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Battle of Brunanburh

The Battle of Brunanburh was fought in 937 between Æthelstan, King of England, an alliance of Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin. The battle is cited as the point of origin for English nationalism: historians such as Michael Livingston argue that "the men who fought and died on that field forged a political map of the future that remains, arguably making the Battle of Brunanburh one of the most significant battles in the long history not just of England, but of the whole of the British Isles."Following an unchallenged invasion of Scotland by Æthelstan in 934 launched because Constantine had violated a peace treaty, it became apparent that Æthelstan could be defeated only by an alliance of his enemies. Olaf led Owen in the alliance. In August 937 Olaf and his army sailed from Dublin to join forces with Constantine and Owen, but the invaders were routed in the battle against Æthelstan; the poem Battle of Brunanburh in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recounts that there were "never yet as many people killed before this with sword's edge... since the east Angles and Saxons came up over the broad sea".

Æthelstan's victory preserved the unity of England. The historian Æthelweard wrote around 975 that "he fields of Britain were consolidated into one, there was peace everywhere, abundance of all things". Alfred Smuth has called the battle "the greatest single battle in Anglo-Saxon history before Hastings"; the site of the battle is unknown and scholars have proposed many places. After Æthelstan defeated the Vikings at York in 927, King Constantine of Scotland, King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Ealdred I of Bamburgh, King Owen I of Strathclyde accepted Æthelstan's overlordship at Eamont, near Penrith. Æthelstan became King of England and there was peace until 934.Æthelstan invaded Scotland with a large military and naval force in 934. Although the reason for this invasion is uncertain, John of Worcester stated that the cause was Constantine's violation of the peace treaty made in 927. Æthelstan evidently travelled through Beverley and Chester-le-Street. The army harassed the Scots up to Kincardineshire and the navy up to Caithness, but Æthelstan's force was never engaged.

Following the invasion of Scotland, it became apparent that Æthelstan could only be defeated by an allied force of his enemies. The leader of the alliance was Olaf Guthfrithson, King of Dublin, joined by Constantine II, King of Scotland and Owen, King of Strathclyde. Though they had all been enemies in living memory, historian Michael Livingston points out that "they had agreed to set aside whatever political, cultural and religious differences they might have had in order to achieve one common purpose: to destroy Æthelstan". In August 937, Olaf sailed from Dublin with his army to join forces with Constantine and Owen and in Livingston's opinion this suggests that the battle of Brunanburh occurred in early October of that year. According to Paul Cavill, the invading armies raided Mercia, from which Æthelstan obtained Saxon troops as he travelled north to meet them. Michael Wood wrote. According to medieval chroniclers such as John of Worcester and Symeon of Durham, the invaders entered the Humber with a large fleet, although the reliability of these sources is disputed by advocates of an invasion from the west coast of England.

Livingston thought that the invading armies entered England in two waves and Owen coming from the north engaging in some skirmishes with Æthelstan's forces as they followed the Roman road across the Lancashire plains between Carlisle and Manchester, with Olaf's forces joining them on the way. Livingston speculated that the battle site at Brunanburh was chosen in agreement with Æthelstan, on which "there would be one fight, to the victor went England". Documents with accounts of the battle include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the writings of Anglo-Norman historian William of Malmesbury and the Annals of Clonmacnoise. In Snorri Sturluson's Egils saga, the antihero, mercenary and skald, Egill Skallagrimsson, served as a trusted warrior for Æthelstan, it has been suggested. Sagas have more than once placed their hero in a famous battle and embellished it with a series of literary mechanisms; the main source of information about the battle is the praise-poem Battle of Brunanburh in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

After travelling north through Mercia, Æthelstan, his brother Edmund, the combined Saxon army from Wessex and Mercia met the invading armies and attacked them. In a battle that lasted all day, the Saxons fought the invaders and forced them to break up and flee. There was a prolonged period of hard fighting before the invaders were defeated. According to the poem, the Saxons "split the shield-wall" and "hewed battle shields with the remnants of hammers... here lay many a warrior by spears destroyed. Wood states that all large battles were described in this manner, so the description in the poem is not unique to Brunanburh.Æthelstan and his army pursued the invaders until the end of the day, slaying great numbers of enemy troops. The poem states that "they pursued the hostile people... hew the fugitive grievously from behind with swords sharp from the grinding". Olaf fled and sailed back to Dublin with the remnants of his army and Constantine escaped to Scotland; the poem states that the Northmen "eparted... in nailed ships" and "sought Dublin over the deep water, leaving Dinges mere to r

