A llanero is a Venezuelan or Colombian herder. The name is taken from the Llanos grasslands occupying western Venezuela, the Llanero were originally part Spanish and Indian and have a strong culture including a distinctive form of music. During the wars of independence, Llaneros served in both armies and provided the bulk of the cavalry during the war. In 1819, an army of Llaneros, led by Simón Bolívar and José Antonio Páez, defeated the Spanish with an attack when they crossed over the Orinoco plains. Prior to Spanish settlement in 1548, the Llanos were occupied by indigenous groups, andalusian monks established settlements close to Native American villages and accomplished conversion through a mixture of persuasion and force. The Spaniards started to graze cattle on the grasslands of the llanos, Llaneros still use many terms dating from the 16th and 17th centuries. From 1640 to 1790, outlaw slaves lived in cumbes, or outlaw slave communities, by the end of the 18th century, the region exported 30,000 mules a year to the Antilles and salted meat for the 1.5 million slaves there and in Cuba.
There were 1.2 million cattle in the area by 1815, when the Wars of Liberation started, the Spanish enlisted the Llaneros, playing on their dislike of the criollos of the independence movement. Bolívar realized that the plains were critical to success in the wars of liberation – they offered freedom of movement, the Llaneros led by Páez proved crucial in Bolivars campaign. After leading his forces including the Llanero troops over the eastern Andes, three days later, he captured Bogotá in what was the turning point of wars of liberation. The Llaneros would prove to be vital in future battles in the campaign, páezs Bravos de Apure or lancers were again critical in the Battle of Carabobo on June 24,1821, and allowed Bolivar to capture Caracas. Páez would become the first President of Venezuela, during the 1850s, a hide boom stimulated the local economy. A boom in great egret feathers in the early 1930s in Europe led to them being called white gold until the trade was banned, cattle form an important part of Llanero culture.
There are 12 million cattle on the llano, during the year, the Llaneros have to drive cattle great distances. During the winter wet season, the Llaneros have to drive the cattle to higher ground as the drainage of the plains means that the annual floods are extensive. Conversely, they have to drive the cattle towards wet areas during the dry summer, the Llaneros show their skills in coleo competitions, similar to rodeos, where they compete to drag cattle to the ground. Llanero music is distinctive for its use of the harp, the maracas, the joropo, a Llanero dance, has become the national dance of Venezuela, and of the Llanos of Colombia. While Llanero music is unknown outside of Venezuela and Colombia
Lake Maracaibo is a large brackish tidal bay in Venezuela and an inlet of the Caribbean Sea. It is sometimes considered a rather than a bay or lagoon. It is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by Tablazo Strait which is 5.5 kilometres wide at the northern end and it is fed by numerous rivers, the largest being the Catatumbo. Lake Maracaibo acts as a shipping route to the ports of Maracaibo. The surrounding Maracaibo Basin contains large reserves of oil, making the lake a major profit center for Venezuela. It holds almost a quarter of Venezuelas population, a dredged channel gives oceangoing vessels access to the bay. The 8. 7-kilometre long General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge, which was completed in 1962, the weather phenomenon known as the Catatumbo lightning at Lake Maracaibo regularly produces more lightning than any other place on the planet. The first known settlements on the bay were those of the Guajiros, who still are present in large numbers, the first European to discover the bay was Alonso de Ojeda on August 24,1499, on a voyage with Amerigo Vespucci.
The stilt houses reminded Vespucci of the city of Venice, so he named the region Venezuela, meaning little Venice in Italian. The word has the meaning in Spanish, where the suffix -uela is used as a diminutive term, thus. In his work Summa de Geografía, he states that they found a population who called themselves the Veneciuela. The port town of Maracaibo was founded in 1529 on the western side, in July 1821, the bay was the site of the Battle of Lake Maracaibo, an important battle in the Venezuelan War of Independence. Oil production began in the basin in 1914, with wells drilled by Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij. On April 6,1964, at 11,45 pm, thus it collided with pier #31 of the two-year-old General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge across the mouth of the lake. A259 metres section of the roadway fell into the water with a portion coming to rest across the tanker just a few feet from the ships superstructure. No oil spill occurred, and there were no deaths or serious injuries on the tanker, however seven motorists and passengers in vehicles crossing the bridge were killed.
