Batman & Robin is a 1997 American superhero film based on the DC Comics characters Batman and Robin. It is the fourth and final installment of Warner Bros.' Initial Batman film series, a sequel to Batman Forever and the only film in the series made without the involvement of Tim Burton. Directed by Joel Schumacher and written by Akiva Goldsman, it stars George Clooney as Bruce Wayne / Batman, Arnold Schwarzenegger as Victor Fries / Mr. Freeze, Chris O'Donnell as Dick Grayson / Robin, alongside Uma Thurman, Alicia Silverstone, Michael Gough, Pat Hingle, Elle Macpherson; the film follows the titular characters as they attempt to prevent Mr. Freeze and Poison Ivy from freezing all mankind to death and repopulating the earth with mutant plants, while at the same time struggling to keep their partnership together, it is to date the only live-action film appearance of Batgirl, portrayed by Silverstone, who helps the titular characters fight the villains. Warner Bros. fast-tracked development for Batman & Robin following the box office success of Batman Forever.
Schumacher and Goldsman conceived the storyline during pre-production on A Time to Kill, while Val Kilmer decided not to reprise the role over scheduling conflicts with The Saint. Schumacher had a strong interest in casting William Baldwin in Kilmer's place before George Clooney won the role. Principal photography began in September 1996 and finished in January 1997, two weeks ahead of the shooting schedule. Batman & Robin premiered in Los Angeles on June 12, 1997, went into general release on June 20. Making $238.2 million worldwide against a production budget of $160 million, the film was critically panned and ranks among the worst films where it was criticized for its toyetic and camp approach and its homosexual innuendo. It is the lowest-grossing live-action Batman film to date. Due to the film's poor reception, Warner Bros. cancelled a sequel, Batman Unchained, rebooted the film series with Batman Begins in 2005. One of the songs recorded for the film, "The End Is the Beginning Is the End" by The Smashing Pumpkins, won a Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance at the 40th Annual Grammy Awards.
As a result of Batman & Robin’s overwhelmingly negative reception the cast and crew, most notably Clooney & Schumacher himself had disowned and apologized for the film over the years since its release. Set two years after the defeat of Two-Face and the Riddler and his new partner, come into conflict in the form of a new foe, Mr. Freeze, who has left a string of diamond robberies in his wake. During a confrontation in the natural history museum, Mr. Freeze steals a bigger diamond and flees, freezing Robin and leaving Batman unable to pursue him. Batman and Robin learn that Mr. Freeze was Dr. Victor Fries, a doctor working to develop a cure for MacGregor's syndrome to heal his terminally ill wife. After a lab accident, Fries was rendered unable to live at normal temperatures and forced to wear a cryogenic suit powered by diamonds in order to survive. At a Wayne Enterprises lab in Brazil, botanist Dr. Pamela Isley is working under the deranged Dr. Jason Woodrue, experimenting with a drug named Venom.
She witnesses Woodrue use the formula to turn the violent, but diminutive, convicted serial murderer Antonio Diego into a hulking monstrosity, who he dubs "Bane". When Isley threatens to expose Woodrue's experiments, he attempts to kill her by overturning a shelf of various toxins. Despite Woodrue's efforts, Isley is resurrected, transforming into the beautiful and seductive Poison Ivy before exacting revenge, she finds that Wayne Enterprises funded Woodrue, though they cut Woodrue's funding when he intended to weaponize the Venom drug, thus she appropriates Bane as a muscle-bound thug, taking him with her to Gotham City. Meanwhile, Alfred Pennyworth's niece, Barbara Wilson, makes a surprise visit and is invited by Bruce Wayne to stay at Wayne Manor until she goes back to school. Wayne Enterprises presents a new telescope for Gotham Observatory at a press conference interrupted by Isley, she proposes a project that could help the environment, but Bruce declines her offer, which would kill millions of people.
Batman says. That night, a charity event is held by Wayne Enterprises with special guests and Robin, she decides to use her abilities to seduce them. Mr. Freeze steals a diamond from the event. Although he is captured by Batman and detained in Arkham Asylum, he escapes with the help of Poison Ivy, who killed two security guards with her kiss in the process. Meanwhile, Dick discovers that Barbara has participated in drag races to raise money for Alfred, dying of MacGregor's syndrome. Batman and Robin begin to have crime fighting relationship problems because of Ivy's seductive ability with Robin, but Bruce convinces Dick to trust him. Poison Ivy is able to contact Robin once more. Robin says. Meanwhile, Barbara discovers the Batcave, where an AI version of Alfred reveals he has made Barbara her own suit. Barbara becomes Batgirl. Ivy captures Robin, but he gets rescued by Batman, Batgirl arrives and subdues Ivy to get eaten by her throne plant, before revealing her identity to the pair. Batman and Batgirl decide to go after Mr. Freeze together.
