Battle of Abensberg
As the day wore on, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller arrived with reinforcements to take command of the three corps that formed the Austrian left wing. The action ended in a complete Franco-German victory, the battlefield was southeast of Abensberg and included clashes at Offenstetten, Biburg-Siegenburg, Rohr in Niederbayern, and Rottenburg an der Laaber. On the same day, the French garrison of Regensburg capitulated, after Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davouts hard-fought victory at Battle of Teugen-Hausen the previous day, Napoleon determined to break through the Austrian defenses behind the Abens River. The emperor assembled a provisional corps consisting of part of Davouts corps plus cavalry, Napoleon directed his German allies from the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Kingdom of Württemberg to attack across the Abens from the west, while Lannes thrust from the north toward Rohr. While the Austrians initially held the line, Lannes strike force crashed through Louis defenses farther east. On the left, the Austrians managed to conduct a capable rear guard action, the day ended with the Austrians barely holding onto a line behind the Große Laber River.
The next day, Hiller withdrew to Landshut, separating the left wing from the army under Generalissimo Archduke Charles. The French surrender of Regensburg on 20 April allowed Charles army a retreat route to the bank of the Danube. The Battle of Landshut was fought on 21 April, Archduke Charles stole a march on Napoleon when his army invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria on 10 April 1809. Even though the Austrian army took six days to march from the Inn River at the frontier to the Isar River. Napoleons deputy commander, Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier mismanaged the Grande Armées concentration, the central mass of Archduke Charles 209, 600-man host crossed the Isar at Landshut on 16 April, but the next day Emperor Napoleon arrived at the front from Paris. On 19 April, Charles realized he had an opportunity to destroy Davout and he launched 65,000 troops in three powerful columns northwest as Davout attempted a flank march across his front. Luckily for the French, General of Cavalry Johann I Joseph, both sides fed in reinforcements as the infantry battled over a pair of parallel ridges in the Battle of Teugen-Hausen.
Ultimately, Davout brought superior forces to bear in the late afternoon and that night, Charles ordered Hohenzollern to withdraw a little to the east, closer to his main body. On the morning of 19 April, Archduke Charles requested that Hohenzollern provide a link between the III and V Armeekorps, the III Armeekorps commander detached General-Major Ludwig Thierrys 6, 000-man infantry brigade to his left. While the Battle of Teugen-Hausen raged, Thierry clashed with Bavarian troops near Arnhofen, on 20 April, Archduke Charles main body consisted of the III, IV, and I Reserve Armeekorps. These were arrayed near Dünzling and Eckmühl, feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrats II Armeekorps spent 19 April attacking Regensburg from north of the Danube. While successfully defending the city, Colonel Louis Coutards 2, 000-man 65th Line Infantry Regiment ran dangerously low on small-arms ammunition, General of Cavalry Count Heinrich von Bellegardes I Armeekorps remained north of the Danube
Battle of the Basque Roads
The Battle of the Basque Roads, Battle of Aix Roads was a naval battle during the Napoleonic Wars off the Island of Aix. On the night of 11 April 1809 Captain Lord Cochrane led a British fireship attack against a powerful French force anchored in the Basque Roads, in the attack all but two of the French ships were driven ashore. The subsequent engagement lasted three days but failed to destroy the entire French fleet, Cochrane accused the British commanding officer, Admiral James Gambier, of being reluctant to press the attack. Gambier demanded a court-martial, and was exonerated, Cochranes career in the Royal Navy ended. The French Navy continued to operate against the British from the Basque Roads until the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Basque Roads are a sheltered bay on the Biscay shore of France, bounded by the Île dOléron to the west and the Île de Ré to the north. The port of La Rochelle stands at the northeast corner of the roads, during the Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal the Duke of Wellington depended on maritime supply.
