Second Battle of Cancha Rayada
The Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, was fought in Chile between South American patriots and Spanish royalists, during the South American wars of independence. The result was a defeat for the rebels, who took their revenge at the Battle of Maipú, Argentine general José de San Martín, fearing an attack on his flank, ordered a change of position of the troops. Knowing their disadvantage in number and cavalry, the Spanish General Osorio was not eager to engage in battle either, after a suggestion from Colonel José Ordóñez a confrontation was decided upon, under Ordoñez command. The Spanish attacked at 19,30, when the last thing the patriots expected was a battle, the surprise attack happened before the patriot army had re-positioned itself, and was a directed at the battalion under General Bernardo OHiggins command, near San Martíns position. Soon, the vanguard soldiers dispersed, leaving OHiggins in a bad position, his horse was shot dead, in an uncharacteristic move, instead of ordering retreat San Martín held the position, which made more patriot soldiers flee under enemy fire, leaving their weapons and supplies behind.
After the initial disorder, however, he ordered retreat, Colonel Juan Gregorio de Las Heras took command, and led the men during the retreat, while trying to recover as much artillery and weapons as possible. San Martín and OHiggins were being chased by royalist forces. By March 21, the patriot forces of around three and half thousand men reunited in San Fernando, while news of the defeat reached Santiago. Rumors of deaths of OHiggins and San Martín were spreading, Im reuniting the troops right now, with happy results, as Im already counting 4,000 men from Curicó to Pelequén. The battle resulted in around 150 killed, and two hundred taken prisoner, several hundred had deserted, the whole artillery of the Argentine side was lost along with considerable numbers of horses and weapons from both the Chilean and Argentine parts of the army. Historia de Chile Chillán Viejo, Chile Julio Mario Luqui-Lagleyze[Luqui-Lagleyze, Julio Mario, por el rey, la fe y la patria, el Ejército Realista del Perú en la independencia sudamericana, 1810-1825.
Madrid, Ministerio de Defensa de España, Secretaría General Técnica, memorias para la historia de las armas españolas en el Perú. Latin Americas Wars, The age of the caudillo, 1791-1899
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Santiago de Chile, or simply Santiago, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chiles largest and the most densely populated conurbation, the city is entirely located in the countrys central valley, at an elevation of 520 m above mean sea level. Founded in 1541, Santiago has been the city of Chile since colonial times. The city has a core of 19th century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic. Santiagos cityscape is shaped by several hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River. The Andes Mountains can be seen from most points in the city and these mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem, particularly during winter. The city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago is within a few hours of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean, Santiago is the cultural and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations.
The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets mostly in nearby Valparaíso, Santiago is named after the biblical figure St. James. In Chile, there are entities which bear the name of Santiago that are often confused. The Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as downtown or Central Santiago, is a division that comprises roughly the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The city and regions demonym is santiaguinos and santiaguinas, according to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups of the X millennium settled in the Santiago basin. The groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. The villages established in the belonging to picunches groups or promaucaes, were subject to the Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strengths as Huaca de Chena, the area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail.
Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro from Peru and having made the journey from Cuzco. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill, the natives accepted and even recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as St. Lucia. Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, in the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governors house were selected
Army of the Andes
The Army of the Andes was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire. In 1817, it crossed the Andes Mountains from the Argentine province of Cuyo, the exact number of the army varies between different sources, some have put the number as low as 3500, while others have it being as high as 6000 men. The army consisted of Argentines and Chileans, and included some 1200 auxiliaries to help in provisioning and supply, as well as a complement of artillery. While the army was made up of a less than experienced military force, San Martín intended to lead, with discipline and equipment. Because this second pass was more negotiable, the artillery was taken in the second column and these two divisions were the main body of the Army, but there were smaller detachments sent to the north and south as flanking wings. The smaller division to the north was composed of some 130 infantry as well as a group of Chilean expatriates, to the south was a group under the command of the Chilean Ramón Freire Serrano.
