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Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt was one of the English victories in the Hundred Years' War. It took place in northern France. England's unexpected victory against the numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France, started a new period of English dominance in the war. After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died from disease, the English numbers dwindled. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English. King Henry V of England participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from psychotic illnesses and associated mental incapacity. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party; this battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers comprising nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy and Battle of Poitiers. It forms the centrepiece of William Shakespeare's play Henry V, written in 1599; the Battle of Agincourt is well documented by at least seven contemporary accounts, three from eyewitnesses. The approximate location of the battle has never been disputed, the site remains unaltered after 600 years. After the battle, Henry summoned the heralds of the two armies who had watched the battle together with principal French herald Montjoie, they settled on the name of the battle as Azincourt, after the nearest fortified place. Two of the most cited accounts come from Burgundian sources, one from Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, present at the battle, the other from Enguerrand de Monstrelet; the English eyewitness account comes from the anonymous Gesta Henrici Quinti, believed to have been written by a chaplain in the King's household who would have been in the baggage train at the battle.

A recent re-appraisal of Henry's strategy of the Agincourt campaign incorporates these three accounts and argues that war was seen as a legal due process for solving the disagreement over claims to the French throne. Henry V invaded France following the failure of negotiations with the French, he claimed the title of King of France through his great-grandfather Edward III of England, although in practice the English kings were prepared to renounce this claim if the French would acknowledge the English claim on Aquitaine and other French lands. He called a Great Council in the spring of 1414 to discuss going to war with France, but the lords insisted that he should negotiate further and moderate his claims. In the ensuing negotiations Henry said that he would give up his claim to the French throne if the French would pay the 1.6 million crowns outstanding from the ransom of John II, concede English ownership of the lands of Anjou, Flanders and Touraine, as well as Aquitaine. Henry would marry Catherine, Charles VI's young daughter, receive a dowry of 2 million crowns.

The French responded with what they considered the generous terms of marriage with Catherine, a dowry of 600,000 crowns, an enlarged Aquitaine. By 1415, negotiations had ground to a halt, with the English claiming that the French had mocked their claims and ridiculed Henry himself. In December 1414, the English parliament was persuaded to grant Henry a "double subsidy", a tax at twice the traditional rate, to recover his inheritance from the French. On 19 April 1415, Henry again asked the Great Council to sanction war with France, this time they agreed. Henry's army landed in northern France on 13 August 1415, carried by a fleet described by Shakespeare as "a city on the inconstant billows dancing / For so appears this fleet majestical", it was reported to comprise 1,500 ships, but was far smaller. Theodore Beck suggests that among Henry's army was "the king's physician and a little band of surgeons". Thomas Morstede, Henry V's royal surgeon, had been contracted by the king to supply a team of surgeons and makers of surgical instruments to take part in the Agincourt campaign.

The army of about 12,000 men and up to 20,000 horses besieged the port of Harfleur. The siege took longer than expected; the town surrendered on 22 September, the English army did not leave until 8 October. The campaign season was coming to an end, the English army had suffered many casualties through disease. Rather than retire directly to England for the winter, with his costly expedition resulting in the capture of only one town, Henry decided to march most of his army through Normandy to the port of Calais, the English stronghold in northern France, to demonstrate by his presence in the territory at the head of an army that his right to rule in the duchy was more than a mere abstract legal and historical claim, he intended the manoeuvre as a deliberate provocation to battle aimed at the dauphin, who had failed to respond to Henry's personal challenge to combat at Harfleur. During the siege, the French had raised an army; this was not a feudal army, but an army paid through a system similar to that of the English.

The French hoped to raise

Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Shantipal

Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India Shantipal is an underground political party in India. The Shanti Pal group emerged as through a split in the North Bengal-Bihar Regional Committee of the Communist Party of India, being the pro-Lin Biao faction; the leader of the faction, Shanti Pal, had been a school teacher in Phansidewa who became a key CPI leader. After forming his own faction Pal remained loyal to the line of the CPI leader Charu Majumdar. Pal's party combatted landlords in areas like Sahebganj; the party opposes participation in calls for armed agrarian revolution. As of 1981 COC, CPI Shanti Pal had influence in Bhawanipur, Rupauli and Barhatta blocks of Purnea district and parts of Katihar district. On 9 March 1993 COC, CPI Shanti Pal militants killed nine people in Banka District; as of 2006 the leader of Shanti Pal group in Madhepura was in jail, sentenced for the killing of a mukhya