The French fleet in the Basque Roads operated against the British supply ships, to protect the convoys, the Royal Navy maintained a blockade of the Basque Roads, but this was expensive and never wholly effective. In late October 1808, Napoléon sent Decrès orders for the squadrons at Lorient and Rochefort to deliver reinforcements, the continual presence of large British squadrons, impeded their departure. On 7 February 1809, Napoleon ordered Admiral Willaumez to raise the blockades with the Brest fleet to allow these small squadrons to make their way to Martinique, two weeks later, Willaumez finally set out with eight ships-of-the-line and two frigates towards Lorient. Fearful of being caught by the British, Willaumez continued on his way south to Rochefort, with the subsequent arrival of a large British fleet, Willaumez was trapped in Rochefort. A British squadron arrived on the scene and held the French there until Gambier arrived with the rest of the Channel fleet to impose a blockade, the British Admiralty became concerned about the concentration of such a large segment of the French fleet in one place.
If the ships escaped they could ferry supplies to Napoleon’s Peninsular forces, with these reasons in mind, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Mulgrave, proposed an attack on the French fleet at anchor using fire ships. Cochranes superior officer, Lord Gambier, commanding the Channel Fleet, was opposed to the plan, calling it a horrible and anti-Christian mode of warfare. Cochrane was given twenty-one fireships to command, but he was focusing on his own invention, explosion ships. Gambiers opposition and Mulgraves persuasiveness meant that full responsibility for executing the plan fell to Lord Cochrane, on the evening of April 11,1809 Cochrane led the way into Basque Roads with two explosion ships, followed by 25 other ships. Because of delays resulting from Gambier’s indecision, the French were alert to the British plan, on the night of April 11,1809 Cochrane floated in on the flood-tide aboard the foremost explosion vessel with the other explosion ships following. They managed to escape with their dog just in time, the explosion ships succeeded in breaking the mile-long boom of heavy spars and chains the French had placed to block the British ships from engaging the French.
Unable to see clearly in the smoke, the panicked French gunners fired into the line of protecting frigates, anchor cables were hastily cut to escape the surge of flame, and without sails, the ships piled up on the shoals
Battle of Sankt Michael
In the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May 1809, Paul Greniers French corps crushed Franz Jellacics Austrian division at Sankt Michael in Obersteiermark, Austria. The action occurred after the initial French victories during the War of the Fifth Coalition, Sankt Michael is located approximately 140 kilometers southwest of Vienna. Originally part of the Danube army of Archduke Charles, Jellacics division was detached to the south before the Battle of Eckmühl and ordered to join the army of Archduke John at Graz. As it retreated southeast toward Graz, Jellacics division passed across the front of Eugène de Beauharnais Army of Italy, when he learned of Jellacics presence, Eugène sent Grenier with two divisions to intercept the Austrian column. Greniers lead division duly intercepted Jellacics force and attacked, though the Austrians were able to hold off the French at first, they were unable to get away. The second French divisions arrival secured a numerical superiority over Jellacic. Greniers subsequent French assault broke the Austrian lines and captured thousands of prisoners, when Jellacic joined John it was with only a fraction of his original force.
In the opening encounters of the 1809 war between France and Austria, Emperor Napoleon beat Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller at the battles of Abensberg and Landshut on 20 and 21 April. The following day, Napoleon defeated Generalissimo Archduke Charles at the Battle of Eckmühl, when Bavaria was invaded, Archduke Charles detached Jellacic to advance from Salzburg and occupy Munich on the extreme south flank. To better perform this mission, Hoffmeisters brigade was exchanged for General-Major Karl Dollmayer von Provenchères cavalry-infantry brigade from the light division. After the Austrian retreat began, Jellacic was ordered to back on Salzburg. Accordingly, elements of his command began assembling in Salzburg beginning on 29 April, believing cavalry was of little use in the mountains, Jellacic sent Provenchères toward Vienna on 1 May with the OReilly Chevauxlegers #3. Hiller fought the Battle of Ebersberg on 3 May, crossed to the bank of the Danube on 11 May. On 4 and 5 May, Jellacic fought a rearguard action at Lueg Pass,40 km south of Salzburg.
