Battle of Santiago de Cuba (1748)
The 2nd battle of Santiago de Cuba, which took place on 9 April 1748, was a failed attempt by elements of the British Royal Navy under Rear-Admiral Charles Knowles to force the entrance of the port of Santiago de Cuba with the aim of striking a blow to the Spanish trade and privateering, since Santiago was a major base of the Spanish privateers in the Caribbean. Two British ships of line were put out of action by the batteries of Morro Castle and had to be towed to open sea; the remaining British warships retreated soon after. Sir Charles Knowles, promoted to rear-admiral of the white on 15 July 1747, appointed as commander in chief on the Jamaica station, prepared in 1748 an expedition with the aim of recover from the setbacks suffered during the previous stages of the war by attacking the Spanish trade and protecting their own. On 17 February he departed Port Royal with 240 of Governor Trelawney's Jamaican troops aboard his 80-gun flagship HMS Cornwall, 60-gun HMS Plymouth, 70-gun HMS Elizabeth, 58-gun HMS Canterbury, 60-gun HMS Strafford, 60-gun HMS Warwick, 60-gun HMS Worcester, 50-gun HMS Oxford, the 16-gun, 100-man sloops Merlin and Weazel.
He had intended to take his squadron and attack Santiago de Cuba, but contrary winds led to him deciding instead to attack Fort Saint Louis de Sud. He arrived on 8 March 1748, after subjecting the fort to a heavy bombardment forced its surrender. Attacks on Petit-Goâve and Cap-Français, had to be postponed due to lack of troops, it was therefore decided to proceed with the attack upon Santiago. The afternoon of 28 March, having been joined by HMS Lenox and the frigates Vainqueur and the tender Sharp, the British squadron arrived in sight of the Cuban coast, its battle line was as follow: Plymouth, Canterbury, Strafford, Worcester, Vainqueur in the van, Vulture abreast the flagship, Sharp abreast the rear. Captain Dent's Plymouth, detached to reconnoiter Santiago's entrance, noticed that it was not difficult. Faint winds, prevented Knowles to attack, forcing the squadron to lay off for the night within view of the Spaniards; the governor, Brig. Gen. Arcos Moreno ordered a ship of about 200 tons warped out of the inner bay to support a 10-inch hawser stretched from shore to shore blocking the entrance.
The probability of meeting with obstructions in the mouth has been taken into consideration, a Spanish pilot had been brought aboard the British fleet to help to carry the British ships into the harbour. Dent, whose Plymouth has been selected to lead the attack, was ordered to shoot the pilot or throw him overboard if he raised any objections. Canterbury was decided to be anchored off the end of the Apostle's battery to help the leading ships by shelling the Spanish fortifications with a 10´´ mortar taken at Fort Louis and mounted upon her quarter deck; the flag was hoisted aboard the Worcester, when the sea breeze came in, was given the order to attack. The squadron stood in a breeze at S. E. giving it about four knots. Canterbury opened fire on the Mora as soon. Plymouth, found a defensive chain across the harbour. Captain Dent sent the long barges to clear the obstacle, his ship, came under fire from the Spanish batteries and was promptly disabled, losing her rudder, her mainmast and her bowsprit.
Cornwall endured heavy gunfire, losing some of her stern. Both ships had to be towed having lost about 100 men killed and more than 200 wounded. Next day, after discuss, Knowles led his squadron back to Jamaica. After having his ships refitted Knowles sailed on a cruise, hoping to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet off Cuba. On 30 September he fell in with HMS Lenox, under Captain Charles Holmes, who reported that he had encountered a Spanish fleet some days earlier; the fleet was sighted the next morning but confusion over signals and a struggle to keep the weather gauge meant that the British fleet failed to attack in an organised manner. Though the Battle of Havana ended with the capture of one Spanish ship and another being badly damaged, it was not the major British victory hoped for. Knowles was accused of badly mismanaging the action and faced a court martial in December 1749; the result was a reprimand for the poor tactics he employed, while several of the other captains involved were reprimanded.
