The Bessi were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace and from Mount Rhodope to the northern part of Hebrus. Herodotus described them as a sort of priestly-caste among the Satrae, the Bessi being interpreters of the prophetic utterances given by a priestess in an oracular shrine of Dionysus located on a mountain-top. In 72 BC, the proconsul of Macedonia Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus defeated the Bessi in Thrace. Strabo, provides a record in which the Bessi are described as the fiercest of the independent Thracian tribes, dwelling on and around the Haemus range, possessing the greater part of the area around that mountain chain, he calls that they were addicted to plunder. Mommsen says the capital of the Bessi was Uscudama now Edirne in modern Turkey but the real place seems to have been Bessapara, today Sinitovo near Pazardzhik, Bulgaria.
The Diobesi are thought to be a union of sorts between the Dii. Pliny the Elder reveals. Appian writes. Towards the end of the 4th century, Nicetas the Bishop of Dacia brought the gospel to "those mountain wolves", the Bessi, his mission was successful, the worship of Dionysus and other Thracian gods was replaced by Christianity. A Thracian personal name Bessus is considered to have the same etymon as Bessi. In the 11th century Strategikon text, Cecaumenos the Byzantine historian described the Vlachs from Thessaly as being descendants of ancient Dacians and Bessi who invaded from the area on the Danube seeking revenge for the defeat inflicted to their ancestors by Trajan during the Dacian Wars. In 570, Antoninus Placentius said that in the valleys of Mount Sinai there was a monastery in which the monks spoke Greek, Syriac and Bessian; the origin of the monasteries is explained in a mediaeval hagiography written by Simeon Metaphrastes, in Vita Sancti Theodosii Coenobiarchae in which he wrote that Saint Theodosius founded on the shore of the Dead Sea a monastery with four churches, in each being spoken a different language, among which Bessan was found.
The place where the monasteries were founded was called "Cutila" which could be supposed to be a Thracian name. Further fate of Thracians is a matter of dispute; some authors like Schramm derived the Albanians from the Christian Bessi, or Bessians, an early Thracian people who were pushed westwards into Albania, while mainstream of historians support Illyrian-Albanian continuity or a possible Thraco-Illyrian creole. Dii Satrae Haemus Mons Lozovan, Dacia Sacră, Editura Saeculum, Bucureşti, 2005. Peeters, Paul, “La version ibéro-arménienne de l’autobiographie de Denys l’Aréopagite”, Analecta Bollandiana 39, 1921, p. 288-290. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1982, p. 84
The history of Dacian warfare spans from c. 10th century BC up to the 2nd century AD in the region defined by Ancient Greek and Latin historians as Dacia, populated by a collection of Thracian and Dorian tribes. It concerns their kingdoms in the Balkans. Apart from conflicts between Dacians and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Dacians too; the Dacians fought amongst each other but were united under Burebista. However, after his death at 44 BC, the empire again descended into conflict culminating in a full-scale civil war; this led to the division of Burebista's empire into five separate kingdoms weakening the Dacian's defensive capabilities against enemies Rome. The Dacian tribes were again consolidated under Decebalus, who achieved several military victories in a series of battles with the forces of Emperor Domitian; the two punitive expeditions mounted as a border defense against raids of Moesia from Dacia in 86-87 AD ordered by the Emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus in 87 AD, 88 AD.
The first expedition was an unmitigated disaster, the second achieved a peace, seen as unfavorable and shameful by many in Rome. Trajan's Dacian Wars; the two campaigns of conquest ordered or led by the Emperor Trajan in 101-102 AD, 105-106 AD from Moesia across the Danube north into Dacia. Trajan's forces were successful in both cases, reducing Dacia to client state status in the first, taking the territory over in the second; these wars involved no less than 13 legions. The defeat reduced the Dacian territory as a mere Roman province. Rome ruled it, including the entire Transylvanian basin for 150 years, leading to the Latinization of the Dacian population. A succession of migratory waves by Visigoths, Gepids and Slavs overran Dacia, cutting it off from the Roman and the Byzantine empires by the end of the sixth century; the Dacian tribes were part of the greater Thracian family of peoples. They established a militarized society and, during the periods when the tribes were united under one king, posed a major threat to the Roman provinces of Lower Danube.
