Baton Rouge is the capital of the U. S. state of Louisiana. Located on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, it is the parish seat of East Baton Rouge Parish, the most populous parish in Louisiana, it is the 99th most populous city in the United States, second-largest city in Louisiana after New Orleans. It is the 16th most populous state capital; as of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 2018 estimate, Baton Rouge had a population of 221,599, down from 229,493 at the 2010 census. Baton Rouge is the center of Greater Baton Rouge, the second-largest metropolitan area in Louisiana, with a population of 834,159 as of 2017, up from 802,484 in 2010 and 829,719 in 2015; the city of Baton Rouge is a major industrial, medical, motion picture, growing technology center of the American South. It is the location of Louisiana State University, the LSU System's flagship university and the largest institution of higher education in the state, it is the location of Southern University, the flagship institution of the Southern University System, the only black college system in the nation.
The Port of Greater Baton Rouge is the 10th-largest in the United States in terms of tonnage shipped, is the farthest upstream Mississippi River port capable of handling Panamax ships. This, as well as its status as a major port city, is due to the Huey P. Long - O. K. Allen Bridge, intentionally constructed under the governorship of Huey Long at a low height, preventing big tankers from making their way up-river, past Baton Rouge; the Baton Rouge area owes its historical importance to its strategic site upon the Istrouma Bluff, the first natural bluff upriver from the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. This allowed development of a business quarter safe from seasonal flooding. In addition, the city built a levee system stretching from the bluff southward to protect the riverfront and low-lying agricultural areas; the city is a culturally rich center, with settlement by immigrants from numerous European nations and African peoples brought to North America as slaves or indentured servants.
It was ruled by seven different governments: French and Spanish in the colonial era. Human habitation in the Baton Rouge area has been dated to 12000–6500 BCE, based on evidence found along the Mississippi and Amite rivers. Earthwork mounds were built by hunter-gatherer societies in the Middle Archaic period, from the fourth millennium BCE; the speakers of the Proto-Muskogean language divided into its descendant languages by about 1000 BCE. The Eastern Muskogean language began to diversify internally in the first half of the first millennium AD; the early Muskogean societies were the bearers of the Mississippian culture, which formed around 800 CE and extended in a vast network across the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, with numerous chiefdoms in the Southeast, as well. By the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico in the early 16th century, by some evidence many political centers of the Mississippians were in decline, or abandoned. At the time, this region appeared to have been occupied by a collection of moderately sized native chiefdoms, interspersed with autonomous villages and tribal groups.
Other evidence indicates these Mississippian settlements were thriving at the time of the first Spanish contact. Spanish expeditions encountered the remains of groups who had lost many people and been disrupted in the aftermath of infectious diseases, chronic among Europeans, unknowingly introduced by the first expedition. French explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville led an exploration party up the Mississippi River in 1698; the explorers saw a red pole marking the boundary between the Houma and Bayogoula tribal hunting grounds. The French name le bâton rouge is the translation of a native term rendered as Istrouma a corruption of the Choctaw iti humma. According to Pénicaut, From there we went five leagues higher and found high banks called écorts in that region, in savage called Istrouma which means red stick, as at this place there is a post painted red that the savages have sunk there to mark the land line between the two nations, namely: the land of the Bayagoulas which they were leaving and the land of another nation—thirty leagues upstream from the baton rouge—named the Oumas.