Pseudogarypus synchrotron

Pseudogarypus synchrotron is an extinct species of pseudoscorpion in the family Pseudogarypidae known from only two Eocene fossils found in Europe. P. synchrotron is one of four species in the genus Pseudogarypus to have been described from fossils. Pseudogarypus synchrotron is known from two separate fossils, the holotype and paratype males, which are fossilized as inclusions in transparent chunks of Baltic amber. Both specimens were purchased from amber dealers, one in Lithuania and the other in the United States; as a result, the exact location from which the fossils were recovered is unknown. The holotype is a complete adult, positioned in the amber with its underside to the surface and its upper side turned inwards; the positioning leaves the upper side of the specimen hidden by distortions in the amber and another area on the underside is obscured by a large air bubble. The paratype male has a coating of whitish amber called "Baltic mould" across the surface of its underside and the amber encasing it showed a tendency to crack after polishing due to the evaporation of volatiles from the amber.

The holotype is number 236 934 and housed in the fossil collection of the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium while the paratype is in the personal collection of Hans Henderickx. Baltic amber is forty six million years old, having been deposited during Lutetian stage of the Middle Eocene. There is debate on what plant family the amber was produced by, with evidence supporting relatives of either an Agathis relative or a Pseudolarix relative. To get a more detailed view, the holotype specimen was subjected to two series of imaging scans at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; the resulting stereolithographic models and 3-d digital reconstructions were used for the detailed species description. The type specimens were first studied by paleoarachnologist Hans Henderickx of the University of Antwerp with Paul Tafforeau and Carmen Soriano, both of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Henderickx's 2011 type description of the new genus and species was published in the journal Palaeontologia Electronica.

The specific epithet synchrotron is in reference to the synchrotron equipment that facilitated the description of areas of the specimen not visible to the naked eye. Pseudogarypus synchrotron adults are mid-sized for Pseudogarypus, with a body length of 2.5 millimetres, show the distinctive body structuring that has horn-like protrusions, projecting ridges and a reticulate patterning to the carapace. This combination of features is found only in Pseudogarypus, making the genus placement recognizable; the chelae are distinctly elongated with a length to width ratio of 5:1. The mobile finger of the chela has 24 teeth on its inner surface while the fixed finger has 33; the original coloration of the species is not identifiable due to the orange color-yellowish of the amber that encloses the specimens. The oval abdomen is longer than it is wide and has a teardrop shape; the thorax hosts two sets of horn-like protrusions, giving it an uneven outline with the larger "horns" placed to the rear. Media related to Pseudogarypus synchrotron at Wikimedia Commons

Dorneyville, Pennsylvania

Dorneyville is a census-designated place located in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, USA. Dorneyville is located just west of Allentown, Pennsylvania in South Whitehall Township and Salisbury Township. Dorneyville is located off Interstate 78 and is home to the northern terminus of U. S. Route 222, it is split between the Allentown zip codes of 18103 and 18104. Dorneyville is home to the Dorney Wildwater Kingdom amusement park. At the center of Dorneyville is the historic King George Inn, founded in 1756; as of the 2010 census the population was 4,406. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,705 total housing units; the 2013-2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates determined that the current population of Dorneyville is somewhere around 4,262. About 46.9 % is male. The median age is 48.2. The racial makeup is about 85.6% White, 9.5% African American, 3.0% Asian, 0.6% Hispanic or Latino 0.5% of some other race, 1.3% of two or more races. 96.2% of people have graduated high school. The median household income is $88,968.

Only 2.2% of civilians lie below the poverty line. Dorneyville information at Allrefer.com. King George Inn Official Web Site. Downtown Dorneyville at Google Maps. Dorneyville CDP map