Some islands are of considerable size and they are populated with fishermen and are used for commercial and recreational purposes. Several settlements built out on stilts over the lake – palafitos – still exist in the south and south-west, due to the massive volume of oil removed in the Maracaibo Basin, some oil-producing areas adjacent to Lake Maracaibo have sunk, changing the geography of the region
Carabobo State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela, located in the north of the country, about two hours by car from Caracas. The capital city of state is Valencia, which is the countrys main industrial center. The states area is 4,369 km² and as of the 2011 census, had a population of 2,245,744, Carabobo State was the site of the Battle of Carabobo on 24 June 1821. This was a win in the war of independence from Spain. Carabobo State is sub-divided into 14 municipalities, The municipalities are made up of one or more civic parishes, Carabobo has a total of 38 parishes. Around 75% of the region is covered by mountains that make up part of Venezuelas Coast Mountain Range, the highest peaks are found on the north and west of the state and south of the Valencia Lake. The Cobalongo or Caobal peak is the highest point of the state, there is a central low plain around the Valencia Lake and towards the south, where Venezuelas Llanos start. There is an amount of anticlinals, diaclases, fractures. One of the most important is the one of the Victoria and this area has moderate tectonic activity.
Mountains are very steep, some slopes are over 80%, on the plains, slopes are less than 1%. In the Tocuyito area, slopes can reach 5%, there are a group of small islands near Puerto Cabello. The main ones are Isla Larga, Isla Santo Domingo, Isla Alcatraz, Isla Larga is the largest and is 1855 metres long. It makes part of the San Esteban National Park, there are a couple of islands on Lake Valencia. Some more have disappeared after the rise in sea level since the 1970s, Isla del Burro is the largest island of the lake. There are threats of vertisols with suborders of Usterts, the fauna of Carabobo mainly inhabits the tropical forests, grassland surrounding and mountainous landscapes. Though a richly inhabited land, the pollution of many of its lakes and rivers has caused the wildlife of Carabobo to be transformed and mutalated, the vast majority of wildlife that remains is predominately birds due to their ability to be able to fly in search of cleaner water. Typical fauna include the Frilled Dragon, Carabobo Tree Frogs and Valencia Piscavi, wild birds such as the Sugar Glider, Olive-backed Oriole, Whip-tail, Scrub Mullet and Mopoke.
Insects such as Forest Floor Skink are commonly found, Carabobo has a typical tropical vegetation, including prosopis, camorucos, cedars, guamos Carabobo palms, and Samanea saman
Gran Colombia is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. It included the territories of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru, western Guyana, the first three were the successor states to Gran Colombia at its dissolution. Panama was separated from Colombia in 1903, since Gran Colombias territory corresponded more or less to the original jurisdiction of the former Viceroyalty of New Granada, it claimed the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, the Mosquito Coast. Its existence was marked by a struggle between those who supported a government with a strong presidency and those who supported a decentralized. The two men had been allies in the war against Spanish rule, but by 1825, their differences had become public and were an important part of the political instability from that year onward, the official name of the country at the time was the Republic of Colombia. The name Colombia comes from the Spanish version of the eighteenth-century New Latin word Columbia and it was the term preferred by the revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the New World, especially to all American territories and colonies under Spanish rule.
He used an improvised, quasi-Greek adjectival version of the name, Colombeia, to papers and things relating to Colombia. Bolívar and other Spanish American revolutionaries used the word Colombia in the continental sense, the establishment in 1819 of a nation with the name Colombia by the Congress of Angostura gave the term a specific geographic and political reference. The Republic of Colombia comprised more or less the former territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and it united the territories of the former Third Republic of Venezuela, the United Provinces of New Granada, the former Royal Audiencia of Panama and the Presidency of Quito. Before a new constitution could be written by the Congress of Cúcuta, under the Constitution of Cúcuta, the country was divided into twelve departments governed by an intendant. Departments were further divided into provinces headed by a governor. Military affairs at the department level were overseen by a commandant general, all three offices were appointed by the central government.
