6th Cavalry Regiment
The 6th Cavalry is a regiment of the United States Army that began as a regiment of cavalry in the American Civil War. It is organized into aviation squadrons that are assigned to several different combat aviation brigades; the 3rd US Cavalry Regiment was organized on 3 May 1861 in Pennsylvania. It was commanded by COL David Hunter, second in command was LTC William H. Emory; the Regiment's designation was changed to the 6th U. S. Cavalry on 10 August 1861 due to a reorganization of US Cavalry regiments; the troopers were recruited from Pennsylvania and Western New York. Arriving in Washington D. C. by company between 12 October and 23 December, the regiment joined the Union Army of the Potomac and began its training with a strength of 34 officers and 950 men. Due to supply shortages, all but one squadron was equipped as light cavalry, armed with pistols and sabers, it wasn't until 10 March. The 6th Cavalry left winter quarters on 10 March 1862 and was assigned to General Philip St. George Cooke's command, who ordered them to make a reconnaissance of Centreville, VA, Bull Run.
On 27 March, the regiment arrived three days later. Upon arrival, the 6th Cavalry served as forward scouts for the Army of the Potomac's advance units throughout the Peninsular Campaign and received its baptism of fire on 5 May 1862 after the Siege of Yorktown. After pursuing General Joseph E. Johnston's force of retreating Confederates through the city, the armies met at the Battle of Williamsburg on 5 May, the 6th Cavalry made a name for themselves when CPT Sanders executed a bold counter charge into the teeth of Confederate artillery and a superior force of horsemen and managed to drive them off; the 6th Cavalry continued to serve as scouts for the Army of the Potomac until the evacuation at Harrison's Landing, where they served as rear guards for the evacuating forces. Arriving in Alexandria, Virginia on 2 September 1862, the 6th was in near constant contact with the Confederates for three months and engaging in skirmishes such as those at Falls Church, Sugar Loaf Mountain and Charleston.
The regiment marched to the Rappahannock River on 24 November and remained in the vicinity until the men marched on Fredericksburg, Virginia on 12 December. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, the 6th Cavalry sent a squadron across the pontoon bridge over the Rappahannock River in order to reconnoiter the enemy positions; the Confederate's infantry line was developed, the squadron withdrew after receiving fire from an enemy artillery battery, losing 2 men and 8 horses wounded. After reporting this information to General Ambrose Burnside, the Union commander, the regiment was withdrawn to Falmouth, where it remained encamped until 13 April 1863; the 6th was one of the Union cavalry regiments that participated in Stoneman's 1863 raid, during the action, LT Tupper and 10 troopers managed to capture General J. E. B. Stuart's chief quartermaster. On 9 June 1863, the 6th Cavalry fought in the Battle of Brandy Station after crossing the Rappahannock River. During this famous engagement, the regiment charged the Confederates and lost 4 officers and 63 men killed, wounded, or captured out of 254 engaged.
Charging the Confederate guns, LT Madden was hit by an exploding shell, LT Kerin was captured when the regiment began reforming from the charge. The troopers were moved to the extreme right of the line in order to repulse a Confederate flank attack and charged into the action. Here, LT Ward was killed, LT Stroll was wounded. LT Stroll was fired upon as he fell and the soldiers who attempted to bear him away were shot down by rebel gunfire; the 6th was to be rear guard of the retiring Union force, led by LT Tupper, it checked the enemy at every stop and prevented the harassment of the column. This was one of the most serious cavalry actions of the war, the 6th lost a quarter of its troopers. During the Gettysburg Campaign, overseen by larger events ongoing nearby, on 3 July 1863, Major Starr with 400 troopers dismounted his men in a field and an orchard on both sides of the road near Fairfield, Pennsylvania. Union troopers directed by their officers took up hasty defensive positions on this slight ridge.
They threw back a mounted charge of the 7th Virginia Cavalry, just as Chew's Battery unlimbered and opened fire on the Federal cavalrymen. Supported by the 6th Virginia Cavalry, the 7th Virginia charged again, clearing Starr's force off the ridge and inflicting heavy losses. Jones, outnumbering the Union forces by at least 2 to 1, pursued the retreating Federals for three miles to the Fairfield Gap, but was unable to catch his quarry. "The fight made at Fairfield by this small regiment against two of the crack brigades of Stuart's cavalry, which were endeavoring to get around the flank the Union army to attack the trains, was one of the most gallant in its history and no doubt helped influence the outcome the battle of Gettysburg. The efforts of these rebel brigades were frustrated and their entire strength neutralized for the day by the fierce onslaught of the small squadrons; the regiment was cut to pieces, but it fought so well that the squadrons were regarded as the advance of a large body of troops.