In the clash, a few hundred Hungarian regulars and Grenz infantry repulsed a brigade of pursuing Bavarians under the command of Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre. In Italy, General of Cavalry Archduke John defeated Viceroy Eugène at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April, Eugène fell back to Verona where he gathered reinforcements until he was superior in numbers to his Austrian opponent. After hearing news that Archduke Charles was in retreat, John withdrew from his Adige River defenses on 1 May, on 8 May, Eugène and John fought the Battle of Piave River and the Austrian retreat continued. John split his army, sending Feldmarschall-Leutnant Ignaz Gyulai along a route to Ljubljana
Battle of Teugen-Hausen
The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The French won a victory over their opponents when the Austrians withdrew that evening. The site of the battle is a height approximately halfway between the villages of Teugn and Hausen in Lower Bavaria, part of modern-day Germany. Also on 19 April, clashes occurred at Arnhofen near Abensberg, Dünzling, together with the Battle of Teugen-Hausen, the fighting marked the first day of a four-day campaign which culminated in the French victory at the Battle of Eckmühl. Austrias invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria caught Emperor Napoleon I of Frances Franco-German army by surprise, though the advance of Archduke Charles Austrian army was slow, mistakes by Napoleons subordinate Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier placed Davouts corps in great peril. As Davout withdrew southwest from Regensburg on the bank of the Danube. The first Austrian column missed the French altogether, while Davouts cavalry held off the second column, the third column crashed head-on into one of Davouts infantry divisions in a meeting engagement.
Generals of both armies led their troops with courage and skill as the troops fought over two ridges, French reinforcements finally pushed the Austrians off the southern ridge late in the afternoon and Charles ordered a retreat that night. This opened a path for Davout to join the main body of the French army on 20 April. On 8 February 1809, the Austrian Empire determined to make war on Napoleon, Archduke Charles wished to put off the war in order to fully mobilize and find allies. Archduke Charles, appointed Generalissimo after the debacle of the War of the Third Coalition in 1805, had tried for three years to improve the Austrian army, historian David G. Chandler wrote, Charles was the very best man available to Austria to lead her army. He expanded the number of soldiers to 340,000. He upgraded the artillery corps, adopted the organization, and revised the infantry drillbook. Serious deficiencies remained, however, in Austrian staffwork, in the landwehr organization, at the start, only 15,000 of the best landwehr formations were added to the field army while the rest were relegated to garrison duty or the reserves.
The Habsburgs did not wish to arm the population for fear of an insurrection, in Hungary, the nobles and people were cool toward the war and contributed as little as possible. Charles massed the remaining regular army in Bohemia and along the Danube for the main effort, Charles 206, 906-strong Hauptarmee was organized into six army corps and two reserve corps. The I Armeekorps was led by General der Kavallerie Count Heinrich von Bellegarde, the II Armeekorps commanded by Feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrat counted 28,168 soldiers. The III Armeekorps consisted of 29,360 troops under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, the IV Armeekorps of Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg controlled 27,800 soldiers
Battle of Stralsund (1809)
The Battle of Stralsund on 31 May 1809 was a battle during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, between Ferdinand von Schills freikorps and Napoleonic forces in Stralsund. In a vicious battle, the freikorps was defeated and Schill killed in action. Stralsund, a port at the Baltic Sea in Swedish Pomerania, was surrendered to France after the siege of 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, during this war, Prussian captain Ferdinand von Schill distinguished himself by cutting off French supply lines using guerrilla tactics in 1806. In 1807, he raised a freikorps and successfully fought the French forces in what he intended to become a patriotic insurrection, in January and February 1809, the German resistance in French-held Westphalia invited Schill to lead an uprising. He agreed in April and drafted a proclamation which however was intercepted by the French, with a freikorps of 100 hussars, Schill headed southwest towards Westphalia to stir up an anti-French rebellion, but news of the French victory in the Battle of Ratisbon made him change his plans.