There was considerable bad feeling between Knowles and his subordinates, several challenges to duel were issued. In once instance Knowles exchanged shots with Holmes, in another two of his captains and Clarke, which resulted in Innes being mortally wounded. King George II intervened to forbid any more duels over the matter. "Biographical Memoir of Admiral Sir Charles Knowles, Bart". The Naval Chronicle. 1. London: J. Gold. 1842. "Knowles, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. Armada Española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón. VI. Madrid, Spain: Est. tipográfico "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra". Marley, Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present, Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6 De la Pezuela, Historia de la isla de Cuba, Volume 2, Spain: C. Bailly-Baillière Richmond, Theo R; the Navy in the War of 1739-48, BiblioBazaar, LLC, ISBN 978-1-113-20983-2
War of the Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, the First and Second Silesian Wars; the cause of the war was Maria Theresa's alleged ineligibility to succeed to her father Charles VI's various crowns, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. This was to be the key justification for France and Prussia, joined by Bavaria, to challenge Habsburg power. Maria Theresa was supported by Britain, the Dutch Republic and Saxony. Spain, at war with Britain over colonies and trade since 1739, entered the war on the Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy, further reversing Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula, achieved at Spain's expense as a consequence of Spain's war of succession earlier in the 18th century.
The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. The peace was soon to be shattered, when Austria's desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political upheaval in Europe, culminating in the Seven Years' War; the immediate cause of the War of the Austrian Succession was the death of Emperor Charles VI and the inheritance of the Habsburg Monarchy collectively referred to as'Austria'. The 1703 Mutual Pact of Succession between Emperor Leopold and his sons Joseph and Charles agreed that if the Habsburgs became extinct in the male line, their possessions would go first to female heirs of Joseph those of Charles. Since Salic law excluded women from the inheritance, this required approval by the various Habsburg territories and the Imperial Diet. Joseph died in 1711, leaving two daughters, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia and Charles became the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line.
In April 1713, he issued the Pragmatic Sanction, permitting female inheritance but placing his own hypothetical daughters ahead of Joseph's. When Charles' daughter Maria Theresa was born in 1717, ensuring her succession dominated the rest of his reign. In 1719 Charles required his nieces Maria Joseph and Maria Amalia to renounce their rights in Maria Theresa's favour in order to marry Frederick Augustus of Saxony and Charles Albert of Bavaria respectively. Charles hoped these marriages would secure his daughter's position since neither Saxony or Bavaria could tolerate the other gaining control of the Habsburg inheritance but his actions undermined the logic of the settlement. A family issue became a European one due to tensions within the Holy Roman Empire, caused by dramatic increases in the size and power of Bavaria and Saxony, mirrored by the post 1683 expansion of Habsburg power into lands held by the Ottoman Empire. Further complexity arose from the fact that the theoretically elected position of Holy Roman Emperor had been held by the Habsburgs since 1437.
These were the centrifugal forces behind a war that reshaped the traditional European balance of power. Bavaria and Saxony refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet, while in 1738 France agreed to back the'just claims' of Charles of Bavaria, despite accepting the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735. Attempts to offset this involved Austria in the 1734-1735 War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739, it was weakened by the losses incurred. Compounded by the failure to prepare Maria Theresa for her new role, many European statesmen were sceptical Austria could survive the contest that would follow Charles' death, which occurred in October 1740; the war can be divided into three distinct conflicts. In the second, France aimed to weaken Austria in Germany, while Spain sought to recapture territories in Italy lost after the War of the Spanish Succession. In the end, French conquest of the Austrian Netherlands gave them clear dominance on land, while Britain's naval victories made it more dominant at sea.
For much of the eighteenth century, France approached its wars in the same way: It would either let its colonies defend themselves, or would offer only minimal help, anticipating that fights for the colonies would be lost anyway. This strategy was, to a degree, forced upon France: geography, coupled with the superiority of the British navy, made it difficult for the French navy to provide significant supplies and support to French colonies. Several long land borders made an effective domestic army imperative for any ruler of France. Given these military necessities, the French government, based its strategy overwhelmingly on the army in Europe: it would keep most of its army on the European continent, hoping that such a force would be victorious closer to home. At the end of the War of Austrian Succession, France gave back its European conquests, while recovering such lost overseas possessions as Louisbourg restoring the status quo ante as far as France was concerned; the British—by inclination as well as for pragmatic reasons—had tended to avoid large-scale commitments of troops on the Continent.