By the time they get to the observatory where Mr. Freeze and Bane are, Gotham is frozen. Batgirl and Robin are attacked by Bane, but they defeat him by kicking apart his venom tubes, sto
The AAC-1937, which means Autoametralladora-cañón Chevrolet modelo 1937 known as Chevrolet 1937, was an armored car developed and built in Catalonia. After the dismantling of the War Industry Commission of Catalonia, the Subsecretary of Weapons and Ammunitions of Spain contracted Soviet engineers to build a new armored vehicle, they took the BA-6 as a basis for the new vehicle, built a similar vehicle, the AAC-1937 in the Hispano-Suiza factory in Barcelona, using a chassis from General Motors Peninsular. With a total run of between 60 and 90 units, the AAC-1937 fought in the Spanish Civil War in the east: in the Aragon offensive and in the Catalonia offensive. With different kinds of weaponry and high quality construction, it was the best armored vehicle produced during the conflict in Catalonia. After the fall of Catalonia, the AAC-1937 went to the armies of Spain. With the start of WW2 these vehicles saw use in the Battle of France and the Germans captured some of them, they used them in the Eastern Front, where they were destroyed by the Soviets during the first months of the conflict.
After the First World War, Spain acquired 12 Renault FT-17 and 6 Schneider CA1 from France. In 1921, those tanks were sent to Morocco, where they participated in their first battle in 17 March 1922 with bad results, as they advanced ahead of the infantry until they were surrounded and isolated, some with their machine guns blocked, suffered heavy losses. After that bad start, they gave support in the Rif War, with great success during the Alhucemas landing, a decisive victory that led to their return to Spain; the Moroccan campaign demonstrated the importance of these new weapons and encouraged the acquisition of more tanks, like the Fiat 3000 from the Kingdom of Italy in 1924, the production of a national tank in 1925: the Trubia A4. The Sanjuanada of 1926, meant that tanks associated to the artillery officers that participated in the coup d'état, lost the favour of the administration and the projects for national production or armored vehicles were cancelled; the tanks that were still operative before the start of the Spanish Civil War were assigned to two units: the Regimiento Ligero de Carros de Combate número 1, stationed near Madrid, the Regimiento LCC número 2, near Saragossa.
In Catalonia, after the July 1936 military uprising in Barcelona, the workers decided to help the war effort producing weapons, including tanks. Starting from zero, after the initial chaos, the War Industry Commission in Catalonia was in charge of managing the production of the new armored vehicle. During that period they built several experimental vehicles with a wide variety of uses and performances. After the May Days, the Republican Government took charge of the weapons and ammunition industries of all the Republican territory, including the Catalan one. In the meantime, the Italian and German navy controlled most of the naval routes to the Iberian peninsula, because of that, the Soviet Union wasn't able to send resources via sea; these reasons pushed the Second Spanish Republic into building armored vehicle. The Spanish subsecretary of weapons, with the help of soviet engineers, started development of a new heavy armored vehicle in April 1937, taking the BA-6 as a reference; the most famous vehicle was the AAC-1937, based on the chassis of the Chevrolet SD 1937 truck from General Motors Peninsular, produced in Barcelona.
The problem was that the Chevy SD 1937 only had 2 axles, the extra weight added by the armour made it too unstable. To fix it, they added axles from soviet GAZ trucks; the outcome was that the AAC-1937 was similar to the BA-6, but was more agile thanks to a more powerful engine. The armour was made in Valencia; the vehicle was protected by welded steel sheets, similar to Soviet vehicles of the time. The biggest differences to the BA-6 were the doors to access the engine, the wheels and the mudguard; the AAC-1937 had a crew of four operators: driver, commander and driver helper, who used the hull machine gun. There were several variations in weaponry and turret configuration: One machine gun equipped with his own turret: Maxim machine gun, DT machine gun, MG 13 Recovered turret form T-26, BT-5 and BA-6 tanks One cannon Puteaux SA 18 of 37 mm, used from the Renault FT-17 tanks, with a coaxial machine gunThe weapons were diverse because of limited availability; the vehicles started being delivered from the factory in April 1937.