The senior officer of those attacking CSA brigades was adversely criticized for allowing his command to be delayed by such an inferior force. Had the regiment not made the desperate stand, the two brigades of Virginians might have caused grave injury in the Federal rear, before sufficient force could have been gathered in their front."Private George Crawford Platt Sergeant, an Irish immigrant servin
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent. In the taxonomies of artillery pieces used by European armies in the 17th to 20th centuries, the howitzer stood between the "gun" and the "mortar". Howitzers, like other artillery equipment, are organized in groups called batteries; the English word "howitzer" comes from the Czech word "houfnice", from houf, "crowd", houf is in turn a borrowing from the Middle High German word Hūfe or Houfe, meaning "heap". Haufen, sometimes in the compound Gewalthaufen designated a pike square formation in German. In the Hussite Wars of the 1420s and 1430s, the Czechs used short barreled "houfnice" cannons to fire at short distances into crowds of infantry, or into charging heavy cavalry, to make horses shy away; the word was rendered into German as aufeniz in the earliest attested use in a document dating from 1440.
Since the First World War, the word "howitzer" has been used to describe artillery pieces that speaking, belong to the category of gun-howitzers – long barrels and high muzzle velocities combined with multiple propelling charges and high maximum elevations. This is true in the armed forces of the United States, where gun-howitzers have been described as "howitzers" for more than sixty years; because of this practice, the word "howitzer" is used in some armies as a generic term for any kind of artillery piece, designed to attack targets using indirect fire. Thus, artillery pieces that bear little resemblance to howitzers of earlier eras are now described as howitzers, although the British call them guns. Most other armies in the world reserve the word "howitzer" for guns with barrel lengths 15 to 25 times their caliber, with longer-barreled guns being termed "cannons"; the British had a further method of nomenclature. In the 18th century, they adopted projectile weight for guns replacing an older naming system that had developed in the late 15th century.
Mortars had been categorized by calibre in inches in the 17th century and this was inherited by howitzers. Current U. S. military doctrine defines howitzers as any cannon artillery capable of high-angle and low-angle fire. The modern howitzers were invented in Sweden towards the end of the 17th century; these were characterized by a shorter trail than other field guns, meaning less stability when firing, which reduced the amount of powder that could be used. Intended for use in siege warfare, they were useful for delivering cast-iron shells filled with gunpowder or incendiary materials into the interior of fortifications. In contrast to contemporary mortars, which were fired at a fixed angle and were dependent on adjustments to the size of propellant charges to vary range, howitzers could be fired at a wide variety of angles. Thus, while howitzer gunnery was more complicated than the technique of employing mortars, the howitzer was an inherently more flexible weapon that could fire its projectiles along a wide variety of trajectories.
In the middle of the 18th century, a number of European armies began to introduce howitzers that were mobile enough to accompany armies in the field. Though fired at the high angles of fire used by contemporary siege howitzers, these field howitzers were defined by this capability. Rather, as the field guns of the day were restricted to inert projectiles, the field howitzers of the 18th century were chiefly valued for their ability to fire explosive shells. Many, for the sake of simplicity and rapidity of fire, dispensed with adjustable propellant charges; the Abus gun was an early form of howitzer in the Ottoman Empire. In 1758 the Russian Empire introduced a specific type of howitzer, with a conical chamber, called a licorne, which remained in service for the next 100 years. In the mid-19th century, some armies attempted to simplify their artillery parks by introducing smoothbore artillery pieces that were designed to fire both explosive projectiles and cannonballs, thereby replacing both field howitzers and field guns.