Dacia was transformed into a Roman province in 106 after a long, hard war. The most important weapon of the Dacian arsenal was the falx; this dreaded weapon, similar to a large sickle, came in two variants: a shorter, one-handed falx called a sica, a longer two-handed version. The shorter falx was called sica in the Dacian language; the two-handed falx was a polearm. It consisted of a three-feet long wooden shaft with a long curved iron blade of nearly-equal length attached to the end; the blade was sharpened only on the inside, was reputed to be devastatingly effective. However, it left its user vulnerable because, using a two-handed weapon, the warrior could not make use of a shield. Alternatively, it might be used as a hook, cutting at vulnerable limbs. Using the falx, the Dacian warriors were able to counter the power of the compact, massed Roman formations. During the time of the Roman conquest of Dacia, legionaries had reinforcing iron straps applied to their helmets; the Romans introduced the use of leg and arm protectors as further protection against the falxes.
The Dacians were adept of surprise attacks and skilful, tactical withdrawals using the fortification system. During the wars with the Romans, fought by their last king Decebalus, the Dacians crushed the Roman garrisons south of the Danube in a surprise attack launched over the frozen river. Only the intervention of Emperor Trajan with the main army saved the Romans from a major defeat. But, by 106, the Dacians were surrounded in their capital Sarmizegetusa; the city was taken after the Romans destroyed the capital's water supply line. Dacians decorated their bodies with tattoos like the Illyrians and the Thracians; the Pannonians north of the Drava had accepted Roman rule out of fear of the Dacians. Dacia remained a Roman province until 271. Marcus Annaeus Lucanus 39 - 65 wrote of Dacian hordes, they fought with spears, falxes, one-sided battle axes and used "Draco" Carnyxes as standards. Most used only shields as a form of defense. Cavalry would be armed with a long La Tène sword and an oval shield.
Most of the infantry would wield a falx and a sica and would wear no armor at all shunning shields. Dacian mercenaries were uncommon in contrast to the Thracians and the Illyrians but they could be found in the service of the Greek Diadochi and of the Romans. A 2nd century chieftain would wear a bronze Phrygian type helmet,a corselet of iron scale armor, an oval wooden shield with motifs and wield a sword; the ancient historian Ptolemy mentions a naval battle between the Geto-Dacians and the Romans near the island of Eukon. Dacians had built fortresses all around Dacia with most of them being on the Danube. A scene from Trajan's column shows Romans attacking a Dacian fortification using the "testudo"; the Dacians constructed stone strongholds, davas, in the Carpathian Mountains in order to protect their capital Sarmizegetusa. The fortifications were built on a system of circular belts; this allowed the defenders, after a stronghold was lost, to retreat to the next one using hidden escape gates.
The Dacian Draco was the standard of the ancient Dacian military. It served as a standard for the Dacians of the La Tène
The Roxolani were a Sarmatian people and are believed to be an offshoot of the Alans. However, according to Strabo, they were the most remote of Scythian peoples. In his Getica, Jordanes uses Rosomoni for the Roxolani; the following tribal names in Bavarian Geographer belong here. Sebbirozi habent ciuitates XC. Attorozi habent ciuitates XLVIII, populus ferocissimus. Vuillerozi habent ciuitates LXXX. Zabrozi habent ciuitates CCXII. Chozirozi habent ciuitates CCL; the etymology of Roxolani may be ruxh or rukhs Alanic "radiant light" + Alani, i.e. an endonym that may be translated as "bright Alans". George Vernadsky suggested, along a similar line of thought, that the Rocas, a tribe conquered by the Ostrogoths in the 4th century, may have been synonymous with the Roxolani/Rosomoni. To be specific, Vernadsky suggested that Rocas may have its origins in ruxh and the name of the Asii, a steppe tribe whose name may have been interchangeable with that of the Alans. Other theories suggest that Iranian-speaking steppe peoples, such as the Alans, merged in a variety of forms with early Slavic peoples.