Schill turned northwards to secure a port, hoping for relief by the British navy, Schill entered Stralsund on 25 May with 2,000 men. The freikorps was pursued by a French-led force of 6,000 Danes, Holsteiners and French, the Dutch auxiliaries, about 4,000 troops, were commanded by Pierre Guillaume Gratien, another 1,500 Danish troops were under general Johann von Ewalds command. Garniers Dutch forces included the 6th and 9th infantry, 2nd Horse Regiment and they entered the town after storming the Tribseer Tor gate, and engaged Schills freikorps in street fights. Schill was killed, and the survivors of his freikorps dispersed or captured, eleven of Schills officers were taken to Brunswick, and executed in Wesel following an order of Napoleon Bonaparte. More than five hundred of Schills men went into captivity, Schills head was sent to The Netherlands for display in Leydens public library, and only in 1837 the head was buried in Brunswick. Schill was not alone with his plans to stir up an insurrection of the Prussian people against the French occupation, other prominent plotters were Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick and Kasper von Dörnberg.
All of them saw the Austrian resistance and the resulting War of the Fifth Coalition as a chance to expel Napoleon Bonaparte from Northern Germany as well. France however proved to be the party, and Schills defeat in the streets of Stralsund put a definite end to all plans for a popular uprising. Pomerania during the Early Modern Age History of Pomerania
At the end of the War of the Third Coalition shortly afterwards, Bavaria found itself on the victorious side. The French officially handed over the Tyrolean county including the secularized Bishopric of Trent to Bavaria on 11 February 1806. In its policies, the Bavarian government under Count Montgelas angered the Tyrolean population by raising taxes there, but at the same time barring exports, e. g. of cattle, from Tyrol into Bavaria. Furthermore, the state mingled into the affairs of the church in Tyrol, banning traditional rural holidays, additionally, on May 1,1808, the County of Tyrol was disestablished and administratively split up into the three districts of Inn and Etsch. Conscription was thus introduced in Tyrol and Tyroleans called into Bavarian military service, which led to open revolt. The trigger for the outbreak of the uprising was the flight to Innsbruck of young men that were due to be called into the Bavarian army by the authorities at Axams on March 12 and 13,1809. The partisans stayed in contact with the Austrian court in Vienna by their conduit Baron Joseph Hormayr, the Austrian Empire, citing a breach of the conditions agreed in the Peace of Pressburg guaranteeing Tyrolean constitutional autonomy, declared war on the Bavarian-French allies on April 9,1809.
Meanwhile, an army led by the innkeeper Andreas Hofer upon the war message had gathered around Sterzing. In the First and Second Battle of Bergisel near Innsbruck on April 12 and May 25, the peasant troops clashed with the Bavarians, the Tyroleans celebrated the news that Napoleon had suffered his first defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on May 22. Thus, the rebels, who had their strongholds in Southern Tyrol, were fighting alone. Hofer now took over the administration of the territories at Innsbruck. However, in the Treaty of Schönbrunn of October 14, the treaty ending the War of the Fifth Coalition. Napoleon ordered the re-conquest of the province the same day and those last loyal troops were defeated at the Fourth Battle of Bergisel on November 1, that effectively crushed the rebellion despite minor rebel victories in November. Many of the rebels were executed by the French and Bavarian forces in the following weeks, the leader Andreas Hofer fled into the mountains and hid at several places in South Tyrol.
He was betrayed by a Tyrolean peasant to the French near St Martin in Passeier on 28 January 1810. Hofer was arrested and brought to Mantua, where Eugène de Beauharnais, the French viceroy of Italy, first wanted to pardon him, the death penalty was issued on February 19 and executed the next day. Hofers mortal remains were buried at the Innsbruck Hofkirche in 1823, upon Napoleons fall in 1814 and the Congress of Vienna, all parts of Tyrol were re-united under Austrian rule. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, the fate of the rebellion
War of the Fifth Coalition
The War of the Fifth Coalition was fought in the year 1809 by a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleons French Empire and Bavaria. Major engagements between France and Austria, the participants, unfolded over much of Central Europe from April to July. After much campaigning in Bavaria and across the Danube valley, the war ended favourably for the French after the struggle at Wagram in early July. The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn was the harshest that France had imposed on Austria in recent memory, Austria lost over three million subjects, about one-fifth of her total population, as a result of these territorial changes. Although the Fifth Coalition ended, Britain and Portugal remained at war with France in the ongoing Peninsular War, there was peace in central and eastern Europe until Napoleons invasion of Russia in 1812, which led to the formation of the Sixth Coalition in 1813. Europe had been embroiled in warfare, pitting revolutionary France against a series of coalitions, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition in 1797.