The most famous of these "gun-howitzers" was the Napoleon 12-pounder, a weapon of French design that saw extensive service in the American Civil War. The longest-serving artillery piece of the 19th century was the mountain howitzer, which saw service from the war with Mexico to the Spanish–American War. In 1859, the armies of Europe began to rearm field batteries with rifled field guns; these new field pieces used cylindrical projectiles that, while smaller in caliber than the spherical shells of smoothbore field howitzers, could carry a comparable charge of gunpowder. Moreover, their greater range let them create many o
Datu is a title which denotes the rulers of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today in Mindanao and Palawan, but it was used much more extensively in early Philippine history in the regions of Central and Southern Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao. In early Philippine history, Datus and a small group of their close relatives formed the "apex stratum" of the traditional three-tier social hierarchy of lowland Philippine societies. Only a member of this birthright aristocracy could become a Datu. In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Pangasinan, Panay, Butuan, Cotabato and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization. In such cases, datus of these barangays would select the most senior or most respected among them to serve as what scholars call a "paramount leader, or "paramount datu."
The titles used by such paramount datu changed from case to case, but some of the most prominent examples were: Sultan in the most Islamized areas of Mindanao. Together with Lakan, Apo in Central and Northern Luzon and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty. Depending upon the prestige of the sovereign royal family, the title of Datu could be comparable to sovereign princes or European dukes. Proofs of Filipino royalty and nobility can be demonstrated only by clear blood descent from ancient native royal blood, in some cases adoption into a royal family; the word Datu from Sanskrit Devata, via a cognate of the Malay terms Dato' or Datuk, one of many Malay styles and titles in Malaysia, to the Fijian chiefly title of Ratu Indigenous concepts and terminology concerning nobility and rulership among the peoples of the Philippine archipelago differed from one culture to the other, but lowland communities had a three-tier social structure aristocracy. In many of these societies, the word "Datu" meant the ruler of a particular social group, known as a Barangay, Dulohan, or Kedatuan.
Because of the difficulty of accessing and interpreting the various available sources few integrative studies of pre-colonial social structures have been done - most studies focus on the specific context of a single settlement or ethnic group. There are only a handful of historiographers and anthropologists who have done integrative studies to examine the commonalities and differences between these polities. One of the earliest such studies was conducted by Jesuit missionary Francisco Colin, who, in the middle of the seventeenth century,attempted an approximate comparison of the social stratification in Tagalog culture with that in the Visayan culture, which would become a reference for many scholars. In the contemporary era of critical scholarly analysis, the more prominent such works include the studies of anthropologist F. Landa Jocano and historian-historiographer William Henry Scott. More anthropologist Laura Lee Junker conducted an updated comparative review of the social organization of early polities throughout the archipelago, alongside her study of inter and intra-regional trade among Philippine coastal polities.
The term Paramount Datu or Paramount ruler is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Confederation of Madja-as in Panay, Cebu, Butuan and Sulu. Different cultures of the Philippine archipelago referred to the most senior datu or leader of the "Barangay state" or "Bayan" using different titles. In Muslim polities such as Sulu and Cotabato, the Paramount Ruler was called a Sultan. In Tagalog communities, the equivalent title was that of Lakan. In communities which had strong political or trade connections with Indianized polities in Indonesia and Malaysia, the Paramount Ruler was called a Rajah. Among the Subanon people of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the most senior Thimuay is referred to as the "Thimuay Labi," or as Sulotan in more Islamized Subanon communities. In some other portions of the Visayas and Mindanao, there was no separate name for the most senior ruler, so the Paramount Ruler was called a Datu, although one Datu was identifiable as the most senior.
Confer also: Non-sovereign monarchy. The noble or aristocratic nature of Datus and their relatives is asserted in folk origin myths, was acknowledged by foreigners who visited the Philippine archipelago, is upheld by modern scholarship. Succession to the position of datu was hereditary, Datus derived their mandate to lead from their membership in an aristocratic class. Records of Chinese traders and Spanish colonizers describe Datus or Paramount Datus as sovereign princes and principals. Travellers who came to the Philippine archipelago from kingdoms or empires such as Song and Ming dynasty China, or 16th Century Spain initially referred to Datus or Paramount Datus as "kings," though they discovered that Datus did not exercise absolute sovereignty over the members of thei
John J. Pershing
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing was a senior United States Army officer. His most famous post was when he served as the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces on the Western Front in World War I, 1917–18. Pershing rejected British and French demands that American forces be integrated with their armies, insisted that the AEF would operate as a single unit under his command, although some American divisions fought under British command, he allowed all-black units to be integrated with the French army. Pershing's soldiers first saw serious battle at Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, Soissons. To speed up the arrival of the doughboys, they embarked for France leaving the heavy equipment behind, used British and French tanks, artillery and other munitions. In September 1918 at St. Mihiel, the First Army was directly under Pershing's command. For the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Pershing shifted 600,000 American soldiers to the defended forests of the Argonne, keeping his divisions engaged in hard fighting for 47 days, alongside the French.