According to one hypothesis, the Antes originated as a sub-group of Alans. A similar theory, reported by Vernadsky, suggests that Roxolani originated as a portmanteau of the names of the Slavic regions Rus' Khaganate,￼￼Kievan Rus'￼￼ and the Alani. ￼Despite strong Iranian influences in Russian culture most early Russian principles and historians denied that the terms Rus' and Russkiye originated from the Roxolani. Their first recorded homeland lay between the Volga and Dnieper rivers. Around 100 BC, they invaded the Crimea under their king Tasius in support of the Scythian warlord Palacus but were defeated by Diophantus, general of Mithradates VI. In the mid-1st century AD, the Roxolani began incursions across the Danube into Roman territory. One such raid in AD 68/69 was intercepted by the Legio III Gallica with Roman auxiliaries, who destroyed a raiding force of 9,000 Roxolanian cavalry encumbered by baggage. Tacitus describes the weight of the armour worn by the "princes and most distinguished persons" made "it difficult for such as have been overthrown by the charge of the enemy to regain their feet".
The long two-handed kontos lance, the primary melee weapon of the Sarmatians, was unusable in these conditions. The Roxolani avenged themselves in AD 92, when they joined the Dacians in destroying the Roman Legio XXI Rapax. During Trajan's Dacian Wars, the Roxolani at first sided with the Dacians, providing them with most of their cavalry strength, but they were defeated in the first campaign of AD 101–102, they appear to have stood aside as neutrals during Trajan's final campaign of AD 105–106, which ended in the complete destruction of the Dacian state. The creation of the Roman province of Dacia brought Roman power to the doorstep of Roxolani territory; the Emperor Hadrian reinforced a series of pre-existing fortifications and built numerous forts along the Danube to contain the Roxolani threat. Marcus Aurelius, dead by the 3rd century campaigned against the Roxolani along the Danubian frontier, they are known to have attacked the Roman Province of Pannonia in 260. Like other Sarmatian peoples, the Roxolani were conquered by the Huns in the mid-4th century.
The Greco-Roman historian Strabo described them as "wagon-dwellers". A number of Russian anti-Normanist historians, such as Dmitry Ilovaisky and Oleksiy Viktorovych Komar have linked the Roxolani with the Slavic Rus, who appeared in Eastern Europe some four centuries after the disappearance of the Roxolani; such theories continue to be popular in Russia to this day. A wife of the 16th-century Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent was known as Roxelana, an appellation which indicated her Russian Slavic origin. Two villages in North Macedonia are called Ros and Rosoman, which comes from the Macedonian word'rosa', a dew, indicating that the Roxolani influenced the South Slavs. Another village with same name can be found on left bank of Dniester river: Roksolany in the Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. Alans Aorsi Iazyges Richard Brzezinski; the Sarmatians, 600 BC-AD 450. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-485-6. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Rhoxolani". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 273
Capidava was an important Geto-Dacian center on the right bank of the Danube. After the Roman conquest, it became a civil and military center, as part of the province of Moesia Inferior, modern Dobruja, it is located in the village with the same name, Capidava, in Romania. Capidava is depicted in the form Calidava/Calidaua in Segmentum VIII of Tabula Peutingeriana on a Roman road between Axiopolis and Carsium; the map provides accurate data on the distances between Axiopolis and Carsium. These distances coincide with the distances between the present localities of Hinog - Capidava and Capidava - Hârşova; this is verified by the discovery of a milestone at Seimenii Mici that indicates the distance of 18,000 feet from Axiopolis to Capidava. Capidava appears on an illustration from Notitia Dignitatum imperii romani between the fortresses standing on the Lower Danube limes and found under the authority of the military commander of the province. Notitia mentions at Capidava a cavalry unit or detachment of units under the command of the Duke of Scythia: Cuneus equitum Solensium, Capidaua.