A Second Coalition was formed in 1798, only to be defeated, in March 1802, France and Great Britain, its one remaining enemy, agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, many disagreements between the two sides remained unresolved, and implementing the agreements they had reached at Amiens seemed to be a growing challenge. Britain resented having to turn all of its colonial conquests since 1793 when France was permitted to retain most of its conquered territory in Europe. France, was upset that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta, in May 1803, Britain declared war on France. With the resumption of hostilities, Napoleon planned an invasion of England, in December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition. British Prime Minister William Pitt spent 1804 and 1805 in a flurry of diplomatic activity geared towards forming a new coalition against France and neutralising the threat of invasion.
Mutual suspicion between the British and the Russians eased in the face of several French political mistakes, and by April 1805, in August 1805, the French Grande Armée invaded the German states in hopes of knocking Austria out of the war before Russian forces could intervene. On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching,200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 160 miles, Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Bavaria. Napoleon hoped to swing his forces northward and perform a movement that would find the French at the Austrian rear. The Ulm Maneuver was well executed, and on 20 October Mack and 23,000 Austrian troops surrendered at Ulm, the French captured Vienna in November and went on to inflict a decisive defeat on a Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in early December. Austerlitz led to the expulsion of Russian troops from Central Europe and the humiliation of Austria, Austerlitz incited a major shift in the European balance of power.
Prussia felt threatened about her security in the region and, alongside Russia, a vigorous French pursuit through Northern Germany finished off the remnants of the Prussian army
Battle of Raab
The Battle of Raab was fought on June 14,1809 during the Napoleonic Wars, between Franco-Italian forces and Habsburg forces. The battle was fought near Győr, Kingdom of Hungary, Napoleon referred to the battle as a granddaughter of Marengo and Friedland, as it fell on the anniversary of those two battles. During the 1809 campaign in Italy, Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais led the Franco-Italian army while General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria commanded the Austrian army, at the outbreak of war, John moved rapidly to defeat his opponent at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April. This victory drove Eugène back to the Adige River, the front remained static for a few weeks despite attacks by Eugène in the Battle of Caldiero. Meanwhile, an Austrian force bottled up the corps of General of Division Auguste Marmont in Dalmatia, after the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Eckmühl, John received orders to retreat in order to cover the strategic left flank of the army in southern Germany. John fought Eugène in a rearguard action at the Battle of Piave River on 8 May.
Up to this moment and his soldiers had fought well, John probably committed a serious blunder by splitting up his command. With the main army he fell back to the northeast, by the second week of May and Feldmarschallleutnant Albert Gyulai stood at Tarvisio with 8,340 troops. Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Maria Philipp Frimonts 13, 060-man Mobile Force lay at nearby Villach, Feldmarschallleutnant Ignaz Gyulai with 14,880 men of the IX Armeekorps defended the Ljubljana area to the southeast of Villach. Far to the west-northwest, Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles and 17,460 soldiers of the VIII Armeekorps held the region around Innsbruck, Feldmarschallleutnant Franjo Jelačić and the 10, 200-strong Northern Division was stationed at Salzburg to the northwest. Finally, General-major Andreas von Stoichewichs 8,100 men continued to pin Marmont in Dalmatia to the south of Ljubljana, by this time a large proportion of Johns forces was made up of hastily raised landwehr infantry.
On 13 May, Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre and a Bavarian army wrecked part of Chastelers corps at the Battle of Wörgl near Innsbruck, on 17 May, John received orders to cut the communications of Emperor Napoleons Grand Army by moving north. However, the archduke delayed too long in carrying out this assignment, though badly isolated, Jelačić remained near Salzburg until 19 May. When he finally got moving it was too late, a French corps under General of Division Paul Grenier cut the Northern Division to pieces at the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May. John pulled back to Graz, but when he heard of Jelačićs disaster, during May, small Grenz infantry forces heroically defended the mountain passes during the Battle of Tarvis. At Malborghetto Valbruna,400 soldiers held a blockhouse against 15,000 Frenchmen between 15 and 17 May and only 50 men survived, the French admitted only 80 casualties. At the Predil Pass blockhouse,250 Austrians and 8 cannon held off 8,500 French soldiers for three days, on 18 May, when the position was finally overrun, the Grenzers were killed to a man.
