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Battle of Caseros

The Battle of Caseros was fought near the town of El Palomar, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, on 3 February 1852, between the Army of Buenos Aires commanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Grand Army led by Justo José de Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza and governor of Entre Ríos, defeated Rosas, who fled to the United Kingdom; this defeat marked a sharp division in the history of Argentina. As provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation, Urquiza sponsored the creation of the Constitution in 1853, became the first constitutional President of Argentina in 1854. Rosas had declared war on Brazil in 1851, which led to the signing of a treaty, on 21 November 1851, among the governments of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Brazilian Empire. In compliance with the treaty, Urquiza led a joint army and crossed Morón creek, positioning his forces in Monte Caseros. Rosas' forces comprised 12,000 cavalrymen and 60 guns. Among his captains were Jerónimo Costa, who defended Martín García island from the French in 1838.

Due to desertion that of General Ángel Pacheco and poor morale, several historians and military analysts reckon that for Rosas the battle was lost before it started. However, his opponent suffered from desertions like that of the Regimiento Aquino, a regiment composed by soldiers loyal to Rosas, who murdered their captain Pedro León Aquino and joined the Rosist army. Urquiza's army was 24,000-men strong, among them 3,500 Brazilians and 1,500 Uruguayans, 50 guns. Only the Brazilians were professional soldiers. Urquiza did not conduct the battle: each chief was free to fight as they saw fit. Urquiza himself led a charge against the enemy left in front of their cavalrymen from Entre Ríos. Meanwhile, the Brazilian infantry, supported by a Uruguayan brigade and an Argentine cavalry squadron seized the Palomar, a circular building near the right of the Rosist line and used for pigeon breeding, extant to this day. After both flanks collapsed only the center under Chilavert's command continued the fighting, reduced to an artillery duel that lasted until he ran out of ammunition.

The armies clashed in Buenos Aires province. The whole battle fled. Urquiza's triumph terminated the 20-year term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires and de facto ruler of the Argentine Confederation. Within a few days, Urquiza's troops entered the city of Buenos Aires without further resistance; the President of the Superior Tribunal, Vicente López y Planes, was appointed interim governor. Gálvez, Manuel. Vida de Juan Manuel de Rosas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Tor

Josh Tols

Joshua Peter Tols is an Australian professional baseball pitcher in the Philadelphia Phillies organization. Tols played college baseball at John Wood Community Rockhurst University. Undrafted, he played three seasons of independent baseball in the Pecos League and American Association, he has played for the Adelaide Bite and Melbourne Aces in the Australian Baseball League, a winter league, for several years. He represented Australia at the 2017 World Baseball Classic before signing with the Phillies organisation in 2018. Tols was born in South Australia, to Peter and Debbie Tols, he attended Seaton High School in Australia. Josh started playing baseball as a junior with the Woodville District Baseball Club where he continued to play while living in Adelaide. Tols attended John Wood Community College in Quincy, Illinois in 2009 where he appeared in 13 games as a pitcher, had a 4-3 4.87 Earned run average record with 44.1 innings pitched in his freshman year. He struck out out 46 batters while allowing 51 hits.

As a sophomore, he appeared in 21 games as a pitcher, had a 3-4, 3.09 ERA record with 71 K in 46 2/3 IP and led the nation in strikeouts per inning. He led the nation in saves, earning himself a place on the all conference team. In 2017 he was inducted into the college's baseball hall of fame. Over his career he was part of one of the best two year winning percentages in the college programme's history. Josh continues to be a mainstay on many all-time statistical categories, including 1st in single season saves, 2nd in career saves, 4th in single season strikeouts, 4th in career strikeouts. In 2012 Tols transferred to continue his college career at Rockhurst University in Kansas City, Missouri. In his first year, he pitch for a record of 6-2 with a 3.36 ERA. He held opposition batters to a.247 batting average, stuck out 66 batters over 67 innings pitched, recorded four complete games and two shutouts. He was recognised as a member of the All-Great Lakes Valley Conference team, he redshirted in 2013 due to a shoulder injury.

In 2014, as a pitcher he recorded 4-7 with a 2.60 ERA and struck out 71 in 69 1/3 IP. He was second-team All-Conference, he began his pro career with the Las Vegas Train Robbers moved to the Trinidad Triggers, both of the Pecos League. He finished the summer at 5-0, 3.28 with 61 K in 60 1/3 IP. He hit for a batting average of.269 on base percentage.345 and slugging.308 from 31 plate appearances. In 2015 Tols signed with the Kansas City T-Bones in the American Association where he went 2-0 with a 4.55 ERA with 49 strike outs over 55.1 innings pitched. In 2016 Tols returned for his final season with the T-Bones where he went 5-4 with a 4.18 ERA with 60 strike outs over 60.1 innings pitched. Tols made his Australian Baseball League debut in 2010 as a 20 year old, he pitched 2 1/3 shutout innings for his hometown Adelaide Bite in the 2010-2011 Australian Baseball League. With Adelaide for the first time in four winters, Josh went 9-2 with a 2.38 ERA and 46 K in 34 IP as a reliever. He tied for third with 22 games pitched.

He was named the ABL Rookie of the Year and Reliever of the Year, selected in the Australian team for the Australian Baseball League All-Star Game. In 2015-2016, he remained hot for Adelaide, he was 4th in the ABL in ERA. Josh was signed to play for the Melbourne Aces in 2016 where he posted a 3-2, 2 save, 0.92 ERA season with 42 strike outs over 29.2 innings pitched. After moving to Melbourne Josh joined the Fitzroy Baseball Club in Division one of the Victorian Summer Baseball League. In his debut season Josh won the Harry Douglas trophy for the league's best pitcher, with an ERA of 0.20 helping Fitzroy to win the league's club championship. Returning to the Aces Josh increased his workload with 5-3, 1 save, 4.78 ERA season with 75 strike outs over 52.2 innings pitched. Tols was selected as a member of the Australian national baseball team at the 2017 World Baseball Classic and signed by the Philadelphia Phillies organisation. Following his signing by the Phillies Josh was restricted to a light workload in the 2017/18 ABL season pitching only 8 innings over 4 games with the Aces.