The Cuneus equitum Solensium might well be the cavalry component of the old Legio XX Valeria Victrix, renamed the Solenses. Capidava took its name from the old Getic dava "settlement", in a close area. Capidava name has the characteristic Dacian ending, the suffix –dava meaning "settlement, town"; this Getic toponym, means the "curve fortified settlement". The Getic name had been preserved by the Romans under the form Capidava in the Antonine Itinerary Calidava in the Tabula Peutingeriana and Cappidava or Capidapa in the Geography of Ravenna; the entire territory took the name "territorium capidavense". Petculescu noted that, in the zone of the Danubian frontier zone, the names of the sites of the forts and the civilian settlements related to them were overwhelmingly of pre-Roman origin Geto-Dacian. In the southern part of the frontier, there was a concentration of names ending in dava, characteristic of the Geto-Dacian hill-forts, indicating that the Roman army on this arrival in this zone of the Danubian frontier found a lot of local tribes dwelling in fortified sites according to their traditions habits.
Capidava is one of the few Roman-era settlements with indigenous names in the area were no significant pre-Roman settlement was found. According to Irimia, this is at great extent because of insufficient research. Based on the literary evidences that confirms both the existence and the importance of Capidava and based on the archaeological pre-Roman evidences, some take into consideration the hypothesis that the Getic fortress might have been razed to the ground through the building of the Roman castra itself Historians such as Suceveanu and Florescu consider that the pre-Roman indigenous Getic settlement of Capidava, located at some distance from the future Roman fortress gave the name Capidava. On the site of modern Capidava village, there is a La Tène settlement of Geto-Dacian culture, dated to 5th century - 2nd century BC. At 4 km south of Capidava, on the bank of Zaval Valley, there are strong Geto-Dacian traces, dating back to the second period of Iron Age. Beside the Geto-Dacian ceramic, fragments of Roman vases are scattered there.
The early 20th century Romanian archaeologist and historian Vasile Pârvan identified the Geto-Dacian Capidava as the center of power for the Getic king Dapyx, within a territorium Capidavense. Cassius Dio's Historia Romana makes mention of the retreat of Dapyx into his fort after his defeat in 28 BC at the hand of Marcus Licinius Crassus. Pârvan identified the fort mentioned by Dio with future Roman fort Capidava, stating the locations described in the ancient source fit well with the modern location. Pârvan identified the administrative form of Capidava as an old Dacian pagus, based on a local inscription. Following Pârvan's research and view, many historians supposed a pre-Roman dwelling in the area of the Roman fort; the geographic position would have explained the significance of the local settlement, a place that made possible the communication between the Dacians in Dobruja and those in the Wallachian Plain. However, as of the 2000s, the Getic fort was not archaeologically identified. Moreover, in the cemetery excavated at Capidava only graves of specific Roman provincial type were found.
The archaeological material of the 2nd century AD is mixed in character: Roman. The funeral stone of the Cocceius family from Capidava, dated Roman epoch, has a relief of the Thracian rider. Representation of the ox drawn plow of Getians had been preserved on the so-called "Quadratus grave" discovered at Capidava; the Roman Empire had reached the Danube as early as 14 AD, when the commander Aelius Catus conducted an expedition beyond the river in order to keep away the restless Dacians and their new allies, the Sarmatians. But the legions deployed their troops only up to Durostorum, as modern northern Dobruja was left to the forces of the kings of the Sapaei, the allies of the Romans, helped by the forces commanded by a Praefectus orae maritimae. In 46 AD, when the Kingdom of the Sapaei ceased to exist, it is that small Roman garrisons stationed in the old Dacian settlements on the bank of the Danube, including in Capidava. Only Emperor Domitian would realize the strategic importance of the land between the Danube and the Black Sea, as he used Scythia Minor as a starting point of his expeditions over the Danube, against the Dacians.
