing the Perth Agreement in Jersey law, as the Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Jersey. Legislation in the Isle of Man defines the Crown in right of the Isle of Man as being separate from the Crown in right of the United Kingdom and this constitutional concept is worded as the Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Guernsey.
The reserve powers of the Crown for each territory are no longer considered to be exercisable on the advice of the UK government, often cases are brought by the Crown according to the complaint of a claimant. The title of the case follows the pattern of R v Y. Thus R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union is R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, where Miller is Gina Miller, in Scotland, criminal prosecutions are undertaken by the Lord Advocate in the name of the Crown
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups, trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land. Trespass to the person historically involved six separate trespasses, assault, wounding and maiming. Trespass to chattels, known as trespass to goods or trespass to property, is defined as an intentional interference with the possession of personal property … proximately caus injury. Trespass to chattel does not require a showing of damages, simply the intermeddling with or use of … the personal property of another gives cause of action for trespass. Since CompuServe Inc. v. Cyber Promotions, various courts have applied the principles of trespass to chattel to resolve cases involving unsolicited bulk e-mail and unauthorized server usage. Trespass to land is today the tort most commonly associated with the term trespass, generally, it is not necessary to prove harm to a possessors legally protected interest, liability for unintentional trespass varies by jurisdiction.
Trespass has treated as a common law offense in some countries. There are three types of trespass, the first of which is trespass to the person, whether intent is a necessary element of trespass to the person varies by jurisdiction. Under English decision, Letang v Cooper, intent is required to sustain a trespass to the cause of action, in the absence of intent. In other jurisdictions, gross negligence is sufficient to sustain a trespass to the person, such as when a defendant negligently operates an automobile, intent is to be presumed from the act itself. Generally, trespass to the person consists of three torts, assault and false imprisonment, under the statutes of various common law jurisdictions, assault is both a crime and a tort. A person commits tortious assault when he engages in any act of such a nature as to excite an apprehension of battery, in some jurisdictions, there is no requirement that actual physical violence result—simply the threat of unwanted touching of the victim suffices to sustain an assault claim.
Consequently, in R v Constanza, the court found a stalkers threats could constitute assault, silence, given certain conditions, may constitute an assault as well. However, in other jurisdictions, simple threats are insufficient, they must be accompanied by an action or condition to trigger a cause of action, incongruity of a defendants language and action, or of a plaintiffs perception and reality may vitiate an assault claim. In Tuberville v Savage, the defendant reached for his sword and told the plaintiff that f it were not assize-time, in its American counterpart, Commonwealth v. Eyre, the defendant shouted f it were not for your gray hairs, I would tear your heart out. In both cases, the courts held that despite a threatening gesture, the plaintiffs were not in immediate danger, Battery is any intentional and unpermitted contact with the plaintiffs person or anything attached to it and practically identified with it. The elements of common law varies by jurisdiction. Battery torts under Commonwealth precedent are subjected to a four point test to determine liability, is the sequence of events connecting initial conduct and the harmful contact an unbroken series
Northcote is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia,6 km north-east of Melbournes Central Business District. It is part of the government area of the City of Darebin. At the 2011 Census, Northcote had a population of 22,920, the area now known as Northcote is on the traditional lands of the Wurundjeri people. According to the Darebin Historical Encyclopedia, hite settlers knew the Wurundjeri as the ‘Yarra’ tribe and they were closely associated with the Yarra River and its subsidiaries, with various subgroups of the tribe owning lands at various spots on the course of the Yarra. European settlement of the Northcote area began in 1839 with a Government land sale, many of these allotments were long, narrow strips of land running in an east-west configuration, which has resulted in the street patterns of the suburb to this day. The area to the north of Oldis Gardens was surveyed as the township of Northcote in 1853, the southerly surveyed portion is now Westgarth. It was the further north of present-day Westgarth which saw settlement and development.
Large, expensive houses were built throughout the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, lower Plenty Road became the central street of Northcote, instead of Westgarth Street as initially proposed. A bridge was built across the Merri Creek in 1858, making access to the more convenient. Throughout the 1850s, churches and hotels were built, throughout the 1870s the area contained a number of slaughteryards and claypits. One such claypit operated on the corner of Separation Street and High Street, when the brickworks closed down, the site became the Northcote Plaza Shopping Centre in 1981. The quarried land became the Northcote Regional Tip, to be transformed into All Nations Park, the Northcote Primary School on Helen Street opened in 1874. At that stage, Northcote was still an area, with orchards. Throughout the 1880s, land in Northcote was relatively cheap, owing to its lack of public transport and this attracted speculative property investors, as well as people of limited financial means, setting in place Northcotes reputation as a working-class suburb.
Following the arrival of transport in the late 1880s and early 1890s. More businesses opened along High Street, as well as churches, the Little Sisters Of The Poor began building on a site along St Georges Road, which still exists today. The town hall was built in 1890, the year the Borough of Northcote was proclaimed. The Northcote Football Club was established in 1898, with its ground at Northcote Park