They sought to offset the disadvantage this created in Europe by allying themselves
Invasion of Georgia (1742)
The 1742 Invasion of Georgia was a military campaign by Spanish forces, based in Florida, which attempted to seize and occupy disputed territory held by the British colony of Georgia. The campaign was part of a larger conflict. Local British forces under the command of the Governor James Oglethorpe rallied and defeated the Spaniards at the Battle of Bloody Marsh and the Battle of Gully Hole Creek, forcing them to withdraw. Britain's ownership of Georgia was formally recognized by Spain in the subsequent Treaty of Madrid; the colony of Georgia had been an issue of contention between Britain and Spain since its foundation in 1733. Spain claimed the territory for its own colony of Florida and disputed what was regarded as an illegal occupation by the British settlers; the Convention of Pardo in 1739 had attempted to settle the dispute, but Spain still refused to abandon its claim. When the War of Jenkins' Ear broke out that same year, Spain began drawing up plans for an invasion; the British governor of Georgia, James Oglethorpe, organized a small force and launched a British invasion of Florida in 1740, hoping to preempt a Spanish invasion of Georgia.
The British besieged St. Augustine but were forced to withdraw; the stage was set for the Spanish commander Manuel de Montiano to launch his long-awaited attack on Georgia. Because of the pressing demands on British resources in other theatres, no further reinforcements or aid could be dispatched to defend the colony from attack. Spanish governor Don Manuel de Montiano commanded the invasion force, which by some estimates totalled between 4,500 and 5,000 men. Of that number 1,900 to 2,000 were ground assault troops. Oglethorpe's forces, consisting of regulars and native Indians numbered fewer than 1,000; the garrison at Fort St. Simons resisted the invasion with cannonade, but was not able to prevent the landing. On the 5 July 1742 Montiano landed nearly 1,900 men from 36 ships near Gascoigne Bluff, close to the Frederica River. Faced with a superior force, Oglethorpe decided to withdraw from Fort St. Simons before the Spanish could mount an assault, he ordered the small garrison to spike the guns, to slight the fort, to deny the Spanish full use of the military asset.
The Spanish took over the fort the following day. Montanio began gathering intelligence about the strength of British opposition. After landing troops and supplies, consolidating their position at Fort St. Simons, the Spanish began to cautiously reconnoiter beyond their perimeter, they found the road between Fort St. Simons and Fort Frederica, but first assumed the narrow track was just a farm road. On July 18, the Spanish undertook a reconnaissance in force along the road with 115 men under the command of Captain Sebastian Sanchez. One and a half miles from Fort Frederica, Sanchez' column made contact with Oglethorpe's soldiers, under command of Noble Jones; the ensuing skirmish became known as the Battle of Gully Hole Creek. The Spanish were killed or captured. Oglethorpe's forces advanced up Military Road in the direction of Fort St. Simons, in pursuit of the retreating Spanish. Spanish prisoners revealed that a larger Spanish force was advancing in the opposite direction, along the road from Fort St. Simons to Frederica.
Oglethorpe left to gather reinforcements. The British advance party, in pursuit of the defeated Spanish reconnaissance force, engaged in a subsequent skirmish fell back in face of advancing Spanish reinforcements; when the British reached a bend in the road, Lieutenants Southerland and Macoy ordered the column to stop. There, the regiments and allied Indians took cover in the dense forest, they watched as the Spanish broke ranks, stacked arms and, taking out their kettles, prepared to cook dinner. The British forces attacked the Spanish off-guard, killing two hundred Spaniards; the Battle of Bloody Marsh blunted the Spanish advance, proved decisive. Oglethorpe was credited with the victory. Montiano stood poised for a further advance. Oglethorpe continued trying to dislodge them from the island. A few days approaching a Spanish settlement on the south side, he learned of a French man who had deserted the British and gone to the Spanish. Worried that the deserter might report the true number of the small British force, Oglethorpe spread out his drummers, to make them sound as if they were accompanying a larger force.