The production rate was four tanks a month until March 1938, when the nationalist forces split the Republican territory in two, isolating Catalonia from their vital steel supply for the production of tanks. In total there were between 90 AAC-1937 built; the AAC-1937 was used in the Second World War. They were used in the Spanish Army in the Francoist Spain period until the decade of 1950 in cavalry units; the first battle of the AAC-1937 was alongside UNL-35 armored cars. It was used by the 1st Armoured Division and the 2nd Armoured Division. During the war, at least 30 of these vehicles were captured by the nationalist forces, changing its weapons for MG 13 machine guns. After the Battle of the Ebro, where the Franco forces destroyed 17 AAC-1937 and captured 18, all the remaining AAC-1937 that were still in Catalonia were pulled back to the French border, where they were given to the French border forces; the French used the AAC-1937, during the Battle of France they were used with low casualties, though 20 were captured by troops of Nazi Germany.
Those vehicles were modified with t
Public transport in Canberra is provided by bus and light rail, while rail and long-distance coach services operate for travel beyond Canberra. On 1 July 2016, Transport Canberra, a division of the Transport Canberra and City Services Directorate, was formed to manage all public transport operations within the Australian Capital Territory including ACTION bus services and light rail planning and construction managed by the Capital Metro Agency. Canberra has an integrated ticketing system between bus and light rail using the MyWay, a smartcard system introduced in 2011 by ACTION, now Transport Canberra; the largest public transport operator is the Australian Capital Territory Government-owned ACTION. In July 1926 the Federal Capital Commission commenced operating bus services in Canberra. With the opening of Old Parliament House in May 1927 and the associated relocation of Australian Commonwealth Government departments to Canberra, the frequency of service offered by the Canberra City Omnibus Service increased as the population of the new city grew.
During the early 1950s, bus services were expanded to Yarralumla and O'Connor. These routes were extended further in the late 1950s with the development of Campbell. In August 1963 the first Woden Valley services were introduced. Similar early services were provided for other areas. From 1961 the new Russell Offices complex demanded a growing number of additional peak services, including feeders from the City; the Canberra fleet grew from 25 buses in 1942 to over 90 in 1966. In March 1968 a reformed bus network was introduced; this involved new bus timetables and driver schedules, based on regular services on all routes throughout the day with synchronised movements through the main centres. In February 1977, a new system was unveiled and the operation renamed Australian Capital Territory Internal Omnibus Network. Today ACTION operates routes throughout the Australian Capital Territory with a fleet of 456 buses. Qcity Transit operates bus services from the neighbouring city of Queanbeyan into Canberra City.
As well as these services it has services that can run to the town of Yass It is owned by ComfortDelGro Australia, who purchased the business in August 2012. Qcity Transit is permitted to carry passengers within the Australian Capital Territory, with the previous restriction being lifted in June 2012. Transborder Express operates weekday services between Yass via Hall and Murrumbateman, it is a subsidiary of ComfortDelGro Cabcharge and operates under the same management as Qcity Transit. Royale Limousines operate the Canberra Airport shuttle service with regular daytime services operating seven days a week. Canberra is serviced by a number of long distance coach operators. Greyhound Australia operate services to Melbourne and Sydney Murrays operate services to Narooma and Wollongong NSW TrainLink operate services to Bombala and Eden V/Line operate services to Albury and Bairnsdale Walter Burley Griffin's masterplan for Canberra included a railway, to run from Queanbeyan to the current Canberra railway station in Kingston north along the causeway and over the Molonglo River to Russell, along Amaroo Street to Civic and north out of the city along Lonsdale and Ijong Streets.
But aside from the current section, the only other part constructed was the line as far as Civic, albeit to temporary standards to carry construction materials, this was removed in 1940. Canberra has been serviced by trains from Sydney since March 1927 with the Federal City Express, Canberra Monaro Express, Southern Highlands Express and Canberra Express all having provided this link, the latter being operated by an XPT from August 1983 until February 1990. An overnight service was provided with a carriage detached from the Cooma Mail at Queanbeyan. From April 1962 until March 1975 a through carriage was detached from the Spirit of Progress at Goulburn providing a connection with Melbourne. Today Canberra is serviced by three daily NSW TrainLink Xplorer services each way with four carriages to Sydney; the Canberra light rail stage 1 operates between Gungahlin and Canberra City, travelling along Flemington Road and Northbourne Avenue. An extension to Woden Valley is proposed. Canberra has been on the map of various high-speed rail proposals since 1984.
The last serious attempt with government backing was terminated in December 2000. Canberra is serviced by Qantas, QantasLink, Virgin Australia, Tigerair Australia and FlyPelican with services to Adelaide, Gold Coast, Perth, Sydney and Dubbo. In September 2016, Singapore Airlines commenced operating international flights to Singapore and Wellington, in February 2018, Qatar Airways commenced operating international flights to Doha. ACT Government - Transport for Canberra