The Allied Hundred Days Offensive, which the Argonne fighting was part of, contributed to Germany calling for an armistice. Pershing was of the opinion that the war should continue and that all of Germany should be occupied in an effort to permanently destroy German militarism. Pershing is the only American to be promoted in his own lifetime to General of the Armies rank, the highest possible rank in the United States Army. Allowed to select his own insignia, Pershing chose to use four gold stars to distinguish himself from those officers who held the rank of General, signified with four silver stars. After the creation of the five-star General of the Army rank during World War II, his rank of General of the Armies could unofficially be considered that of a six-star general, but he died before the proposed insignia could be considered and acted on by Congress; some of his tactics have been criticized both by other commanders at the time and by modern historians. His reliance on costly frontal assaults, long after other Allied armies had abandoned such tactics, has been blamed for causing unnecessarily high American casualties.
In addition to leading the A. E. F. to victory in World War I, Pershing notably served as a mentor to many in the generation of generals who led the United States Army during World War II, including George Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Lesley J. McNair, George S. Patton, Douglas MacArthur. Pershing was born on a farm near Laclede, Missouri, to businessman John Fletcher Pershing and homemaker Ann Elizabeth Thompson. Pershing's great-great-grandfather, Frederick Pershing, whose name was Pfersching, emigrated from Alsace, leaving Amsterdam on the ship Jacob, arriving in Philadelphia on October 2, 1749. Pershing's mother was of English descent, he had five siblings: brothers James F. and Ward, sisters Mary Elizabeth, Anna May and Grace. When the Civil War began, his father supported the Union and was a sutler for the 18th Missouri Volunteer Infantry. Pershing attended a school in Laclede, reserved for precocious students who were the children of prominent citizens. Completing high school in 1878, he became a teacher of local African American children.
While pursuing his teaching career, Pershing studied at the State Normal School in Kirksville, from which he graduated in 1880 with a bachelor of science degree in scientific didactics. Two years he applied to the United States Military Academy. Pershing admitted that serving in the military was secondary to attending West Point, he had applied because the education offered was better than that obtainable in rural Missouri. Pershing was sworn in as a West Point cadet in the fall of 1882, he was selected early for leadership positions and became successively First Corporal, First Sergeant, First Lieutenant, First Captain, the highest possible cadet rank. Pershing commanded, ex officio, the honor guard that saluted the funeral train of President Ulysses S. Grant as it passed West Point in August 1885. Pershing graduated in the summer of 1886 ranked 30th in his class of 77, was commissioned a second lieutenant. Pershing considered petitioning the Army to let him study law and delay the start of his mandatory military service.
He considered joining several classmates in a partnership that would pursue development of an irrigation project in Oregon. He decided against both courses of action in favor of active Army duty. Pershing reported for active duty on September 30, 1886, was assigned to Troop L of the 6th U. S. Cavalry stationed in the New Mexico Territory. While serving in the 6th Cavalry, Pershing participated in several Indian campaigns and was cited for bravery for actions against the Apache. During his time at Fort Stanton and close friends Lt. Julius A. Penn and Lt. Richard B. Paddock were nicknamed "The Three Green P's," spending their leisure time hunting and attending Hispanic dances. Pershing's sister Grace married Paddock in 1890. Between 1887 and 1890, Pershing served with the 6th Cavalry at various postings in California and North Dakota, he became an expert marksman and, in 1891, was rated second in pistol and fifth in rifle out of all soldiers in the U. S. Army. On December 9, 1890, Pe
A marksman is a person, skilled in precision shooting using projectile weapons to shoot at high-value targets at longer-than-usual ranges. In popular and historical usage, "sharpshooter" and "marksman" are considered synonyms. Within the shooting sports and military usages today, however and marksman refer to distinctly different levels of skill, which are never conflated. In the US Army, "marksman" is a rating below "sharpshooter" and "expert". Four levels of skill are recognized today in both military and civilian shooting circles: unqualified, marksman and expert. Marksmanship badges for the three qualified levels are awarded to both civilian and military shooters who attain proficiency in shooting higher than "unqualified"; the main difference between military marksmen and snipers is that marksmen are considered an organic part of a fireteam of soldiers and are never expected to operate independently, whereas snipers work alone or in small teams with independent mission objectives. Snipers are often tasked with responsibilities other than delivering long-range fire — conducting reconnaissance and directing coordinates for artillery fire or air strikes.
