click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Battle of Artemisium

The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece. The battle took place with the more famous land battle at Thermopylae, in August or September 480 BC, off the coast of Euboea and was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, including Sparta, Athens and others, the Persian Empire of Xerxes I; the Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon. King Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, set out to conquer all of Greece; the Athenian general Themistocles proposed that the Allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae and block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium. An Allied naval force of 271 triremes was thus dispatched to await the arrival of the Persians. Approaching Artemisium towards the end of summer, the Persian navy was caught in a gale off the coast of Magnesia and lost around a third of their 1200 ships.

After arriving at Artemisium, the Persians sent a detachment of 200 ships around the coast of Euboea in an attempt to trap the Greeks, but these were caught in another storm and shipwrecked. The main action of the battle took place after two days of smaller engagements; the two sides fought all day, with equal losses. After the engagement, the Allies received news of the defeat of the Allied army at Thermopylae. Since their strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, given their losses, the Allies decided to withdraw to Salamis; the Persians overran and gained control over Phocis Boeotia, entered Attica where they captured the now-evacuated Athens. However, seeking a decisive victory over the Allied fleet, the Persians were defeated at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearing being trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece; the following year, saw an Allied army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion.

The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had supported the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499-494 BC. The Persian Empire was still young, prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. Moreover, Darius was an usurper, had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule; the Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, Darius thus vowed to punish those involved. Darius saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece. A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece, re-conquered Thrace, forced Macedon to become a subordinate client kingdom part of Persia, it remained having autonomy. Mardonius' campaign of 492 BC changed this. In 491 BC, Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states, asking for a gift of'earth and water' in token of their submission to him. Having had a demonstration of his power the previous year, the majority of Greek cities duly obliged.

In Athens, the ambassadors were put on trial and executed by throwing them in a pit. This meant that Sparta was effectively at war with Persia. Darius thus put together an amphibious task force under Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC, which attacked Naxos, before receiving the submission of the other Cycladic Islands; the task force moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. It moved to attack Athens, landing at the bay of Marathon, where it was met by a outnumbered Athenian army. At the ensuing Battle of Marathon, the Athenians won a remarkable victory, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Persian army to Asia. Darius therefore began raising a huge new army with which he meant to subjugate Greece. Darius died whilst preparing to march on Egypt, the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes I. Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt, quickly restarted the preparations for the invasion of Greece. Since this was to be a full-scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stock-piling and conscription.

Xerxes decided that the Hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to Europe, that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of Mount Athos. These were both feats of exceptional ambition. By early 480 BC, the preparations were complete, the army Xerxes had mustered at Sardis marched towards Europe, crossing the Hellespont on two pontoon bridges; the Athenians had been preparing for war with the Persians since the mid-480s BC, in 482 BC the decision was taken, under the guidance of the Athenian politician Themistocles, to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be necessary for the Greeks to fight the Persians. However, the Athenians did not have the manpower to fight on sea. In 481 BC, Xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece asking for earth and water, but making the deliberate omission of Athens and Sparta. Support thus began to coalesce around these two leading states. A congress of city states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed.

It ha

Langstaff, Ontario

Langstaff is a residential community straddling Richmond Hill and Markham, in Ontario, Canada. Located near Highway 7 and Yonge Street, the homes in the area date to the 1970s; the East Don River and CN Rail Bala subdivision runs through the community. Langstaff is named for John Langstaff, a settler whom arrived sometime between 1803 to 1808 from Piscataway, New Jersey and established a farm along Yonge Street. There are living members of the family are longer living in the area, as descendants of James Langstaff have moved out of Ontario; the old farm became the notorious Langstaff Jail Farm, which has since disappeared and the area is now dominated by a retail strip. The only reminder of the Langstaff is Langstaff Road. Holy Cross Catholic Cemetery Langstaff GO Station

Nakai, Kanagawa

Nakai is a town located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of June 2012, the town had an estimated population of 9,871, a population density of 493 persons per km²; the total area is 20.02 km². Nakai is located in the hills of western Kanagawa Prefecture. Hiratsuka Odawara Hadano Ninomiya Ōi During the Edo period, the area around present-day Nakai was part of Odawara Domain in Sagami Province. After the Meiji Restoration, it became part of Ashigarakami District in Kanagawa Prefecture. Nakai village was formed on April 1, 1889, it merged with neighboring Iguchi village on April 1, 1908. The village was elevated to town status on December 1, 1958; the town economy is agricultural, with dairy farming, mandarin oranges predominating. An industrial zone established near the Tōmei Expressway has attracted a number of industries, including Fuji Xerox and Nippon Express. Nakai has no train service, is not on a national highway, although the Tōmei Expressway bisects the town. Nakai can be reached by Kanagawa Prefectural Route 71 or 77.