The changing fate of these expeditions, the chaotic effect of two successive defeats hindered a systemat
Dobruja or Dobrudja is a historical region in Eastern Europe, divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania. It is situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea, includes the Danube Delta, Romanian coast, the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast; the territory of Dobruja is made up of Northern Dobruja, part of Romania, Southern Dobruja, which belongs to Bulgaria. The territory of the Romanian region Dobrogea is organised as the counties of Constanța and Tulcea, with a combined area of 15,500 km2 and a population of less than 900 thousand, its main cities are Constanța, Tulcea and Mangalia. Dobrogea is represented by dolphins in the coat of arms of Romania; the Bulgarian region Dobrudzha is divided among the administrative regions of Silistra. This section has a total area of 7,565 km2, with a combined population of some 310,000 people, the main towns being Dobrich and Silistra. With the exception of the Danube Delta, a marshy region located in its northeastern corner, Dobruja is hilly, with an average altitude of about 200–300 metres.
The highest point is the Țuțuiatu Peak in the Măcin Mountains, having a height of 467 m. The Dobrogea Plateau covers most of the Romanian part of Dobruja; the Ludogorie Plateau is found in Bulgaria. Lake Razelm is one of the most important lakes in Northern Dobruja. Dobruja lies in the temperate continental climatic area. Dobruja's level terrain and its bare location facilitate the influx of humid, warm air in the spring and autumn from the northwest, as well as that of northern and northeastern polar air in the winter; the Black Sea exerts an influence over the region's climate within 40–60 kilometres from the coast. The average annual temperatures range from 11 °C inland and along the Danube, to 11.8 °C on the coast and less than 10 °C in the higher parts of the plateau. The coastal region of Southern Dobruja is the most arid part of Bulgaria, with an annual precipitation of 450 millimetres. Dobruja is a windy region once known for its windmills. There is wind during about 85–90% of all days; the average wind speed is about twice higher than the average in Bulgaria.
Due to the limited precipitation and the proximity to the sea, rivers in Dobruja are short and with low discharge. The region has a number of shallow seaside lakes with brackish water; the most widespread opinion among scholars is that the origin of the term Dobruja is to be found in the Turkish rendition of the name of a 14th‑century Bulgarian ruler, despot Dobrotitsa. It was common for the Turks to name countries after one of their early rulers. Other etymologies never gained widespread acceptance. Abdolonyme Ubicini believed the name meant "good lands", derived from Slavic dobro, an opinion, adopted by several 19th‑century scholars; this derivation appears to contrast with the usual 19th‑century description of Dobruja as a dry barren land. I. A. Nazarettean combines the Slavic word with the Tatar budjak, thus proposing the etymology "good corner". A version matching contemporaneous descriptions was suggested by Kanitz, who associated the name with the Bulgarian dobrice. According to Gheorghe I.
Brătianu, the name is a Slavic derivation from the Turkic word Bordjan or Brudjars, which referred to the Turkic Proto-Bulgarians. One of the earliest documented uses of the name can be found in the Turkish Oghuz-name narrative, dated to the 15th century, where it appears as Dobruja-éli; the possessive suffix el-i indicated. The loss of the final particle is not unusual in the Turkish world, a similar evolution being observed in the name of Aydın Aydın-éli. Another early use is in the 16th‑century Latin translation of Laonicus Chalcondyles' Histories, where the term Dobroditia is used for the original Greek "Dobrotitsa's country". In the 17th century, the region was referred to in more accounts, with renditions such as Dobrucia, Dobrus, Dobroudja and others being used by foreign authors; the name meant just the steppe of the southern region, between the forests around Babadag in the north and the Silistra–Dobrich–Balchik line in the south. The term was extended to include the northern part and the Danube Delta.
