Battle of Bibracte

The Battle of Bibracte was fought between the Helvetii and six Roman legions, under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar. It was the second major battle of the Gallic Wars. After following the migration of the Helvetii and defeating them, around 20 June, moved towards Bibracte to obtain the supplies promised by his allies, the Aedui. Dumnorix, an Aedui chieftain opposed to the Romans, had been delaying supplies from reaching Caesar's army. Informed by deserters from the allied auxiliary cavalry of Lucius Æmilius, the Helvetii decided to harass Caesar's rear guard; when Caesar observed this, he sent his cavalry to delay the attack. He placed the Seventh, Eighth and Tenth legions, organized in Roman fashion, at the foot of a nearby hill, the top of which he occupied himself, along with the Eleventh and Twelfth Legions and all his auxiliaries, his baggage train was assembled near the summit. Having driven off Caesar's cavalry and with their own baggage train secured, the Helvetii engaged "In the seventh hour" noon or one o'clock.

According to Caesar, his hilltop battle line threw back the onslaught by using pila. The Roman legionaries drew swords and advanced downhill wading into their opponents. Many Helvetii warriors had pila sticking out of their shields and threw them aside to fight unencumbered, but this made them more vulnerable; the legions drove the Helvetii back toward the hill. While the legions pursued the Helvetii across the plain between the hills, the Boii and the Tulingi arrived with fifteen thousand men to assist the Helvetii, flanking the Romans on one side. At that point, the Helvetii returned to the battle in earnest; when the Tulingi and the Boii started circumventing the Romans, Caesar regrouped his third line to resist the assault of the Boii and Tuligni, keeping his primary and secondary committed to chasing the Helvetii. The battle lasted many hours into the night, until the Romans took the Helvetic baggage train, capturing both a daughter and a son of Orgetorix. According to Caesar, 130,000 enemies escaped.

Unable to pursue on account of battle wounds and the time it took to bury the dead, Caesar rested three days before he followed the fleeing Helvetii. These, in turn, had managed to reach the territory of the Lingones within four days of the battle. Caesar warned prompting the Helvetii and their allies to surrender. Caesar claimed that of the 368,000 Helvetii and allies, only 130,000 got away, of whom 110,000 returned home. Orosius drawing on the works of Caesar's general Asinius Pollio, gave an original strength of 157,000 for the barbarians, adding that 47,000 died during the campaign. Strabo states an lower figure, with only 8,000 escaping the battle, an estimate assessed as plausible by Hans Delbrück. According to Caesar the census totals of the tribes at the start of the war were: Caesar's Gallic War - direct translation from Latin Delbrück, Hans. History of the Art of War Vol I. ISBN 978-0-8032-6584-4 Goldsworthy, Adrian. Caesar: Life of a Colossus. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007. 220-223.

Battle of Bibracte in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Jani Lajunen

Jani Lajunen is a Finnish professional ice hockey forward, playing with HC Lugano of the National League. He was selected by the Nashville Predators in the 7th round of the 2008 NHL Entry Draft. Having made his debut in SM-liiga in 2008, he made quick progress and became one of the key players with Espoo Blues, he was selected to the Finnish national team for the 2011 IIHF World Championship. At the age of 20 he scored his first national team goal against Norway in the quarterfinals at his second game of the tournament. Lajunen scored a goal in the semifinals against Russia. Team Finland went all the way to the final game and swept Sweden 6–1, winning Finland's second IIHF World Championship gold medal to date. 19 February 2013, Lajunen was traded by the Predators to the St. Louis Blues for fellow minor leaguer Scott Ford, he played for Växjö Lakers of the Swedish Hockey League for two seasons before returning to Finland in joining Tappara on a two-year deal, commencing from the 2015–16 season.

On 5 May 2017 Lajunen agreed to a two-year contract with HC Lugano of the National League. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Massachusetts Hornfels-Braintree Slate Quarry

The Massachusetts Hornfels-Braintree Slate Quarry is a prehistoric archaeological site in Milton and Quincy, Massachusetts. It consists of a series of pits and trenches used from 7,000 B. P. until the early 17th century as a source of slate and hornfels used for ground tools. Pieces made from material quarried at the site are found over much of eastern Massachusetts; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The Hornfels Quarry was discovered in 1974 by amateur archaeologists seeking the source for stone tools, found in some abundance at a variety of prehistoric archaeological sites in eastern Massachusetts; the stone materials in question were thought to be of volcanic origin. A site on a nearby river with a large quantity of this particular type of stone convinced researchers the source had to be nearby; the quarry was located while searching for prehistoric sites near a golf course construction project to the north of the Blue Hills Reservation. The stone found at the quarry is not basaltic in origin, but a metamorphized sedimentary slate known as hornfels, that has a significant amount of silica.

This stone had the property of being hard, a desirable property for the Native Americans seeking to produce tools. Finds at the site include diabase stone disks, used either as preforms from which edged tools were manufactured, or in the quarrying operations to extract more usable stone. Materials from these quarries have been found as far away as Rhode Island. National Register of Historic Places listings in Milton, Massachusetts