Within the military, marksmen are sometimes attached to an infantry fireteam or squad where they support the squad by providing accurate long-range shots at valuable targets as needed, thus extending the effective tactical reach of the fireteam or squad. In the Middle Ages, in the first use of the term'marksman' was given to the royal archers, or bowmen, of a palace guard, an elite group of troops chosen to guard a royal palace or the royalty; this was around the 10th century, although records of some 9th century English Kings show the listings of groups of marksmen chosen for their militaries. In the Australian Army, marksmanship is recognized by the award of one of three skill-at-arms badges. The'Skill at Arms Badge' consists of a representation of crossed.303 Short Magazine Lee–Enfield rifles and is awarded for achieving a prescribed standard of shooting skill. This must be repeated within twelve months for the badge to be awarded in perpetuity to the recipient. The'Sniper's Badge' is similar in design but incorporates the letter'S' into the design and is awarded to soldiers who qualify on the Army Sniper's Course.
The'Army Top 20 Badge' consists of crossed.303 SMLE rifles upon a laurel wreath and is awarded to the final 20 competitors in the annual Champion Shot for the Army. The winner of this competition is awarded the Champion Shots Medal. Only one badge may be worn. In the British Armed Forces, "marksman" is traditionally the highest shooting rating and holders may wear a crossed rifles badge on the lower sleeve. From Army Operational Shooting Policy for the Annual Personal Weapons Test Combat Infantryman:Marksman. To qualify for Marksman all practices are to be completed and the firer must achieve a score of 55 or more of the total Highest Possible Score for the entire shoot. Soldiers achieving a non-marksman passing score are NOT permitted to re-shoot practices in order to qualify for Marksman. Infantry soldiers who qualify as Marksmen during the Combat Infantryman's Course are entitled to retain the award on joining their units. Soldiers who qualify as Marksmen are entitled to wear the Marksman badge for one year before they must requalify.
In the United States Army and Marine Corps, the marksmanship of the soldiers is ranked based on their skill: marksman-sharpshooter-expert. Holders of each level wear qualification badges below their ribbons with bars for the weapons they qualify in. In the United States Navy and the United States Coast Guard, full-sized medals are only issued at the expert level. Both services award separate medals for rifle proficiency; the United States Air Force gives just a ribbon for qualifying at the expert level, although a bronze star can be earned if the wearer qualifies on both of these types of small arms. Within the United States military, a marksman in the U. S. Army is referred to as "Squad Designated Marksman", a marksman in the Marines is called a "Designated Marksman"; the United States Army emphasizes the fireteam concept: according to US Army Field Manual 3-21.8 a typical United States Army fireteam consists of four soldiers. In the context of a Stryker Brigade Combat Team's Infantry Rifle Companies, one man from each fireteam in a rifle squad is either the Squad Anti-armor Specialist, armed with the FGM-148 Javelin, or the Squad Designated Marksman, who carries the M4 carbine and M14 rifle.
In both cases this specialized function replaces the basic rifleman position in the fireteam. As with other Commonwealth armies, the Marksman in the Canadian Army is a shooting achievement recognized by a badge bearing the monarch's crown and crossed.303 Lee–Enfield No. 4, Mk I rifles. On operations within the Canadian Infantry Battalion, rifle company designated marksman can be assigned; this is not to be confused with Canadian snipers, who attain a high level of marksmanship and fieldcraft through in a grueling selection course and must achieve a recce qualification and marksman before being considered for the basic sniper course. The Indian Army uses a locally manufactured licensed variant of the SVD Dragunov in the Designated Marksman role as part of each infantry platoon; the Dragunov is used in conjunction with the INSAS family of weapons to give flexibility and striking power at sh
Medal of Honor
The Medal of Honor is the United States of America's highest and most prestigious personal military decoration that may be awarded to recognize U. S. military service members who have distinguished themselves by acts of valor. The medal is awarded by the President of the United States in the name of the U. S. Congress; because the medal is presented "in the name of Congress", it is referred to informally as the "Congressional Medal of Honor". However, the official name of the current award is "Medal of Honor." Within the United States Code the medal is referred to as the "Medal of Honor", less as "Congressional Medal of Honor". U. S. awards, including the Medal of Honor, do not have post-nominal titles, while there is no official abbreviation, the most common abbreviations are "MOH" and "MH". There are three versions of the medal, one each for the Army and Air Force. Personnel of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard receive the Navy version; the Medal of Honor was introduced for the Navy in 1861, soon followed by an Army version in 1862.