The French admitted suffering 450 casualties, at Tarvisio itself, Eugène inflicted a serious defeat on Albert Gyulais outnumbered division
Battle of Wagram
The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France. In 1809, the French military presence in Germany was diminished as Napoleon transferred a number of soldiers to fight in the Peninsular War. As a result, the Austrian Empire saw its chance to some of its former sphere of influence and invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria. Recovering from his surprise, Napoleon beat the Austrian forces. Despite the string of defeats and the loss of the empires capital, Archduke Charles salvaged an army. This allowed the Austrians to continue the war but, towards the end of May, Napoleon resumed the offensive and it took Napoleon six weeks to prepare his next offensive, for which he amassed a 165, 000-man French and Italian army in the vicinity of Vienna. The Battle of Wagram began after Napoleon crossed the Danube with the bulk of forces during the night of 4 July and attacked the 145. Having successfully crossed the river, Napoleon attempted an early breakthrough, the Austrians were thinly spread in a wide semicircle, but held a naturally strong position.
After the attackers enjoyed some success, the defenders regained the upper hand. Bolstered by his success, the day at dawn Archduke Charles launched a series of attacks along the entire battle line. The offensive failed against the French right but nearly broke Napoleons left, the Emperor countered by launching a cavalry charge, which temporarily halted the Austrian advance. He redeployed IV Corps to stabilise his left, while setting up a grand battery, towards mid-afternoon on 6 July, Charles admitted defeat and led a retreat, frustrating enemy attempts to pursue. After the battle, Charles remained in command of a cohesive force, the Grande Armée eventually caught up with him and scored a victory at the Battle of Znaim. With the battle raging, Charles decided to ask for an armistice. The two-day battle of Wagram was particularly bloody, mainly due to the use of artillery on a flat battlefield packed with some 300,000 men. Although Napoleon was the winner, he failed to secure a complete victory.
Nonetheless, the defeat was serious enough to shatter the morale of the Austrians, the resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn meant the loss of one sixth of the Austrian Empires subjects, along with some territories. In 1809, the First French Empire held a dominant position on the European continent, the new king was, not well received by the population and much of the countrys ruling elite, which triggered a bloody guerrilla war throughout the country
Battle of Graz
The Battle of Graz took place on 24–26 June 1809 between an Austrian corps commanded by Ignaz Gyulai and a French division led by Jean-Baptiste Broussier. The French were soon reinforced by a corps under Auguste Marmont, the battle is considered a French victory though Gyulai was successful in getting supplies to the Austrian garrison of Graz before the two French forces drove him away from the city. Graz, Austria is located 145 kilometers south-southwest of Vienna at the intersection of the modern A2, before the Battle of Raab on 14 June, the Franco-Italian army left Broussiers division in its rear to besiege an Austrian garrison in the Graz citadel. When Gyulais force appeared before the town in late June, Broussier retreated, on the night of 25 June, Broussier sent two unsupported battalions of the 84th Line Infantry Regiment against the town. Surrounded by a superior force of Austrians, the French stubbornly defended their position until the next afternoon. The 84th was soon joined by Auguste Marmonts newly arrived French corps, Marmont attacked and forced Gyulai to retreat from Graz.