After their 25-day journey across the Andes, the Army of the Andes successfully met royalist forces in the Battle of Chacabuco, after his refusal, OHiggins was finally elected. This new army fought the counterattack of royalist Army of Osorio at battles of Cancha Rayada, the number of black soldiers in the army of San Martin were numerous and grouped to form the majority of 7th, 8th and 11th Infantry Regiments. According to military doctrine of San Martin, colored soldiers would serve better in the infantry branch among the three arms of the army of the Andes, blacks represented two thirds of soldiers of the Army of the Andes. They were estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000 Argentine freedmen who crossed the Andes to Chile in 1817 with San Martin, black troops were mainly recruited from slaves which Lynch estimates a figure of 1,554 slaves. Of those 2,500 black soldiers who began the crossing of the Andes, in all of these black regiments commissioned officers should be white under Argentine law.
But San Martin sought to change the rules so that at least the black soldiers reached grades corporals, both regiments 7 and 8 will be unified in Peru in the black regiment of the Río de la Plata. Appleton and company Scheina, Latin America’s Wars, The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899, Brassey’s, ISBN 1-57488-450-6
Francisco Antonio Pascual de la Ascensión Ruiz de Tagle y Portales was a Chilean political figure. In 1830, he was president of the country as Provisional President of Republic of Chile elected by Congress. He was born in Santiago, the son of Manuel Ruiz de Tagle y Jaraquemada, in his youth and according to the social norms of the time, he became a militia officer in the Regimiento del Principe. He married Rosario Larraín Rojas and had nine children, the son of a royalist family, he was a tepid participant in the Chilean War of Independence, specially during the period of the first Government Juntas. After the Battle of Maipu, he became an ardent independentist, since 1811, he represented Los Andes in parliament. He was a member of the Government Junta, as a deputy, in 1822, became superintendent of police of Santiago. He was Finance Minister under Vice President Francisco Antonio Pinto, from July 28,1828 to July 16,1829, in the course of events leading to the Chilean Civil War of 1829, he was part of the Government Junta.
Immediately that Ruiz-Tagle took over as president, the leaders of the liberal side were eliminated from the army roosters. This guaranteed the restart of the hostilities, diego Portales, cousin to Ruiz-Tagle, maneuvered to have the president removed. President Ruiz-Tagle and all the cabinet resigned only six weeks on March 31, claiming health problems, under the administration of Manuel Bulnes, Ruiz-Tagle was nominated as privy council. He died on the Chacra Lo Matta of Las Condes on March 23,1860, a History of Chile, 1808-2002, Collier, S. Sater, W. F
Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. He was a landowner of Spanish and Irish ancestry. Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile, he is considered one of Chiles founding fathers and his mother was Isabel Riquelme, a prominent local, the daughter of Don Simón Riquelme y Goycolea, a member of the Chillán Cabildo, or council. OHiggins spent his years with his mothers family in central-southern Chile, and he lived with the Albano family. At age 15, OHiggins was sent to Lima by his father and he had a distant relationship with Ambrosio, who supported him financially and was concerned with his education, but the two never met in person. At the time of his sons birth, Ambrosio was only a military officer. Two years later, Isabel married Don Félix Rodríguez, a friend of her father, OHiggins used his mothers surname until the death of his father in 1801. Bernardos father continued his rise and became Viceroy of Peru.
There, studying history and the arts, OHiggins became acquainted with American ideas of independence and he met Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan idealist and believer in independence, and joined a Masonic Lodge established by Miranda, dedicated to achieving the independence of Latin America. In 1798 OHiggins went to Spain from Great Britain, his return to the Americas delayed by the French Revolutionary Wars and his father died in 1801, leaving OHiggins a large piece of land, the Hacienda Las Canteras, near the Chilean city of Los Ángeles. OHiggins returned to Chile in 1802, adopted his fathers surname. In 1806, he was appointed to the cabildo as the representative of Laja, in 1808 Napoleon took control of Spain, triggering a sequence of events in South America. On 18 September 1810, OHiggins joined the revolt against the now French dominated Spanish government and this date is now recognized as Chiles Independence Day. OHiggins was a friend of Juan Martínez de Rozas, an old friend of his father.