The Medal of Honor is the oldest continuously issued combat decoration of the United States armed forces. The President presents the Medal of Honor in Washington, D. C. at a formal ceremony, intended to represent the gratitude of the U. S. people, with posthumous presentations made to the primary next of kin. According to the Medal of Honor Historical Society of the United States, there have been 3522 Medals of Honor awarded to the nation's soldiers, airmen and Coast Guardsmen since the decoration's creation, with just less than half of them awarded for actions during the four years of the American Civil War. In 1990, Congress designated March 25 annually as "National Medal of Honor Day". Due to its prestige and status, the Medal of Honor is afforded special protection under U. S. law against any unauthorized adornment, sale, or manufacture, which includes any associated ribbon or badge. The modern-day Medal of Honor had a number of precursors; the first medal for military service in the United States was issued in 1780, after its creation in the same year by the Continental Congress.
Known as the Fidelity Medallion, it was a small medal worn on a chain around the neck, similar to a religious medal, awarded only to three militiamen from New York state. They received it for the capture of John André, a British officer and spy connected directly to General Benedict Arnold during the American Revolutionary War; the capture saved the fort of West Point from the British Army. The first formal system for rewarding acts of individual gallantry by U. S. soldiers was established by George Washington when he issued a field order on August 7, 1782, for a Badge of Military Merit to recognize those members of the Continental Army who performed "any singular meritorious action". This decoration is America's first combat decoration and was preceded only by the Fidelity Medallion, the Congressional medal for Henry Lee awarded in September 1779 in recognition of his attack on the British at Paulus Hook, the Congressional medal for General Horatio Gates awarded in November 1777 in recognition of his victory over the British at Saratoga, the Congressional medal for George Washington awarded in March 1776.
Although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U. S. Armed Forces had been established. After the outbreak of the Mexican–American War a Certificate of Merit was established by Act of Congress on March 3, 1847, "to any private soldier who had distinguished himself by gallantry performed in the presence of the enemy". 539 Certificates were approved for this period. The certificate was discontinued after the war and reintroduced in 1876 effective from June 22, 1874, to February 10, 1892, when it was awarded for extraordinary gallantry by private soldiers in the presence of the enemy. From February 11, 1892, through July 9, 1918, it could be awarded to members of the Army for distinguished service in combat or noncombat; this medal was replaced by the Army Distinguished Service Medal, established on January 2, 1918. Those Army members who held the Distinguished Service Medal in place of the Certificate of Merit could apply for the Army Distinguished Service Cross effective March 5, 1934.
During the first year of the Civil War, a proposal for a battlefield decoration for valor was submitted to Winfield Scott, the general-in-chief of the army, by Lt. Colonel Edward D. Townsend, an assistant adjutant at the War Department and Scott's chief of staff. Scott, was against medals being awarded, the European tradition. After Scott retired in October 1861, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles adopted the idea of a decoration to recognize and honor distinguished naval service. On December 9, 1861, U. S. Senator James W. Grimes, Chairman on the Committee on Naval Affairs, submitted Bill S. 82 during the Second Session of the 37th Congress, "An Act to further promote the Efficiency of the Navy". The bill included a provision for 200 "medals of honor", "to be bestowed upon such petty officers, seamen and marines as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action and other seaman-like qualities during the present war..." On December 21, the bill was passed and signed into law by P
First Battle of Bud Dajo
The First Battle of Bud Dajo known as the Moro Crater Massacre, was a counter insurgency action fought by the United States Army against Moros in March 1906, during the Moro Rebellion in the southwestern Philippines. Whether the occupants of Bud Dajo were hostile to U. S. forces is disputed, as inhabitants of Jolo Island had used the crater as a place of refuge during Spanish assaults. Major Hugh Scott, the District Governor of Sulu Province, where the incident occurred, recounted that those who fled to the crater "declared they had no intention of fighting, - ran up there only in fright, had some crops planted and desired to cultivate them."The description of the engagement as a "battle" is disputed because of both the overwhelming firepower of the attackers and the lopsided casualties. The author Vic Hurley wrote, "By no stretch of the imagination could Bud Dajo be termed a'battle'". Mark Twain commented, "In what way was it a battle? It has no resemblance to a battle... We cleaned up our four days' work and made it complete by butchering these helpless people."