The central government, which temporarily was to reside in Bogotá, consisted of a presidency, a bicameral congress, the president was the head of the executive branch of both the central and local governments. The president could be granted extraordinary powers in military fronts, such as the area that became Ecuador, the vice-president assumed the presidency in case of the absence, demotion, or illness of the president. Since President Bolívar was absent from Gran Colombia for the years of its existence, executive power was wielded by the vice-president. The vote was given to persons who owned 100 pesos in landed property or had an equivalent income from a profession, in that year, none of the provinces of Quito, nor many in Venezuela and New Granada, were free yet. The Constitution of Cúcuta was drafted in 1821 at the Congress of Cúcuta, Bolívar and Santander were elected as the nations president and vice-president. To break up regionalist tendencies and to set up efficient central control of local administration, the Gran Colombian army consolidated the independence of Peru in 1824
Francisco de Miranda
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza, commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a military leader and Venezuelan revolutionary. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life in the political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment that influenced all of the Atlantic Revolutions. He participated in three major historical and political movements of his time, the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolution and he described his experiences over this time in his journal, which reached to 63 bound volumes. An idealist, he developed a plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, Miranda was born in Caracas, Venezuela Province, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, and baptized on April 5,1750. Growing up, Miranda enjoyed a wealthy upbringing and attended the finest private schools, however, he was not necessarily a member of high society, he faced some discrimination due to his Canarian roots, and his heritage was continually put into question by the Criollo aristocracy.
Miranda was first tutored by Jesuits, Jorge Lindo and Juan Santaella, on January 10,1762, Miranda began his studies at the Royal and Pontifical University of Caracas, where he studied Latin, the early grammar of Nebrija, and the Catechism of Ripalda for two years. Miranda completed this course in September 1764 and became an upperclassman. Between 1764 and 1766, Miranda continued his studies, studying the writings of Cicero and Virgil, history, geography, in June 1767, Miranda received his baccalaureate degree in the Humanities. It is unknown if Miranda received the title of Doctor, as the evidence in favor of this title is his personal testimony stating he received it in 1767. Beginning in 1767, Mirandas studies were disrupted in part due to his fathers rising prominence in Caracas society. In 1764, Sebastian de Miranda was appointed the captain of the militia known as the Company of the White Canary Islanders by the governor. Sebastian de Miranda directed his regiment for five years, but his new title, in retaliation, a competing faction formed a militia of its own and two local aristocrats, Don Juan Nicolas de Ponte and Don Martin Tovar Blanco, filed a complaint against Sebastian de Miranda.
In 1769, Sebastian produced a genealogy to prove that his family had no African ancestors. In 1770, Sebastian won his familys rights through a royal patent, signed by Charles III. Miranda landed at the Port of Cadiz on March 1,1771, on March 28,1771, Miranda travelled to Madrid and took an interest in the libraries and art that he found there. In Madrid, Miranda pursued his education, especially modern languages and he sought to expand his knowledge of mathematics and political science, as he aimed to serve the Spanish Crown as a military officer. It was in Madrid that Miranda began to build his personal library, in January 1773, Mirandas father transferred 85,000 reales vellon, to help his son obtain the position of captain in the Princesss Regiment
Puerto Cabello is a city on the north coast of Venezuela. It is located in Carabobo State, about 210 km west of Caracas, as of 2011, the city had a population of around 182,400. The city is home to the largest and busiest port in the country and is thus a vital cog in the countrys vast oil industry, the word cabello translates to hair. The Spaniards took to saying that the sea was so calm there that a ship could be secured to the dock by tying it with a single hair. Puerto Cabellos location made it an easy prey to buccaneers and was a trading post for Dutch smugglers during the 17th century. Most of the contraband trade consisted of cocoa with neighboring island Curaçao, Puerto Cabello was at that time under Dutch control. It was not until 1730 that the Spanish took over the port and this company built warehouses, wharves and an array of forts to protect the harbor. The commodore Charles Knowles at command of the 70-gun HMS Suffolk in 1743 received orders to carry out attacks on the Spanish settlements at Puerto Cabello, the Spanish governor Gabriel de Zuluaga, well informed of the plans, recruits extra defenders and were supplied with gunpowder by the Dutch.
Consequently, an attack on La Guaira, on 18 February 1743, Knowles withdrew his force and refitted at Curaçao before attempting an assault on Puerto Cabello on 15 April, and again on 24 April, but both assaults were beaten back. Knowles called off the expedition and returned to Jamaica, by the 1770s Puerto Cabello came to be the most fortified town on the Venezuela’s coast. The San Felipe castle and the Solano fortress remain from the period, the frigate Santa Cecilia, under the command of Captain Don Ramon de Chalas, sat in Puerto Cabello until Captain Edward Hamilton, aboard HMS Surprise cut her out of the harbour on 25 October 1799. The Spanish casualties included 119 dead, the British took 231 Spaniards prisoner, Hamilton had 11 men injured, four seriously, but none killed. The forces of the First Republic of Venezuela briefly held San Felipe castle, in 1812 Simón Bolívar, a colonel in the independist forces, was appointed commandante of Puerto Cabello. He left after a royalist rebellion broke out, in 1821 the Spanish retreated to the castle after their defeat at the decisive Battle of Carabobo.