Bassui Tokushō - Muromachi period Zen priest Hiroko Sato - singer, actress Official Website

David Roockley

David Roockley is a former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1980s. He played at representative level for Yorkshire, at club level for Castleford, as a fullback, i.e. number 1. David Roockley won a cap playing Fullback for Yorkshire while at Castleford in the 24-14 victory over Lancashire at Leeds' stadium on 21 September 1988. David Roockley played as an interchange/substitute in Castleford's 15-14 victory over Hull Kingston Rovers in the 1986 Challenge Cup Final during the 1985–86 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 3 May 1986, in front of a crowd of 82,134. David Roockley played fullback in Castleford's 12-12 draw with Bradford Northern in the 1987 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1987–88 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 17 October 1987, played fullback in the 2-11 defeat by Bradford Northern in the 1987 Yorkshire County Cup Final replay during the 1987–88 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 31 October 1987, played as an interchange/substitute, i.e. number 15, in the 12-33 defeat by Leeds in the 1988 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1988–89 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Sunday 16 October 1988.

Statistics at rugbyleagueproject.org David Roockley Memory Box Search at archive.castigersheritage.com

Syrian wild ass

The Syrian wild ass, less known as a hemippe, an achdari, or a Mesopotamian or Syrian onager, is an extinct subspecies of onager native to the Arabian peninsula. It ranged across present-day Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Turkey; the Syrian wild ass, only one metre high at its shoulder, was the smallest form of Equidae and could not be domesticated. Its coloring changed with the seasons—a tawny olive coat for the summer months and pale sandy yellow for the winter, it was known, like other onagers, to be untameable, was compared to a thoroughbred horse for its beauty and strength. The Syrian wild ass lived in semi-deserts, arid grasslands and mountain steppes. Native to West Asia, they were found in Palestine, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Iraq; the Syrian wild ass was a grazer. It fed on grass, leaves and tree branches. Syrian wild asses were preyed upon by Asiatic lions, Arabian leopards, striped hyenas, grey wolves and Caspian tigers. Asiatic cheetahs may have preyed on onager foals. European travelers in the Middle East during the 15th and 16th centuries reported seeing large herds.

However, its numbers began to drop precipitously during the 18th and 19th centuries due to overhunting, its existence was further imperiled by the regional upheaval of World War I. The last known wild specimen was fatally shot in 1927 at al Ghams near the Azraq oasis in Jordan, the last captive specimen died the same year at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn, in Vienna. After the extinction of the Syrian wild ass, the Persian onager from Iran was chosen as the appropriate subspecies to replace the extinct onagers in the Middle East; the Persian onager was introduced to the protected areas of Saudi Arabia and Jordan. It was reintroduced, along with the Turkmenian kulan, to Israel, where they both reproduce wild ass hybrids in the Negev Mountains and the Yotvata Hai-Bar Nature Reserve, it is believed this may be the "wild ass" which Ishmael was prophesied to be in Genesis in the Old Testament. References appear in the Old Testament books of Job, Psalms and the Deuterocanonical book of Sirach; the Qur’an, the main book of Islam, in Surat al-Muddaththir, refers to a scene of humur fleeing from a qaswarah.

This was to criticize people who were averse to Muhammad's teachings, such as supporting the welfare of the less wealthy. Mongolian wild ass, Equus hemionus hemionus Turkmenian kulan, Equus hemionus kulan Indian wild ass, Equus hemionus khur Persian onager, Equus hemionus onager

Ría de Arousa

The Ría de Arousa is a ria, a saline estuary, that forms a firth situated on Galicia, Spain. It is one of the five Rías Baixas; the Ría de Arousa estuary is the largest of the estuaries of Galicia. It is part of the Rias Baixas and is located between the estuary of Muros and Noia to the north and the FPontevedra estuary to the south; the peninsulas of Barbanza, in the province of A Coruña, O Salnés, in the province of Pontevedra, are those who define their coasts on the north and south, respectively. Ría de Muros and Noia is located in north, it is the largest estuary, although not reaching the higher levels bathymetric, at 69 m maximum depth at the mouth. It has numerous islands and islets among which the island of Arousa, A Toxa, Sálvora in the mouth and Cortegada at the entrance; the main rivers that flow to it are the Ulla river at its headwaters and the river Umia in the cove that forms the peninsula of O Grove with the coast of Cambados. The most important river towns are Ribeira, Pobra do Caramiñal, Rianxo and Boiro to the north, Vilagarcía de Arousa, Vilanova de Arousa, Cambados and O Grove to the south, Arousa in the homonymous island.

The northern zone, corresponding to the province of A Coruña, is steep, with the Serra da Barbanza near the coast. The beaches take a few metres depth from the shore; the southern zone, corresponding to the province of Pontevedra, is a flood zone, where the river Umia ends. The characteristic of the coast is shallow, with extensive formation of sand banks, where many arenicolous bivalves are grown like cockles or clams; the most well-known banks of Sarrido belong to the delta of Umia river and Os Lombos do Ulla belonging to the homonymous river delta. This southern area is flat up to the highlands of Mount Castrove, which separates it from the Ría de Pontevedra, is characterized by small farm plots cultivated with vegetables or grapevines; the grapevines in the O Salnés area is white grape Salnés. There are cultivated dark grapes for the production of red wine known Barrantes. There are pink grape cultivated with which Catalan wine is made, its physical configuration allows a high production of phytoplankton, with a characteristic ocean flow that makes this river famous for its rich marine life.

It is the area of greatest mussel production in all the world. They are grown in cultivated in floating rafts. Whales are starting to reappear along the coasts where once were known for whaling industries