In the 19th century, some authors used the name to refer just to the territory between the southernmost branch of the Danube in the north and the Karasu Valley in the south. The territory of Dobruja has been inhabited by humans since Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, as the remains at Babadag, Slava Rusă and Enisala demonstrate. Paleolithic people made tools of silex and ate fruits and other hunted animals. In this period fire was discovered, at its end the bow with arrows and the boat scul
Trajan's Dacian Wars
The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian province of Moesia and by the increasing need for resources of the economy of the Empire. Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedon and Greece and east of the Danube, on the Roman agenda since before the days of Caesar when the Dacians defeated a Roman army at the Battle of Histria. In AD 85, the Dacians swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia and defeated the army that Emperor Domitian sent against them; the Romans were defeated in the Battle of Tapae in 88 and a truce was established. Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian king Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101. With Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, Decebalus once more sought terms. Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105.
In response Trajan again marched into Dacia, besieging the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegetusa, razing it. With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east, his conquests expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Rome's borders in the east were indirectly governed through a system of client states for some time, leading to less direct campaigning than in the west in this period. Since the reign of Burebista considered to be the greatest Dacian king—who ruled between 82 BC and 44 BC—the Dacians had represented a threat for the Roman Empire. Caesar himself had drawn up a plan to launch a campaign against Dacia; the threat was reduced when dynastic struggles in Dacia led to a division into four separately governed tribal states after Burebista's death in 44 BC. Augustus came into conflict with Dacia after it sent envoys offering its support against Mark Antony in exchange for "requests", the nature of which has not been recorded. Augustus rejected Dacia gave its support to Antony.
In 29 BC, Augustus sent several punitive expeditions into Dacia led by Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives, the consul of the prior year, that inflicted heavy casualties and killed three of their five kings. Although Dacian raids into Pannonia and Moesia continued for several years despite the defeat, the threat of Dacia had ended. After 116 years of relative peace along the Roman frontier, in the winter of 85 AD to 86 AD the army of King Duras led by general Diurpaneus attacked the Roman province of Moesia, killing its governor, Oppius Sabinus, a former consul; the emperor Domitian led legions into the ravaged province and reorganized the possession into Moesia Inferior and Moesia Superior, planning an attack into Dacia for the next campaign season. The next year, with the arrival of fresh legions in 87 AD, Domitian began what became the First Dacian War. General Diurpaneus sent an envoy to Domitian offering peace, he was rejected and the praetorian prefect Cornelius Fuscus crossed the Danube into Dacia with 5 or 6 legions on a bridge built on boats.
The Roman army was ambushed and defeated at the First Battle of Tapae by Diurpaneus, subsequently renamed Decebalus, who, as a consequence, was chosen to be the new king. Fuscus was killed and the legions lost their banners, adding to the humiliation. In 88, the Roman offensive continued, the Roman army, this time under the command of Tettius Julianus, defeated the Dacians at their outlying fortress of Sarmizegetusa at Tapae, near the current village of Bucova. After this battle Decebalus, now the king of the four reunited arms of the Dacians, asked for peace, again refused. Domitian accepted the offer because his legions were needed along the Rhine to put down the revolt of Lucius Antonius Saturninus, the Roman governor of Germania Superior who had allied with the Marcomanni and Sarmatian Yazgulyams against Domitian. Throughout the 1st century, Roman policy dictated that threats from neighbouring nations and provinces were to be contained promptly; the peace treaty following the First Battle of Tapae, followed by an indecisive and costly Roman victory on the same ground a year was unfavorable for the Empire.
Following the peace of 89 AD, Decebalus became a client of Rome, with acceptance of Decebalus as king. He received a lump sum of money, annual financial stipends, craftsmen in trades devoted to both peace and war, war machines to defend the empire's borders; the craftsmen were used by the Dacians to upgrade their own defences. Some historians believe this was an unfavorable peace and that it might have led to Domitian's assassination in September 96. Despite some co-operation on the diplomatic front with Domitian, Decebalus continued to oppose Rome. At the time, Rome was suffering from economic difficulties brought on by military campaigns throughout Europe and in part due to a low gold content in Roman money as directed by Emperor Nero. Confirmed rumors of Dacian gold and other valuable trade resources inflamed the conflict, as did the Dacians' defiant behavior, as they were "unbowed and unbroken". However, other pressing reasons motivated them to action. Researchers estimate that only ten percent of barbarians such as Spanish and Gallic warriors had access to swords the nobility.