A higher percentage of Moros were killed than in other incidents now considered massacres. For example, the highest estimate of Native Americans killed at the Wounded Knee Massacre is 300 out of 350, whereas in Bud Dajo there were only six Moro survivors out of a group estimated at 1,000; as at Wounded Knee, the Moro group included children. Moro men in the crater who had arms possessed melee weapons. While fighting was limited to ground action on Jolo, use of naval gunfire contributed to the overwhelming firepower brought to bear against the Moros. During the engagement, 750 men and officers, under the command of Colonel J. W. Duncan, assaulted the volcanic crater of Bud Dajo, populated by 800 to 1,000 Tausug villagers. According to Herman Hagedorn, the position held by the Moros was "the strongest which hostiles in the Philippines have defended against American assault." Although the engagement was a victory for the American forces, it was an unmitigated public-relations disaster. Whether a battle or massacre, it was the bloodiest of any engagement of the Moro Rebellion, with only six of the hundreds of Moro surviving the bloodshed.
Estimates of American casualties range from fifteen killed to twenty-one killed and seventy-five wounded. The first battle at Bud Dajo took place during the final days of General Leonard Wood's term as governor of the Moro Province. Wood's term was a time of great reform; some of these reforms, including the abolition of slavery and the imposition of the cedula, as a registration poll tax, were less than popular with his Moro subjects. The cedula was unpopular, since the Moros interpreted it as a form of tribute, according to Vic Hurley, Moro participation in the cedula was low after 30 years of American occupation; these reforms, coupled with the general resentment of foreign Christian occupiers, created a tense and hostile atmosphere during Wood's tenure, the heaviest and bloodiest fighting during the American occupation of Mindanao and Sulu Province took place under his watch. Although Moro hostilities died down during the latter days of Wood's governorship, it was in this tense atmosphere of Moro resentment that the events leading to the Battle of Bud Dajo played out.
According to Hermann Hagedorn, the Moros living in Bud Dajo were "the rag-tag-and-bobtail remnants of two or three revolts, the black sheep of a dozen folds, rebels against the poll tax, die-hards against the American occupation, outlaws recognizing no datto and condemned by the stable elements among the Moros themselves." Vic Hurley, author of Swish of the Kris, adds that "the causes contributing to the battle of Bud Dajo were resentment over the curtailing of slave-trading, cattle-raiding, women-stealing privileges of the Moros of Sulu." On the other hand, Major Hugh Scott describes the occupants of Bud Dajo as harmless villagers seeking refuge from the upheaval on Jolo caused by the actions of American forces. The chain of events leading to Bud Dajo began when a Moro named Pala ran amok in British-held Borneo. Pala went to ground at his home near the city of Jolo, on the island of Jolo. Colonel Hugh L. Scott, the governor of the District of Sulu, attempted to arrest Pala, but Pala's datu opposed this move.
During the resulting fight, Pala escaped. He avoided capture for several months, setting up his own cotta and becoming a datu in his own right. Wood led an expedition against Pala but was ambushed by Moros from the Bud Dajo area with the help of Pala. Wood beat off the ambushers, many of them found refuge in the volcanic crater of Bud Dajo. Wood determined that the Moros held too strong a position to assault with the forces at hand, so he withdrew. Bud Dajo lies 6 miles from the city of Jolo and is an extinct volcano, 2,100 feet above sea level, steep and has thickly forested slopes. Only three major paths lead up the mountain, the thick growth kept the Americans from cutting new paths. However, there were many minor paths, known only to the Moros, which would allow them to resupply if the main paths were blocked; the crater at the summit is 1,800 yards in circumference and defended. The mountain itself is eleven miles in circumference. Over the months that followed, the occupants of Bud Dajo were joined by