He had a 1.18 ERA, with 9 strike outs. Tols signed a minor league contract with the Philadelphia Phillies on February 9, 2018, he was assigned to the Class A-Advanced Clearwater Threshers of the Florida State League to begin the season. Through 4 appearances, including 1 start, he had struck out 13 batters while allowing only 2 hits and posting an ERA of 0.93. He was promoted to the Double-A Reading Fightin Phils of the Eastern League, he still served as a relief pitcher and accumulated 42 strikeouts and a 3.27 ERA by the season's end. Cumulatively, his first season record stood at 2–1 with a 2.74 ERA over 42​2⁄3 innings with 55 strikeouts. For the 2019 campaign, Tols was promoted to the Triple-A Lehigh Valley IronPigs of the International League. Coming on in relief, he retired 39 batters on strikes and had a 1–1 record with a 3.84 ERA in 79​2⁄3 innings pitched. Tols was selected for the Australian national baseball team at the 2017 World Baseball Classic and 2019 WBSC Premier12. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference ABL.com stats

Copus massacre

The Copus massacre is a name given to a skirmish occurring on September 15, 1812, between American settlers and Native Americans on the Ohio frontier during the War of 1812. Reverend James Copus and 3 soldiers died while defending the Copus' homestead near present-day Charles Mill Lake, Ohio; the Native American town of Greentown predated the arrival of settlers to the region, the War of 1812 led to an increase in tension between Native Americans and the increasing number of settlers. The military feared. Colonel Samuel Kratzer received orders to remove the Native Americans, who were from the Delaware tribe, to the Piqua Reservation as a precautionary measure, he assigned Captain Douglas to the task. Reverend James Copus was from Greene County and moved into the valley of the Black Fork in 1809 with his wife and seven children, he had settled several miles from Greentown. Thus, when the Delaware told Captain Douglas that they would not leave, he tried to convince Copus to persuade the Native Americans.

At first, Copus refused to interfere against them and said that he would stand accountable for their conduct. Douglas told Copus that they were under orders and that if the Native Americans did not comply, there would be bloodshed. Copus agreed to accompany the soldiers to Greentown and speak with the Native Americans, but not before being assured that their lives and property would be protected if they agreed to surrender. Copus reluctantly met with the council of elders and, after much persuasion and reassurance, the elders agreed to leave their village. After the soldiers led the Greentown Natives on their march, several soldiers straggled behind, ransacked the village, burned it to the ground. Seeing the smoke from their burning homes, the Native Americans felt that they had been double-crossed by Copus, some vowed that they would seek revenge. Following the deaths of some of his neighbors, including the Zimmer family, at the hands of Native Americans, Copus asked for protection and was moved with his family to a blockhouse.

After several days, Copus decided that there was no longer any danger, so on September 14, 1812, nine militia soldiers were detailed to accompany him and his family to their home. Upon his return, he found that nothing had been disturbed, Copus felt somewhat at ease; that afternoon, one of Copus' daughters noticed a Native American at the edge of the woods but did not report the sighting. The following day, seven of the soldiers left to wash at a nearby spring, leaving their weapons near the house; the Native Americans attacked the men at the spring. Three fled to the woods, they were pursued by the Native Americans and two of them, Private George Shipley and Private John Tedrick, were tomahawked. The third man, Private Robert Warnock, was mortally wounded; the only soldier who regained the cabin was George Dye, who fought alongside John Shambaugh a neighbor to the Copus family. George Dye was wounded in the thigh by a musketball; as he came through the door, Copus was hit by a shot through his chest.

On the east of the cabin, there was a range of hills several hundred feet high covered with timber and large rocks, which afforded an excellent cover for the enemy and gave them a position from which they could fire down upon the cabin. The Native Americans besieged the cabin from the hill; the soldiers tore up the planks of the floor and placed them against the door to prevent the balls from penetrating to the interior of the cabin. Nancy Copus, a little girl, was wounded in the knee by a ball. John Shambaugh killed the attacker of Nancy Copus. One of the soldiers, George Launtz, had his arm broken by a ball and killed the attacker who wounded him; the soldiers fought back from daybreak until midmorning, as many as eleven Native Americans were killed. The Native Americans retreated, killing the Copus' sheep on their way; as soon as the Native Americans disappeared, one of the soldiers crawled out through the roof of the cabin and went to the blockhouse for assistance. Captain Martin and his second in command, Sgt.

John Bratton had agreed to call at the Copus cabin the previous evening with a number of soldiers and remain all night. But he and his soldiers, having been scouting all day and finding no signs of Native Americans, concluded that there was no real danger. Therefore, they camped on the Black Fork and reached the Copus' cabin late on the morning of the attack, he and his soldiers attended to the wounded, a search was made for the Native Americans but they were not found. Copus and the dead soldiers, Shipley and Warnock, were buried near the cabin. On the 70th anniversary of the battle, a monument was put up at the site of the killings by the Ashland County Pioneer Society; the unveiling of the monument, on September 15, 1882, was attended by 10,000 people including Copus daughter, Sarah Vail. A second monument was erected nearby to commemorate the victims of the Zimmer massacre. H. Howe's "Historical Collections of Ohio" Volume 1.pp. 258–259 1907 Copus monument at Find A GRAVE