In Christ Alone

"In Christ Alone" is a popular modern Christian song written by Keith Getty and Stuart Townend, both songwriters of Christian hymns and contemporary worship music in the United Kingdom. The song, with a strong Irish melody, is the first hymn; the music was by the original lyrics by Townend. It was composed in 2001. "In Christ Alone" is considered a Christian credal song for belief in Jesus Christ. The theme of the song is the life and resurrection of Christ, that he is God whom death cannot hold; the song is known as "In Christ Alone" and "In Christ Alone" taking verses from the song. It has become popular and has been the subject of many cover versions and many language translations; the Getty/Townend song should not be confused with the titled song "In Christ Alone" co-written by Don Koch and Shawn Craig recorded by Michael English on his self-titled debut solo album Michael English, many others. The song was composed in 2001 and gained increased popularity first in Ireland and the UK and in the United States and internationally.

By 2005, it had been named by a BBC Songs of Praise survey as the ninth best-loved hymn of all time in the UK. "In Christ Alone" appeared on CCLI's "Top 25 CCLI Songs" American songs list for the first time in the February 2008 report although it had appeared in the CCLI chart for Canada and New Zealand prior to that. In 2008, the song was included in the release of Christian Worship: Supplement for the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. In 2015, the song was listed among the "Fifty Favorite Hymns" in a WELS survey. In 2010, Owl City's Adam Young offered it through his blog. About the song, he wrote: "I'm twenty-four years old, yet something about this song makes me bawl like a baby; the way the melodies and lyrics swirl together is so beautiful. If I were to count on one hand, the number of songs that have deeply moved me, this one would take the cake. Last night I spent more time crying at the piano than I did recording it; such are the secret confessions of a shy boy from Minnesota". In 2013, the song was sung at the enthronement of Justin Welby as Archbishop of Canterbury.

In this year, a new bridge section was added to the song by Kristian Stanfill and included in the live Passion: Let the Future Begin recording. In 2015, Julien Baker played a portion of the piano melody from In Christ Alone at the end of "Go Home" on her album Sprained Ankle. Baker said about the song: "It holds a lot of memories for me—being young in church, the lyrics hold a lot of meaning when you analyze them." The second verse of the hymn contains the line, "Till on that cross as Jesus died, the wrath of God was satisfied," which adheres to the satisfaction theory of atonement. This line has hence made the song a subject of criticism by opponents of satisfaction theory. In 2013, a 15-member committee of the Presbyterian Church voted to exclude the song from a new church hymnal after Townend and Getty refused permission to alter the controversial line to "the love of God was magnified." Members of the committee to compile the hymnal had discovered the alternate lyrics in a Baptist hymnal from 2010, causing them to assume that the change had been authorized by the copyright holders.

Critics of the committee's decision pointed out that the hymnal included other hymns endorsing satisfaction theory and the penal substitution model of atonement, including "O Sacred Head Now Wounded." According to committee chair Mary Louise Bringle, the decision to exclude "In Christ Alone" centered not on the word "wrath" but rather on "satisfied."The committee's decision to exclude the song triggered a larger debate across denominations and within the Presbyterian Church USA itself. PCUSA minister Chris Joiner of First said that while many in his congregation liked the hymn, he agreed with the decision because "that lyric comes close to saying that God killed Jesus; the cross is not an instrument of God's wrath." Timothy George, the dean of Beeson Divinity School, criticized the decision in an online column titled "No Squishy Love" and claimed that it "fits into a wider pattern of downplaying parts of Christian doctrine that are offensive." Boyce College professor Denny Burk took a view similar to George, stating that "When wrath goes, so does the central meaning of the atonement of God: penal substitution.

At the end of the day, the cross itself is the stumbling block, and, why the PCUSA cannot abide by this hymn." Meanwhile, Bob Terry of The Alabama Baptist wrote that he agreed with satisfaction theory, but "if the meaning of'wrath' is that God is vindictive and took joy in punishing His Son, not how I find God described in the Bible. As I understand the Bible, it was because'God so loved the world' that He was willing'to crush Him and cause Him to suffer.'" 2001: The song first appeared on the album New Irish Hymns performed by vocalists Maire Brennan, Margaret Becker and Joanne Hogg who sang on the album songs written by Keith Getty. 2002: Stuart Townend, the lyricist of the song, on his album Lord of Every Heart 2003: Adrienne Liesching and Geoff Moore as a duo on the compilation albums Secrets of the Vine. Released as a single 2004: Phillips and Dean recorded a medley of the Getty/Townend and the Koch/Craig songs on their album Let the Worshippers Arise 2005: Travis Cottrell on his album Alive Fo