He wrote to the deserter, addressing him as if a spy for the British, saying that the man just needed to continue his stories until Britain could send more men. The prisoner, carrying the letter took it to the Spanish officers, as Oglethorpe had hoped; the timely arrival of British ships reinforced the misconception among the Spanish that British reinforcements were arriving. The Spanish left St. Simons on 25 July. In the months after the invasion, Oglethorpe considered launching further counter-attacks against Florida, but circumstances were not favourable; the focus of the war had shifted from the Americas to Europe and arms and troops were not available. The region descended into an uneasy peace punctuated by minor skirmishes; the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war in 1748 and recognised the status of Georgia as a British colony, formally ratified by Spain in the subsequent Treaty of Madrid. Its position was further secured in 1763 when Florida became a British possession as part of the Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years' War.
The War of Jenkins' Ear is commemorated annually on the last Saturday in May at Wormsloe Plantation in Savannah, Georgia. Fo
Savannah is the oldest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Chatham County. Established in 1733 on the Savannah River, the city of Savannah became the British colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and the first state capital of Georgia. A strategic port city in the American Revolution and during the American Civil War, Savannah is today an industrial center and an important Atlantic seaport, it is Georgia's fifth-largest city, with a 2017 estimated population of 146,444. The Savannah metropolitan area, Georgia's third-largest, had an estimated population of 387,543 in 2017; each year Savannah attracts millions of visitors to its cobblestone streets and notable historic buildings: the birthplace of Juliette Gordon Low, the Georgia Historical Society, the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, the First African Baptist Church, Temple Mickve Israel, the Central of Georgia Railway roundhouse complex. Savannah's downtown area, which includes the Savannah Historic District, the Savannah Victorian Historic District, 22 parklike squares, is one of the largest National Historic Landmark Districts in the United States.
Downtown Savannah retains the original town plan prescribed by founder James Oglethorpe. Savannah was the host city for the sailing competitions during the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta. On February 12, 1733, General James Oglethorpe and settlers from the ship Anne landed at Yamacraw Bluff and were greeted by Tomochichi, the Yamacraws, Indian traders John and Mary Musgrove. Mary Musgrove served as an interpreter; the city of Savannah was founded on that date, along with the colony of Georgia. In 1751, Savannah and the rest of Georgia became a Royal Colony and Savannah was made the colonial capital of Georgia. By the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Savannah had become the southernmost commercial port in the Thirteen Colonies. British troops took the city in 1778, the following year a combined force of American and French soldiers, including Haitians, failed to rout the British at the Siege of Savannah; the British did not leave the city until July 1782. In December 1804 the state legislature declared Milledgeville the new capital of Georgia.
Savannah, a prosperous seaport throughout the nineteenth century, was the Confederacy's sixth most populous city and the prime objective of General William T. Sherman's March to the Sea. Early on December 21, 1864, local authorities negotiated a peaceful surrender to save Savannah from destruction, Union troops marched into the city at dawn. Savannah was named for the Savannah River, which derives from variant names for the Shawnee, a Native American people who migrated to the river in the 1680s; the Shawnee destroyed another Native people, the Westo, occupied their lands at the head of the Savannah River's navigation on the fall line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee, whose Native name was Ša·wano·ki, were known by several local variants, including Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name Savannah refers to the extensive marshlands surrounding the river for miles inland, is derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the Southern Colonies.
Still other theories suggest that the name Savannah originates from Algonquian terms meaning not only "southerners" but "salt". Savannah lies on the Savannah River 20 mi upriver from the Atlantic Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 108.7 square miles, of which 103.1 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. Savannah is the largest port in the state of Georgia, it is located near the U. S. Intracoastal Waterway. Georgia's Ogeechee River flows toward the Atlantic Ocean some 16 miles south of downtown Savannah, forms the southern city limit. Savannah is prone to flooding, due to abundant rainfall, an elevation at just above sea level, the shape of the coastline, which poses a greater surge risk during hurricanes; the city uses five canals. In addition, several pumping stations have been built to help reduce the effects of flash flooding. Savannah's climate is classified as humid subtropical. In the Deep South, this is characterized by long and tropical summers and short, mild winters.
Savannah records few days of freezing temperatures each year. Due to its proximity to the Atlantic coast, Savannah experiences temperatures as extreme as those in Georgia's interior; the extreme temperatures have ranged from 105 °F, on July 20, 1986, down to 3 °F during the January 1985 Arctic outbreak. Seasonally, Savannah tends to have hot and humid summers with frequent thunderstorms that develop in the warm and tropical air masses, which are common. Although summers in Savannah are sunny, half of Savannah's annual precipitation falls during the months of June through September. Average dewpoints in summer range from 67.8 to 71.6 °F. Winters in Savannah are mild and sunny with average daily high temperatures close to 60 °F. November and December are the driest months re
Battle of Cartagena de Indias
The Battle of Cartagena de Indias was an amphibious military engagement between the forces of Britain under Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon and those of Spain under the Admiral Blas de Lezo. It took place at the city of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia; the battle was a significant episode of the War of a large-scale naval campaign. The conflict subsumed into the greater conflict of the War of the Austrian Succession; the battle resulted in a major defeat for Army. The defeat caused heavy losses for the British. Disease, rather than deaths from combat, took the greatest toll on both the British and Spanish forces; the War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748. Under the 1729 Treaty of Seville, Spain agreed to open trade with its colonies; the Asiento allowed Britain a monopoly to supply 5,000 slaves a year to the Spanish colonies. The Navio de Permiso permitted a single yearly trading ship, the Annual Ship, which could carry 1000 tons of imports to the yearly trade fair in Porto Bello.
Upon receiving these concessions from Spain, the British government granted a monopoly for both to the South Sea Company. The merchants and bankers in Britain, who were the driving force behind Britain's international commerce and trading, demanded more access to the lucrative Spanish markets of the Caribbean Basin. In turn, the Spanish colonists desired British-made goods, so a burgeoning black market of smuggled goods developed. By the terms of the treaty, the Spanish were permitted to board British vessels in Spanish waters. After one such boarding in 1731, Robert Jenkins, captain of the ship Rebecca, claimed that a Spanish coast guard officer had severed his ear; the legend that Jenkins exhibited his pickled ear to the House of Commons appears to have no basis in fact. This served to heighten the "war fever" developing against Spain, driven by the British desire for commercial and military domination of the Atlantic basin. To much cheering, the British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declared war on October 23, 1739 saying, "They may ring their bells now.
The Spanish Caribbean trade had a network of four main ports: Mexico. On November 22, 1739 the British captured Portobelo in the Viceroyalty of New Granada; the British attack was part of an attempt to damage Spain's finances. The poorly defended port was attacked by six ships of the line under Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon; the relative ease of this capture, although the city was abandoned after its capture, caused jubilation in Britain. Vernon was given one quarter of the British Royal Navy, of a major land and sea amphibious expedition under the overall command of Lord Cathcart; the first goal of the expedition was to capture Havana, the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard. Lord Cathcart died en route and it remained unclear, in command overall. Cathcart's untimely demise resulted in dissension in the British command, preventing the coordination needed for this complex operation.
The despatch of the large fleet and troop contingent had been demanded by the public led by the merchant class lobbies and the South Sea Company, in particular, which refused to accept the compromise agreements made by the governments of Spain and Britain. The Duke of Newcastle advocated the public's demands before Parliament. Vice-Admiral Vernon was an active and ardent supporter of war against Spain and advocated offensive action both in Parliament and before the Admiralty; the decision to mount a large West Indies expedition was reached in December 1739. Walpole, who opposed the war categorically, Vernon, who favored small squadron actions, were dissatisfied with the situation. Vernon, despite his earlier failed small squadron raid on Cartagena, was not convinced that a large-scale attack on a fortified city would prove to be as successful as his smaller Portobello assault had been, he feared that a prolonged siege would lead to heavy attrition from disease, a typical situation given the limited medical knowledge of the time.
Britain's objective was to retain Spain's four ports of the Caribbean basin. By taking control of these ports, the British would control the entry and exit routes to South America; the British would have bases from which to launch attacks into the interior, Spain would have limited access to deep water ports on the eastern coast of their American colonies and therefore be unable to resupply their inland forces. Control of these ports would provide the British a foothold to attack the rest of Spain's American empire. However, Britain had no place to build and refit ships in the Caribbean, as Spain did with the dockyards at Havana, without a dockyard no fleet could remain in the area for any length of time without breaking down. Quick capture of Havana and its dry dock was imperative and it was the favored objective of Newcastle and Sir Charles Wager, First Lord of the Admiralty, but Britain's divided ministry left the course of the campaign up to Vernon and others at a Council of War held in Jamaica.
They followed Vernon, who preferred Cartagena as their initial objective as it was a good port and to windward of Britain's existing Caribbean bases and Vernon thought Havana was too well defended to be the initial target. Cartagena of the Indies in the 18th century was a rich city of over 10,000 people, it was the capital of the province
Siege of Fort Mose
The Battle of Fort Mose was a significant action of the War of Jenkins' Ear, which took place on June 26, 1740. Captain Antonio Salgado commanded a Spanish column of 300 regular troops, backed by the free black militia and allied Seminole warriors consisting of Indian auxiliaries, they stormed Fort Mose, a strategically crucial position newly held by 170 British soldiers under Colonel John Palmer. This garrison had taken the fort as part of James Oglethorpe's offensive to capture St. Augustine. Taken by surprise, the British garrison was annihilated. Colonel Palmer, three captains and three lieutenants were among the British troops killed in action; the battle destroyed the fort. The Spanish did not rebuild it until 1752. Located two miles north of St. Augustine, Fort Mose was established in 1738 by the Spanish as a refuge for British black slaves escaping from the colonies of Georgia and South Carolina. Forty-five years earlier, in 1693, King Charles II of Spain had ordered his Florida colonists to give all runaway slaves from British colonies freedom and protection if they converted to Catholicism and agreed to serve Spain.
The fort consisted of a church, a wall of timber with some towers, some twenty houses inhabited by a hundred people. The maroons were commissioned as Spanish militia by Governor Manuel de Montiano and put under the command of Captain Francisco Menéndez, a mulatto or creole of African-Spanish descent, who had escaped from slavery in South Carolina. Fort Mose's militia soon became a matter of concern for the British colonies; the fort served as both a colony of freedmen and as Spanish Florida's front-line of defense against British attacks from the north. The Spanish intended to destabilize the plantation economy of the British colonies by creating a community that would attract slaves seeking escape and refuge. Word of the free black settlement reached the Province of South Carolina. During the slave revolt, several dozen blacks headed for Spanish Florida, but were not successful in reaching it; the fort was important in the British Siege of St. Augustine. At the outbreak of the War of Jenkins’ Ear in 1739, General James Oglethorpe, governor of Georgia, encouraged by some successful raids the British colonial Rangers made in the frontier, decided to raise a significant expedition to capture and destroy St. Augustine, capital of Spanish Florida.
As part of the campaign, he realizsd his forces had to hold Fort Mose. Oglethorpe launched his campaign. Regular troops from South Carolina and Georgia, militia volunteers, about 600 allied American Indian Creek and Uchise allies, about 800 black slaves as auxiliaries made up the expedition, supported at sea by seven ships of the British Royal Navy. Montiano, who had 600 regulars including reinforcements arrived from Cuba, was forced to resist entrenched. On several occasions he attacked the British lines by surprise. Approaching St. Augustine, a British party under Colonel John Palmer, composed of 170 men belonging to the Georgian colonial militia, the Scottish Highlander 42nd Regiment of Foot, auxiliary native allies occupied Fort Mose, strategically sited on a vital travel route. Manuel de Montiano had ordered the fort abandoned after some of its inhabitants had been killed by Indian allies of Great Britain; the free black residents moved to St. Augustine. While the Oglethorpe expedition laid siege to St. Augustine, Montiano considered his options.
Knowing the strategic importance of Fort Mose, realizing its vulnerabilities, Montiano decided to undertake a counter-offensive operation. At dawn on June 15 Captain Antonio Salgado commanded Spanish regulars, Francisco Menéndez led the maroon militia and Seminole Indian auxiliaries, in a surprise attack on Mose; the attack was initiated two hours before the British soldiers awoke so that they could not prepare their arms for defense. About 70 of the British colonials were killed in bloody hand-to-hand combat with swords and clubs; the Spanish victory at Fort Mose demoralized the badly divided British forces and was a significant factor in Oglethorpe's withdrawal to Savannah. In late June St. Augustine was relieved by Spanish forces from Havana, the Royal Navy’s warships abandoned the land forces. Governor Montiano commended the maroons for their bravery. Although Fort Mose had been destroyed during the siege, its former residents were resettled in St. Augustine for the next decade as free and equal Spanish colonial citizens.
When the Spanish rebuilt the fort in 1752, free blacks returned there. After the British victory against the French in the Seven Years' War, it took over East Florida in a related trade with Spain. Most of the residents and military evacuated to Cuba, Francisco Menéndez and most of the free blacks went with them, to escape being re-enslaved by British colonial forces. Fort Mose Historic State Park Siege of St. Augustine Francisco Menéndez Invasion of Georgia Battle of Bloody Marsh Burnett, Gene M.. Florida's Past: People and Events That Shaped the State. Pineapple Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-56164-139-0 De Quesada, A. M.. A History of Florida Forts: Florida's Lonely Outposts; the History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-104-1 Gómez, Santiago: La Guerra de la Oreja de Jenkins. Combates en el Caribe. Operaciones principales. Revista de Historia Naval Henderson, Ann L.. Spanish Pathways in Florida, 1492–1992. Pineapple Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-56164-004-1 Jones, Maxine D.. African Americans in Florida. Pineapple Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-56164-031-7 Landers, Jane.
Black Society in Spanish Florida. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06753-2 Linebaugh and Marc
Action of 14 June 1742
The Action of 14 June 1742 was a minor naval battle of the War of the Austrian Succession in which a small British squadron under Captain Richard Norris burned 5 Spanish royal galleys at the French port of Saint Tropez. Norris had surprised the galleys near Sainte-Marguerite and had chased and driven them into the French port; the British captain, in spite of alleged French neutrality, followed the Spanish vessels into the port and destroyed them at slight cost. By 1742, the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean, Admiral Nicholas Haddock, had failed to force the Spanish fleet into an action, worn out with years and disappointments, resigned his command to Rear Admiral Richard Lestock, it was Vice Admiral Thomas Mathews, with a reinforcement of seven ships of the line, who replaced him as Commander-in-Chief. Matthews based the British fleet at the Piedmontese port of Villefranche-sur-Mer and at the Hyères islands and dispatched several squadrons to cruise in search of Spanish vessels.
On 13 June 1742, the British squadron cruising off Cape Garoupe, under Captain Richard Norris of the 60-gun HMS Kingston sighted 5 Spanish galleys with guns and military stores for the Spanish army in Italy leaving the anchorage at Sainte-Marguerite. This vessels were the Patrona, the San Felipe, the Soledad, the Santa Teresa and the San Genaro and were commanded by General Don Donato Domas. Norris, who had with him, besides his own fourth-rate ship of the line, the 50-gun HMS Oxford, the sloop Spence and the fireship Duke, chased the galleys and drove them into the French port of Saint Tropez. Norris, arriving off the port, sent a message requesting the governor of Saint Tropez that the Spanish galleys might be denied shelter and sent to the sea; the French governor refused and at the evening Norris prepared to attack. His two ships of the line anchored close to it. At 1 am the fireship, under Captain Callis, was dispatched to burn the galleys together with all the boats of the squadron under the cover of Oxford and Kingston.
Just as the fireship entered the mole, the galleys opened fire. The five burned along with the fireship; the Spanish sailors escaped by swimming to shore. Those who survived joined the Spanish fleet under Admiral Juan José Navarro at Toulon; the French authorities filed a complaint for the breaking of his neutrality. In fact, they were deliberately assisting the Spanish by giving them the use and shelter of their ports. According to the British historian Edward Cust, "the French flag had so been allowed to save the Spanish ships that it was thought right to deprive it of all pretext of neutrality". Captain Callis of the Duke was awarded with a golden medal by the King George II, he was posted to HMS Assistance. Donato Domas and the captains of the Spanish galleys were court-martialled and acquitted as it was found that they had fulfilled his duty. Clowes, W. Laird; the royal navy: a history from the earliest times to the present. London: S. Low and company, limited. Cust, Edward. Annals of the wars of the eighteenth century, compiled from the most authentic histories of the period: 1739-1759.
London: Mitchell's Military Library. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León. Vol VI. Madrid: Sucesores de Rivadeneyra. Richmond, Herbert W.. The Navy in the War of 1739-48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press