OHiggins strongly recommended that a national congress be created, and was elected a deputy to the first National Congress of Chile in 1811 as a representative of the Laja district. Tensions between the royalist and increasingly pro-independence factions, to which OHiggins remained attached as a junior member, the anti-Royalist camp in Chile was deeply split along lines of patronage and personality, by political beliefs, and by geography. José Miguel Carrera, the most prominent member of the Carrera family, enjoyed a power base in Santiago, that of de Rozas, and OHiggins, lay in Concepción. As a result, OHiggins was to find himself increasingly in political and military competition with Carrera—although early on, de Rozas initially appointed OHiggins to a minor military position in 1812, possibly because of his illegitimate origins, poor health, or lack of military training
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery, in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1, the rank of captain is generally considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. The rank of captain should not be confused with the rank of captain or with the British-influenced air force rank of group captain. The term ultimately goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning chief, prominent, in Middle English adopted as capitayn in the 14th century, the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is earlier, from the 1550s.
He would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant, the funding to provide for the troops came from the monarch or his government, the captain had to be responsible for it. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. In most countries, the air force is the junior service, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdoms Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces, a group captain is OF-5 and was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey, a variety of images illustrative of different forces insignia for captain are shown below, Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the coastal part of the country. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms an urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of almost 10 million, Lima is the most populous area of Peru. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18,1535 and it became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru, around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the New World, the National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12,1551 during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. In October 2013 Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games and it hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant.
In October 2015 Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group, according to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century and this oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted, the chronicles show Límac replacing Ychma as the common name for the area. Modern scholars speculate that the word Lima originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq, linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of lime, the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell into disuse and Lima became the name of choice, on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru.
The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people assume that this is because its original Inca name is Talking River. However, the inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua, later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river, historically, the Flag of Lima has been known as the «Banner of Perus Kings City»
Not long after becoming the Supreme Director of Chile, OHiggins sent the Aguila, a ship captured in the port of Valparaiso, to rescue Chile and patriots stranded on the Juan Fernández Islands. OHiggins formed an army to face the Spanish Empire forces hidden in the port of Talcahuano and the montoneras and he created the Vindication Tribunal, a legal apparatus that granted patriots the right to reclaim goods taken by the Spanish during the Reconquest. He ordered the exile of priests advocating for continued fealty to the Spanish throne, the independent people waited in Talca for the royalists, but the royalists took another path. San Martin and OHiggins were caught by surprise, in Santiago fear had spread with the defeat of the Ejército de los Andes and the Chilean army. Many people in Santiago were already going into self-imposed exile again in Mendoza, rumors of the deaths of OHiggins and San Martin spread rapidly. In these circumstances, in the cabild of the March 23, Manuel Rodríguez yelled We still have our homeland, and proclaimed himself the supreme director.
He created a squadron called Húsares de la Muerte and it attracted many carreristas, swearing to die before seeing the homeland in the hands of Spain again. Knowing this, OHiggins went back to Santiago against medical advice, both were welcomed with cannon shots on the sunrise of March 24. Despite having signed the Declaration of Independence and Argentina experienced unstable independence attributable to the presence of the Royalists in Peru, San Martín continued his planned invasion of Peru with the added support of OHiggins. In 1822, San Martin retired from the campaign, resigning as Protector of Peru, simon Bolivar took his place, backed by the Colombian government, and continued to fight for Perus independence. Cochrane would settle the decisive blow to the Royalists in Chile when, in 1820, he seized the Valdivian Fort System, Cochrane succeeded in the Capture of Valdivia using a surprise land assault. After the capture of Valdivia, Lord Cochrane left Colonel Jorge Beauchef as commander, on March 6,1820, Colonel Beauchef overcame the royalists during the battle of El Toro.
From Valdivia, Cochrane went to Chiloe and he failed in a ground attack on Ancud and was forced to retreat. After the battle of El Toro, he began to consolidate his armys presence in the southern Chilean region, excluding Chiloé