By contrast Dacia were prolific metal workers. A large percentage of Dacians owned swords reducing Rome's military advantage. Dacia sported 250,000 potential combatants, it was allied to several of its neighbors and on friendly terms with ot
Moesia was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River. It included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia and the northern parts of the modern North Macedonia, Northern Bulgaria and Romanian Dobrudja. In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the Haemus and Scardus mountains, to the west by the Drinus river, on the north by the Donaris and on the east by the Euxine; the region was inhabited chiefly by Thracians, Dacians and Thraco-Illyrian peoples. The name of the region comes from Moesi, Thraco-Dacian peoples who lived there before the Roman conquest. Parts of Moesia belonged to the polity of Burebista, a Getae king who established his rule over a large part of the northern Balkans between 82 BC and 44 BC, he led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in an inside plot, the empire was divided into several smaller states.
In 75 BC, C. Scribonius Curio, proconsul of Macedonia, took an army as far as the Danube and gained a victory over the inhabitants, who were subdued by M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the triumvir and also proconsul of Macedonia during the reign of Augustus c. 29 BC. The region, was not organized as a province until the last years of Augustus' reign; as a province, Moesia was under an imperial consular legate. In 86 AD the Dacian king Duras ordered his troops to attack Roman Moesia. After this attack, the Roman emperor Domitian arrived in Moesia and reorganized it in 87 AD into two provinces, divided by the river Cebrus: to the west Moesia Superior - Upper Moesia, to the east Moesia Inferior - Lower Moesia; each was governed by a procurator. The chief towns of Upper Moesia in the Principate were: Singidunum, Remesiana, Bononia and Skupi; the last two were Greek towns which formed a pentapolis with Istros and Apollonia. From Moesia, Domitian began planning future campaigns into Dacia and by 87 he started a strong offensive against Dacia, ordering General Cornelius Fuscus to attack.
Therefore, in the summer of 87, Fuscus led six legions across the Danube. The campaign against the Dacians ended without a decisive outcome, Decebalus, the Dacian King, had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace, agreed on at the war's end. Emperor Trajan arrived in Moesia, he launched his first military campaign into the Dacian Kingdom c. March–May 101, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River and defeating the Dacian army near Tapae, a mountain pass in the Carpathians. Trajan's troops were mauled in the encounter, he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan's army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later. Trajan was granted the title Dacicus; the victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. However, Decebalus in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against the empire.
Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered part of Dacia in 106. Sometime around 272, at the Moesian city of Naissus or Nissa, future emperor Constantine. After the abandonment of Roman Dacia to the Goths by Aurelian and the transfer of the Roman citizens from the former province to the south of the Danube, the central portion of Moesia took the name of Dacia Aureliana. During administrative reforms of Emperor Diocletian, both of the Moesian provinces were reorganized. Moesia Superior was divided in two, northern part forming the province of Moesia Prima including cities Viminacium and Singidunum, while the southern part was organised as the new province of Dardania with cities Scupi and Ulpiana. At the same time, Moesia Inferior was divided into Scythia Minor. Moesia Secunda's main cities included Marcianopolis, Nicopolis, Durostorum, Sexaginta Prista and Novae, all in Bulgaria today; as a frontier province, Moesia was strengthened by stations and fortresses erected along the southern bank of the Danube, a wall was built from Axiopolis to Tomi as a protection against the Scythians and Sarmatians.
The garrison of Moesia Secunda included Legio I Italica and Legio XI Claudia, as well as independent infantry units, cavalry units, river flotillas. The Notitia Dignitatum lists its units and their bases as of the 390s CE. Units in Scythia Minor included Legio I Iov