The castle hill, remained in possession of its Austrian garrison, shortly afterward, Emperor Napoleon I summoned both Marmont and Broussier to march to Vienna, where both participated in the climactic Battle of Wagram on 5 and 6 July. In recognition of its action, the 84th was allowed to inscribe UN CONTRE DIX on its colors. On 8 May 1809, the Viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais and his Franco-Italian army defeated General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria at the Battle of Piave River, after the battle, John made the decision to split his army into two parts. He took the troops of Feldmarschall-Leutnants Albert Gyulai and Johann Frimont northeast to Villach and sent Ignaz Gyulai and this dispersal of the available Austrian military units made Eugènes subsequent invasion of Inner Austria considerably easier. Johns purpose in sending Ignaz Gyulai to Carniola was to raise the Croatian Feudal Ban, on 15 May, the troops reporting to Archduke John were distributed as follows. On the right flank, General of Division Jacques MacDonald led two divisions and General of Division Charles Randon de Pullys cavalry, altogether 14,000 troops.
General of Division Jean-Baptiste Rusca commanded a guard that marched on Eugènes left. Eugène captured two forts and defeated Albert Gyulai at the Battle of Tarvis from 15 to 18 May. Archduke John retreated from Villach toward Graz, where he arrived on 24 May, the next day, Greniers two divisions crushed Feldmarschall-Leutnant Franz Jellacics division in the Battle of Sankt Michael. Only 2,000 of Jellacics troops managed to join John at Graz, the rest were killed or captured. On 26 May, Eugène reached Bruck an der Mur and established contact with Napoleons main army which had occupied Vienna on 13 May, MacDonald occupied Ljubljana on 23 May, capturing 7,000 muskets,71 artillery pieces, and large supplies of food and munitions. Another French column occupied Trieste, seizing 22,000 British-supplied muskets intended for the use of the Hungarian and Croatian militia, ordered to move closer to Eugène, MacDonald marched northeast to Maribor where he met Grouchy and a cavalry-infantry force
Around 40,000 soldiers,15,000 horses together with field artillery and two siege trains crossed the North Sea and landed at Walcheren on 30 July. This was the largest British expedition of that year, larger than the serving in the Peninsular War in Portugal. The Walcheren Campaign involved little fighting, but heavy losses from the popularly dubbed Walcheren Fever. Although more than 4,000 British troops died during the expedition, only 106 died in combat, in July 1809, the British decided to seal the mouth of the Scheldt to prevent the port of Antwerp being used as a base against them. The primary aim of the campaign was to destroy the French fleet thought to be in Flushing whilst providing a diversion for the hard-pressed Austrians, the Battle of Wagram had already occurred before the start of the campaign and the Austrians had effectively already lost the war. John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham commanded the army, whilst Sir Richard Strachan commanded the navy, as a first move, the British seized the swampy island of Walcheren at the mouth of river Scheldt, as well as South Beveland island, both in the present-day Netherlands.
The British troops soon began to suffer from malaria, within a month of seizing the island, the medical provisions for the expedition proved inadequate despite reports that an occupying French force had lost 80% of its numbers a few years earlier, due to disease. Once it had decided to garrison Walcheren Island in September 1809. The French forces were commanded by Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, who had just been stripped of his command after disobeying orders at Wagram, dismissed from Napoleons Grande Armée, Bernadotte returned to Paris and was sent to defend the Netherlands by the council of ministers. With the main objective for the British out of reach, the expedition was called off in early September, around 12,000 troops stayed on Walcheren, but by October only 5,500 remained fit for duty. In all, the British government spent almost £8 million on the campaign, along with the 4,000 men that had died during the campaign, almost 12,000 were still ill by February 1810 and many others remained permanently weakened.
Those sent to the Peninsular War to join Wellingtons army caused a permanent doubling of the sick lists there, a number of smaller vessels including customs-house and excise cutters were involved, as was a packet ship. The City of London, Loyal Greenwich, and Royal Harbour River Fencibles contributed men to the expedition, the 1st battalion of the Irish Legion was stationed in Flushing during the assault and received its baptism of fire there. It fought a rear guard action for days but the battalion was almost completely captured. The Legions brass band followed by the Irish battalion led the surrendered French garrison out of the town, however, a small party of Irishmen escaped and went into hiding with the battalions cherished imperial eagle, and after a few days they crossed the Scheldt River and escaped. Commandant Lawless was presented to Napoleon and he together with Captain OReilly received the Légion dhonneur in gratitude, the British Expeditionary Force to Walcheren,1809