The location of the red pole was at Scott's Bluff, on what is now the campus of Southern University. It was a 30-foot-high painted pole adorned with fish bones; the settlement of Baton Rouge by Europeans began in 1721 when French colonists established a military and trading post. Since European settlement, Baton Rouge has been governed by France, Spain, the Republic of West Florida, the United States, the Confederate States, the United States again. In 1755, when French-speaking settlers of Acadia in Canada's Maritime provinces were expelled by British forces, many took up residence in rural Louisiana. Popularly known as Cajuns, the descendants of the Acadians maintained a separate culture. During the first half of the 19th century, Baton Rouge grew as the result of steamboat trade and transportation. Baton Rouge was incorporated in 1817. In 1822, the P
World War I Memorial, located opposite to Gandhi Market, Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, is war memorial dedicated for the soldiers of Trichinopoly. About 302 soldiers from Trichinopoly participated in World War I as a part of British Indian Army, of which 41 died during the course of war. In remembrance of those soldiers, the government erected a memorial with a huge clock in it; the memorial, popularly known as "Clock Tower", was languishing without much maintenance. During the mean time, about 25 traders, including Burmese refugees, put up their shop and began to occupy the spaces around the memorial, which left unchecked became as hindrance in viewing and visiting the memorial. After many years of wait, on 27 February 2013 the city corporation decided to revamp the structure after persistent demands from Ex–servicemen personnels and other service organisation by cancel the licence and demolish the shops and other structures around the memorial. India Gate
A specialized municipality is a type of municipal status used in the Canadian province of Alberta. Alberta's specialized municipalities are unique local governments formed without the creation of special legislation, they allow for the coexistence of urban and rural areas within the jurisdiction of a single municipal government. Specialized municipalities may be formed under the authority of Section 83 of the Municipal Government Act under one of three of the following scenarios: where the Minister of Alberta Municipal Affairs is satisfied that the other incorporated statuses under the MGA do not meet the needs of the proposed municipality's residents. Applications for specialized municipality status are approved via orders in council made by the Lieutenant Governor in Council under recommendation from the Minister of AMA. Alberta has five specialized municipalities that had a cumulative population of 178,598 and an average population of 35,720 in the 2011 Census. Alberta's largest and smallest specialized municipalities are the Strathcona County and the Municipality of Jasper with populations of 92,490 and 4,051 respectively.44 elected officials provide specialized municipality governance throughout the province.
An order in council to incorporate any municipality must give the municipality an official name. Of Alberta's six specialized municipalities, two of them have branded themselves as municipalities in their official names, while three others have branded themselves as counties; the remaining specialized municipality has branded itself as a regional municipality. The use of the regional municipality term in the official name of the one specialized municipality has led to a common belief that a regional municipality is its own separate municipal status type in Alberta, not the case. Meanwhile, the use of the county term in the official names of three specialized municipalities and 46 municipal districts has led to a common belief that a county is a separate municipal status type, not the case; the other major contributor to this common belief is that a county was a former municipal status type in Alberta before the County Act being repealed in 1995. An update to the MGA in 1994 legislated the ability to incorporate a specialized municipality "when no other classification of municipal government can meet the needs of residents of the proposed municipality."
The incorporation of five specialized municipalities followed starting with the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo in 1995, Strathcona County in 1996, Mackenzie County in 1999, the Municipality of Jasper in 2001, the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass in 2008. The first specialized municipality was created on April 1, 1995, when the former City of Fort McMurray amalgamated with Improvement District No. 143 to form the Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Specialized municipality status was chosen for the amalgamated municipality "to provide for the unique needs of a municipality including a large urban centre and a large rural territory with a small population." Upon incorporation, Fort McMurray was designated an urban service area, an equivalent to a city under the MGA, while the balance of the municipality was designated a rural service area, an equivalent to a municipal district under the MGA. The Municipality of Wood Buffalo was renamed as the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo on August 14, 1996.
The second specialized municipality was incorporated on January 1, 1996. Strathcona County changed its status from a municipal district to a specialized municipality "to provide for the unique needs of a municipality that includes both a large urban centre and a significant rural territory and population." The status change designated Strathcona County's large urban centre, Sherwood Park, as Alberta's second city-equivalent urban service area, while its rural territory was designated a rural service area deemed equivalent to a municipal district. The Municipal District of Mackenzie No. 23 became the third specialized municipality on June 23, 1999. A municipal district, changed its status "to address concerns about municipal government and management in a municipality that serves several unique communities within a large territory." Its unique communities include the hamlets of La Crete and Zama City. The order in council that formed the MD of Mackenzie No. 23 as a specialized municipality included a clause to automatically change it back to a municipal district on November 1, 2001.
This order in council was amended on January 30, 2001, at which point the clause to automatically revert its status was removed. The MD of Mackenzie No. 23 was renamed Mackenzie County on March 8, 2007. The Jasper Improvement District was established as Alberta's fourth specialized municipality under the name of the Municipality of Jasper on July 20, 2001, it was established as a specialized municipality "to provide for the unique needs of residents living within the municipality." The order in council that formed the specialized municipality defined the Town of Jasper as those lands within the Jasper townsite as described in Canada's National Parks Act. The Municipality of Crowsnest Pass was formed as a town on January 1, 1979, through the amalgamation of the towns of Blairmore and Coleman, the villages of Bellevue and Frank, ID No. 5. After another amalgamation with ID No. 6 on January 1, 1996, the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass had its town