Puerto Cabello was the last Spanish royalist stronghold during Venezuela’s war for independence, the harbour came under Anglo-German attack in the Venezuela Crisis of 1902-1903 and according to press reports was left in ruins. In 1962, Puerto Cabello was the site of an uprising, known as El Porteñazo, by pro-Fidel Castro naval officers and members of the FALN. Although loyalist naval forces were able to take back the base and arrest the rebels, they were unable to prevent the marines from occupying the city. Despite ambushes and bloody fighting, loyal National Guard and mechanized regular forces were able to retake Puerto Cabello
The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleons empire and the allied powers of Spain and Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, the Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas, the British Army, under the Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. The demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of Gen, in the following year Wellington scored a decisive victory over King Josephs army at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a burden on Frances Grande Armée. The Spanish armies were beaten and driven to the peripheries.
This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had provoked a total war. War and revolution against Napoleons occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, the burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850. The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion and restoration led to the independence of most of Spains American colonies, the Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered, and Russia allied with France, Napoleon expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I, had declined to join the emperors Continental System against British trade.
After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne, meanwhile the Portuguese governments resolve was stiffening, and shortly afterward Napoleon was once again told that Portugal would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junots corps to cross the frontier into Spain, while all this was going on, the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau had been signed between France and Spain. The document was drawn up by Napoleons marshal of the palace Géraud Duroc and Eugenio Izquierdo, the treaty proposed to carve up Portugal into three entities. Porto and the part was to become the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania. The southern portion, as the Principality of the Algarves, would fall to Godoy, the rump of the country, centered on Lisbon, was to be administered by the French. According to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Junots invasion force was to be supported by 25,500 men in three Spanish columns, Gen. Taranco and 6,500 troops were ordered to march from Vigo to seize Porto in the north.
Capt. Gen. Solano would advance from Badajoz with 9,500 soldiers to capture Elvas, Gen. Caraffa and 9,500 men were instructed to assemble at Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, and cooperate with Junots main force
Several nations observe or have observed a Navy Day to recognize their navy. The Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory achieved in 1814 in the Battle of Montevideo, the Bangladesh Navy Day is celebrated on March 26, in anniversary the Independence Day of Bangladesh, the day in which Bangladesh Navy first came into existence. Bulgarias Navy Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in August, the Día de las Glorias Navales is a public holiday in Chile on May 21. It commemorates the Battle of Iquique on May 21,1879, the date marks the opening of ordinary Parliamentary season and is the traditional day for the Presidents State of the Nation address. Principal civic acts are performed in Santiago de Chile and Valparaíso, the Peoples Liberation Army of China celebrates the founding of its naval arm on Navy Day,23 April. The Day of the Croatian Navy is celebrated on September 18, Navy day in India is celebrated on 4 December every year to celebrate the achievements and role of the naval force to the country.
November 28 is a Navy Day in Iran and it commemorates Operation Morvarid of 1980, a major Iranian Navy victory during the Iran Iraq war. In Israel, Navy Day is celebrated on June 30, at this time in 1948 the Port of Haifa was captured by Israel during the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. Traditionally, Navy Day is preceded by Memorial Evening, capture of the Egyptian frigate Ibrahim el Awal on 31 October 1956. The overwhelming successful actions of the Yom Kippur War, 6–24 October 1973, Memorial Evening was rescheduled as well, marking the loss of destroyer INS Eilat on 21/10/1967. As of 2009 the celebrations have been elongated for a week, in Italy, Navy Day is June 10 and it is not a national holiday. In the Empire of Japan, Navy Anniversary Day was May 27 from 1906 until 1945 and it was in commemoration of the Battle of Tsushima. In Mexico, The Mexican Navy celebrates Navy Day on June 1, in The Netherlands the navy days are held on the first Saturday and Sunday of July. In Peru, Navy Day is a holiday celebrated on October 8 in commemoration of the Battle of Angamos in 1879.
In Pakistan, Navy Day, is celebrated on September 8 in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965, September 8,1965 was the day when Pakistan Navy launched its successful strategic operation against India, codename Operation Dwarka, by the 25th Destroyer Squadron. In Russia Navy Day is a holiday that normally takes place on the last Sunday of July. It is a legacy of the Soviet Union that introduced this holiday in June 1939, in Romania, Navy Day is a national holiday that takes place on August 15. In Turkey, Navy Day is celebrated on September 27 and it is not a national holiday
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth