Sialkot is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistan's 13th largest city and located 9 km from Ghuinke, is located in north-east Punjab — one of Pakistan's most industrialised regions. Along with the nearby cities of Gujranwala and Gujrat, Sialkot forms part of the so-called Golden Triangle of industrial cities with export-oriented economies. Sialkot is believed to be site of ancient Sagala, a city razed by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE, made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I in the 2nd century BCE – a time during which the city prospered as a major centre for trade and Buddhist thought. Sialkot continued to be a major political centre, until it was eclipsed by Lahore around the turn of the first millennium; the city rose again in prominence during the British era, is now one of Pakistan's most important industrial centres. Sialkot is wealthy relative to other cities in South Asia, with an estimated 2014 per capita income of $2800; the city has been noted by The Economist for its entrepreneurial spirit, productive business climate that have made Sialkot an example of a small Pakistani city that has emerged as a "world-class manufacturing hub."
The small city exported $2 billion worth of goods in 2015, or about 10% of Pakistan's total exports. Sialkot is home to the Sialkot International Airport – Pakistan's first owned public airport. Ambiguity regarding Sialkot's ancient history has resulted in the promulgation of various myths and legends to explain the city's origins. One tradition states that the city was founded as the capital city of the Madra kingdom by King Shalya - who served as a general in the central Kurukshetra War of the Mahabharata; the first record of Sialkot dates from the invasion of Alexander the Great, who conquered upper Punjab in 326 BCE. The Anabasis of Alexander, written by the Roman-Greek historian Arrian, recorded that Alexander captured ancient Sialkot, recorded as Sagala, from the Cathaeans, who had entrenched themselves there; the city had been home to 80,000 residents on the eve of Alexander's invasion, but was razed as a warning against any other nearby cities that might resist his invasion. The ancient city was rebuilt, made capital by the Indo-Greek king Menander I, of the Euthydemid dynasty, who ruled between 135 and 160 BCE.
The rebuilt city was shifted from the older city, as rebuilding on the same spot was considered an ill-omen. Under Menander's rule, the city prospered as a major trading centre renowned for its silk. Menander embraced Buddhism, in a process recorded in the Buddhist text Milinda Panha; the text offers an early description of the city's cityscape and status as a prosperous trade centre with numerous green spaces. Following his conversion, Sialkot developed as a major centre for Buddhist though. Ancient Sialkot was recorded by Ptolemy in his 1st century CE work, Geography, in which he refers to the city as Euthymedeia. Around 460 CE, the Hephthalites known as the White Huns, invaded the region from Central Asia, forcing the ruling family of nearby Taxila to seek refuge in Sialkot. Sialkot itself was soon captured, the city was made capital of the Hephthalite Empire around 515, during the reign of Toramana. During the reign of his son, the Hephthalite Empire reached its zenith; the Hepthalites were defeated in 528 by a coalition of princes led by Prince Yasodhara.
The city was visited by the Chinese traveller Xuanzang in 633, who recorded the city's name as She-kie-lo. Xuanzang reported that the city had been rebuilt 15 li, or 2.5 miles, away from the city ruined by Alexander the Great. During this time, Sialkot served as the political nucleus of the Punjab region; the city was invaded in 643 by Rajput princes from Jammu, who held the city until the Muslim invasions during the medieval era. Little was recorded of the city's history during the Rajput period, the city would not feature prominently again until the medieval period. Around the year 1000, Sialkot began to decline in importance as the nearby city of Lahore rose to prominence. Following to fall of Lahore to the Ghaznavid Empire in the early 11th century, the capital of the Hindu Shahi empire was shifted from Lahore to Sialkot. Ghaznavid expansion in northern Punjab encouraged local Khokhar tribes to stop paying tribute to the Rajas of Jammu. Sialkot became a part of the medieval Sultanate of Delhi after Muhammad Ghauri conquered Punjab in 1185.
Ghauri was unable to conquer the larger city of Lahore, but deemed Sialkot important enough to warrant a garrison. He extensively repaired the Sialkot Fort around the time of his conquest of Punjab, left the region in charge of Hussain Churmali while he returned to Ghazni. Sialkot was quickly laid siege to by Khokhar tribesmen, Khusrau Malik, the last Ghaznavid sultan, though he was defeated during Ghauri's return to Punjab in 1186. In the 1200s, Sialkot was the only area of western Punjab, ruled by the Mamluk Sultanate in Delhi; the area had been captured by the Ghauri prince Yildiz, but was recaptured by Sultan Iltutmish in 1217. Around 1223, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last king of the Khwarazmian dynasty of Central Asia that had fled invasion of Genghis Khan there captured Sialkot and Lahore, before being driven out by Iltutmish's forces towards Uch Sharif. During the 13th century, Imam Ali-ul-Haq, Sialkot's most revered Sufi warrior-saint, arrived from Arabia, began his missionary work in the region that converted large numbers of Hindus to Islam, thereby transforming Sialkot into a Muslim city.
The saint died in battle, is revered as a martyr. Sialkot fell to Shaykha Khokhar around 1414. Sialkot's population continued to grow in the 1400s under the rule of
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
2008 Indo-Pakistani standoff
After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, India accused Pakistan for coordinating the attacks through its Internal Intellegence Service the ISI. The accusations lead to strained relations between the two countries for a period of time; the accusations were taken by the International Community, resulting in the United States to call for probes into it. The standoff was significant because both these countries are nuclear nations, having first tested nuclear weapons in 1974 and 1998 respectively; the countries had participated in 4 wars since their partition and independence in 1947, relations between the two nations have been strained throughout their histories. The lone surviving terrorist of the Mumbai attacks confirmed that the terrorists came from Pakistan, that they were trained by Lashkar-e-Taiba operatives. In 2011, he confessed that the ISI had been supporting them throughout the attacks; the Mumbai attacks lasted from 26 to 29 November 2008. At a state lunch in Lahore on 7 December, the US Arizona Senator John McCain relayed a message from Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh to several of Pakistan's dignitaries, including Pakistan's Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani that if Pakistan did not arrest those involved with the attacks, India would begin aerial attacks against Pakistan.
On 19 December, private intelligence agency, Stratfor, in its latest report, said, "Indian military operations against targets in Pakistan have in fact been prepared, await the signal to go forward". They wrote that, "Indian military preparations, unlike previous cases, will be carried out in stealth". India's Border Security Force has been put on high alert on the western sector, as well as the eastern sector, to prevent terrorist infiltration. In mid December Indian fighter planes intruded Pakistan's air space at two places. On 22 December, the Pakistan Air Force began combat air patrol over several cities, including Islamabad and Rawalpindi, to avert any further air intrusion. Pakistan's Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said, "Pakistan defence forces and armed forces are ready to face any challenge, as Pakistan has the full right to defend itself". Pakistan PM Yousuf Raza Gilani said, "Pakistan remains united and is ready to fight anyone to defend itself". Pakistani Defense Minister Ahmad Mukhtar Chaudhry said, "If India tried to thrust war the armed forces of Pakistan have all the potential and right to defend ".
According to Pakistani media, India had started deploying troops along the Rajasthan border, had tightened security in and around the defence airstrips. More radars and quick reaction teams were deployed along the India-Pakistan border. Indian forces were on regular firing exercises at locations, like Lathi Firing Range in Jaisalmer, Mahsan in Bikaner and Ganganagar. On 23 December, Kamal Hyder, Al Jazeera's correspondent in Pakistan, wrote that the Pakistan "navy, marines air force and army were on red alert" and that "the chiefs of Pakistan's armed forces together with the Chairman Joint Chiefs were holding what had been described as an emergency meeting at joint headquarters in Rawalpindi", he wrote that "he Pakistan air force have been seen visibly in a number of locations flying close to the Pakistani-India border, in what is being described as an aggressive patrolling mode, following reports that India is planning pre-emptive strikes against locations in Pakistan". A Pakistan airforce spokesperson said "n view of the current environment, the Pakistan Air Force has enhanced its vigilance".
Pakistan army chief General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, said that Pakistan would mount an equal response "within minutes", to any Indian attack. Pakistan continued to combat air patrol over several cities; the Taliban and affiliated groups declared their solidarity with Pakistan. The banned Tehrik-e-Taliban had proclaimed that they would send "thousands of well-armed militants" to wage jihad against India if war should break out. Hundreds of would-be bombers were equipped with explosive-laden vehicles. On 24 December, P. K. Barbora, the air officer commanding-in-chief of Western Air Command, said "he IAF has earmarked 5,000 targets in Pakistan, but whether we will cross the LoC or the International Border to hit the enemy targets will have to be decided by the political leadership of the country". India Today reported that "Indian Air Force fighter planes are engaged in round the clock sorties. An unusual hectic activity of Indian Air Force has been visible along the border for past some days". On the same day, Stratfor confirmed that "the state government of Rajasthan has ordered residents of its border villages to be prepared for relocation".
President Asif Ali Zardari said "We will defend the country till the last drop of our blood", "we will defend the country till our last breath". Pakistan began deploying warplanes to forward air bases. On 25 December, the ruling UPA government in India played down apprehensions of an imminent military conflagration; the Indian Prime Minister made it clear that "nobody wanted war". The Pakistan Air Force played a subsequent role during this time and the Indian Air Force downplayed the sorties by PAF fighter jets, saying it was an air defence exercise. Officials in New Delhi were amused at PAF's attempt to create war hysteria in the region. However, R. C. Dhyani, DIG of Rajasthan frontier BSF, said, " lot of military movement is being noticed in districts just across the international border for the last few days, not normal" and "Pakistan has deployed more troops across border"; the Chairman Senate of Pakistan, Senator Raza Rabbani, said that any surgical strike into its territory would be taken as an act of war and would be repulsed with "full force", that "ach and eve
The Kargil War known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control. In India, the conflict is referred to as Operation Vijay, the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector; the cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers disguised as Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid; the Indian Army supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. Facing international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC.
The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, which posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. It is one of the few instances of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states. India had conducted its first successful test in 1974. Before the Partition of India in 1947, Kargil was a tehsil of the Ladakh district, a sparsely populated region with diverse linguistic and religious groups, living in isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains; the First Kashmir War concluded with the LOC bisecting the Ladakh district, with the Skardu tehsil going to Pakistan. After Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the two nations signed the Simla Agreement promising not to engage in armed conflict with respect to that boundary; the town of Kargil is located 205 km from Srinagar, facing the Northern Areas across the LOC. Like other areas in the Himalayas, Kargil has a continental climate. Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long and chilly with temperatures dropping to −48 °C.
An Indian national highway connecting Srinagar to Leh cuts through Kargil. The area that witnessed the infiltration and fighting is a 160-kilometre long stretch of ridges overlooking this only road linking Srinagar and Leh; the military outposts on the ridges above the highway were around 5,000 m high, with a few as high as 5,485 m. Apart from the district capital, the populated areas near the front line in the conflict included the Mushko Valley and the town of Drass, southwest of Kargil, as well as the Batalik sector and other areas, northeast of Kargil. Kargil was targeted because the terrain was conducive to the preemptive seizure of several unoccupied military positions. With tactically vital features and well-prepared defensive posts atop the peaks, a defender on the high ground would enjoy advantages akin to a fortress. Any attack to dislodge a defender from high ground in mountain warfare requires a far higher ratio of attackers to defenders, the difficulties would be exacerbated by the high altitude and freezing temperatures.
Kargil is just 173 km from the Pakistani-controlled town of Skardu, capable of providing logistical and artillery support to Pakistani combatants. A road between Kargil and Skardu exists, closed in 1949. After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, there had been a long period with few direct armed conflicts involving the military forces of the two neighbours – notwithstanding the efforts of both nations to control the Siachen Glacier by establishing military outposts on the surrounding mountains ridges and the resulting military skirmishes in the 1980s. During the 1990s, escalating tensions and conflict due to separatist activities in Kashmir, some of which were supported by Pakistan, as well as the conducting of nuclear tests by both countries in 1998, led to an belligerent atmosphere. In an attempt to defuse the situation, both countries signed the Lahore Declaration in February 1999, promising to provide a peaceful and bilateral solution to the Kashmir conflict. During the winter of 1998–1999, some elements of the Pakistani Armed Forces were covertly training and sending Pakistani troops and paramilitary forces, some in the guise of mujahideen, into territory on the Indian side of the LOC.
The infiltration was codenamed "Operation Badr". Pakistan believed that any tension in the region would internationalise the Kashmir issue, helping it to secure a speedy resolution, yet another goal may have been to boost the morale of the decade-long rebellion in Indian Administered Kashmir by taking a proactive role. Pakistani Lieutenant general Shahid Aziz, head of ISI analysis wing, has confirmed there were no mujahideen but only regular Pakistan Army soldiers who took part in the Kargil War. "There were only taped wireless messages, which fooled no one. Our soldiers were made to occupy barren ridges, with hand held weapons and ammunition", Lt Gen Aziz wrote in his article in The Nation daily in January 2013; some writers have spe
4th Horse (Hodson's Horse)
4th Horse is a cavalry regiment of the Indian Army which originated as part of the British Indian Army. It was raised by Brevet Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, exists today as the 4th Horse Regiment in the Indian Army; the first risala or troop was raised by Sardar Man Singh. The force was raised as an irregular cavalry regiment to assist with putting down the rebellion, continued as part of the British Indian Army; the official designation has changed several times since the regiment's inception in 1857. In 1859, the regiment was split up into two regiments which survived broadly as the 9th Bengal Lancers and 10th Bengal Lancers. In 1878, the 10th Bengal Lancers came to be known as the "Duke of Cambridge's own." In 1921, the British decided to cut down on the number of cavalry regiments, re-amalgamated the two as the 10th Duke of Cambridge's Own Lancers. The regiment fought at the Battle of Cambrai in the First World War, it still recalls the latter as the regiment's most splendid battle, celebrates Cambrai Day every year.
The regiment is now an armoured regiment of the post-independence Indian Army. 1857 Hodson's Horse 1858 2nd Regiment of Hodson's Horse 1861 10th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 1864 10th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 1874 10th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 1878 10th Bengal Lancers 1901 10th Bengal Lancers 1903 10th Duke of Cambridge's Own Lancers Colonel George Lindsay Garstin, joined the 9th Bengal Cavalry on 3 August 1877, served in the Second Afghan War 1880 and led the regiment in the Chitral relief column. He invented the wristwatch in the 1890s, getting a relative, Arthur Garstin to fashion him straps for his pocket watch, he commanded the Regiment 1894 - 1901. Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson, Commanding officer on formation. Colonel Osmond Barnes, commanded 10th Bengal Lancers and was Chief Herald of India General Sir Henry Dermott Daly Miles Smeeton Traveller and author Charles Chenevix Trench author and historian. Risaldar-Major Man Singh, raised the first troop or risala Risaldar-Major Mir Dad Khan, Tarin/Tareen, father of Pakistani general and president Ayub Khan.
This is a photograph about. Www.britishempire.co.uk states the Europeans to be: Lt. Clifford Henry Mecham. National Army Museum, names the European officers as: Lt. Clifford Henry Mecham. Surgeon Thomas Anderson; the Bridgman Art Library gives the European officer seated as Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson. The attribution to Hodson is incorrect as there is otherwise only one extant image of this famous officer, the engraving printed as frontispiece to his biography "Rider on a Grey Horse", by B. J. Cork, 1958. There appears to be no disagreement as to its year. Reputable officers: Major Bhupinder Singh, Mahavir Chakra, Mirza Ahmed Bey. Kempton, Chris. A Register of Titles of the Units of the H. E. I. C. & Indian Armies 1666–1947. Gaylor, John. Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903–1991. Uniforms of the late 19th Century
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four Indo-Pakistan Wars fought between the two newly independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar from Waziristan, in an effort to capture Kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance; the inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries. The Maharaja faced an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch, lost control of the western districts of his kingdom. On 22 October 1947, Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state; these local tribal militias and irregular Pakistani forces moved to take Srinagar, but on reaching Baramulla, they took to plunder and stalled. Maharaja Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance, help was offered, but it was subject to his signing an Instrument of Accession to India.
The war was fought by the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces and by tribal militias from the Frontier Tribal Areas adjoining the North-West Frontier Province. Following the accession of the state to India on 26 October 1947, Indian troops were air-lifted to Srinagar, the state capital; the British commanding officers refused the entry of Pakistani troops into the conflict, citing the accession of the state to India. However in 1948, they relented and the Pakistani armies entered the war after this; the fronts solidified along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared at 23:59 on the night of 31 December 1948 and became effective on the night of 1 January 1949; the result of the war was inconclusive. However, most neutral assessments agree that India was the victor of the war as it was able to defend about two-thirds of the Kashmir including Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Prior to 1815, the area now known as "Jammu and Kashmir" comprised 22 small independent states carved out of territories controlled by the Amir of Afghanistan, combined with those of local small rulers.
These were collectively referred to as the "Punjab Hill States". These small states, ruled by Rajput kings, were variously independent, vassals of the Mughal Empire since the time of Emperor Akbar or sometimes controlled from Kangra state in the Himachal area. Following the decline of the Mughals, turbulence in Kangra and invasions of Gorkhas, the hill states fell successively under the control of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh; the First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire, which asserted sovereignty over Kashmir, the East India Company. In the Treaty of Lahore of 1846, the Sikhs were made to surrender the valuable region between the Beas River and the Sutlej River and required to pay an indemnity of 1.2 million rupees. Because they could not raise this sum, the East India Company allowed the Dogra ruler Gulab Singh to acquire Kashmir from the Sikh kingdom in exchange for making a payment of 750,000 rupees to the Company. Gulab Singh became the first Maharaja of the newly formed princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, founding a dynasty, to rule the state, the second-largest principality during the British Raj, until India gained its independence in 1947.
The years 1946–1947 saw the rise of All-India Muslim League and Muslim nationalism, demanding a separate state for India's Muslims. The demand took a violent turn on the Direct Action Day and inter-communal violence between Hindus and Muslims became endemic. A decision was taken on 3 June 1947 to divide British India into two separate states, the Dominion of Pakistan comprising the Muslim majority areas and the Union of India comprising the rest; the two provinces Punjab and Bengal with large Muslim-majority areas were to be divided between the two dominions. An estimated 11 million people migrated between the two parts of Punjab, 1 million perished in the inter-communal violence. Jammu and Kashmir, being adjacent to the Punjab province, was directly affected by the happenings in Punjab; the original target date for the transfer of power to the new dominions was June 1948. However, fearing the rise of inter-communal violence, the British Viceroy Lord Mountbatten advanced the date to 15 August 1947.
This gave only 6 weeks to complete all the arrangements for partition. Mountbatten's original plan was to stay on the joint Governor General for both the dominions till June 1948. However, this was not accepted by the Pakistani leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah. In the event, Mountbatten stayed on as the Governor General of India, whereas Pakistan chose Jinnah as its Governor General, it was envisaged. Hence British officers stayed on after the transfer of power; the service chiefs were responsible to them. The overall administrative control, but not operational control, was vested with Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck, titled the'Supreme Commander', answerable to a newly formed Joint Defence Council of the two dominions. India appointed General Rob Lockhart as its Army chief and Pakistan appointed General Frank Messervy; the presence of the British commanding officers on both sides made the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 a strange war. The two commanding officers were in daily telephone contact and adopted mutually defensive positions.
The attitude was that "you can hit them so hard but not too hard, otherwise there will be all kinds of repercussions." Both Lockhart and Messervy were replaced in the course of war, their successors Roy Bucher and Douglas Gracey tried to exercise restrain
The 19th Lancers is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. Before 1956, it was known as 19th King George V's Own Lancers, a regular cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army, it was formed by the amalgamation of 18th King George's Own Lancers and 19th Lancers. On Partition of India in 1947, the regiment was allotted to Pakistan; the regiment was raised at Gwalior during the upheaval of the Indian Mutiny in 1858, as the 2nd Regiment of Mahratta Horse. In December, it was joined by a small body of independent cavalry of Punjabi Rajput Muslims called the Tiwana Horse. In 1861, it was redesignated as the 18th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry, becoming Lancers in 1886; the regiment served in the Second Afghan War during 1879-80 and took part in the 1897 Tirah Campaign on the North West Frontier of India. During World War I, the regiment was sent to France in 1914 with the Indian Cavalry Corps and participated in the Battles of the Somme and Cambrai. In 1918, it moved to Egypt joining the 13th Cavalry Brigade and took part in General Allenby's brilliant campaign in Palestine.
The regiment fought in the Battle of Megiddo and the subsequent dash towards Damascus - riding 550 miles in 38 days. 1861 18th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 1886 18th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 1901 18th Bengal Lancers 1906 18th Prince of Wales's Own Tiwana Lancers 1910 18th King George's Own Lancers The regiment was raised as the Fane's Horse by Captain Walter Fane at Cawnpore in 1860 for service in the Second Opium War. In China, the regiment fought in several sharp actions including those at Sinho, Chan-chi-wan and Pa-le-chiao, it took part in the capture of Chinese capital of Pekin. In 1861, the regiment was redesignated as the 19th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry, becoming Lancers in 1864, it served in the Second Afghan War and fought in the Battle of Ahmad Khel in 1880. During World War I, the regiment served in France in the 2nd Cavalry Brigade and participated in the Battles of the Somme and Cambrai. In 1918, it took part in the Palestinian Campaign and fought with distinction in the Battle of Megiddo.
1861 19th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 1864 19th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 1874 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 1901 19th Bengal Lancers 1903 19th Lancers After the First World War, the number of Indian cavalry regiments was reduced from thirty-nine to twenty-one. However, instead of disbanding the surplus units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs; this resulted in renaming of the entire cavalry line. The 18th King George's Own Lancers and 19th Lancers were merged to form the 18th/19th Cavalry. In 1923, the regiment was redesignated as the 19th King George's Own Lancers, in 1937 as 19th King George V's Own Lancers, their uniform was scarlet with blue overalls. The badge consisted of crossed lances with the cypher of King George V at the intersection, a crown above, the title scroll below; the new class composition of the regiment was one squadron each of Punjabi Muslims and Hindu Jats. During the Second World War, the 19th KGVO Lancers was the divisional Reconnaissance Regiment of 25th Indian Infantry Division and fought in the Third Arakan Campaign in Burma.
In November 1944, the 25th Indian Division cleared the Mayu Range down to Foul Point and occupied Akyab Island. These actions included the decisive Battle of Kangaw and landings at Myebon and Ru-Ywa to intercept the retreating Japanese; the regiment was engaged in these battles. In May, a squadron of 19th KGVO Lancers took part in the seaborne assault landing near Rangoon, which led to the capture of the Burmese capital. In April 1945 the 25th Indian Division was withdrawn to South India to prepare for the invasion of Malaya. Although Japan surrendered in August, the operation proceeded as planned and the 25th Division along with 19th KGVO Lancers was the first formation to land in Malaya, it proceeded to occupy the capital Kuala Lumpur and accepted the surrender of the Japanese Army. In 1947, with the partitioning of the British Indian empire and the creation of a separate state of Pakistan, the 19th King George V's Own Lancers was transferred to the Pakistan Army; the regiment exchanged its Jat squadron with the Central India Horse for its Punjabi Mussalman squadron, gave its Sikh squadron to Skinner's Horse in return for its Mussalman squadron.
In 1956, when Pakistan became a republic, all references to the British royalty were dropped and the regiment became the 19th Lancers. During the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War, the regiment had the unique distinction of serving in four theatres of war, its Recce Troop served with 12 Division in Operation Grand Slam, while the rest of the regiment was deployed near Kasur as part of 1 Armoured Division. From Kasur, it was sent to Lahore Sector and finally to Chawinda as part of 6 Armoured Division, it was here, that 19th Lancers got a chance to go into action. The regiment played an important role in blunting the Indian offensive. In 1993-94, the regiment was deployed in Mogadishu, Somalia, as part of United Nations Peacekeeping Forces; the regiment's performance was commendable and it played a key role in rescuing the American Rangers, who were trapped by Somali gunmen after the disastrous American operation on 3 and 4 October 1993. Can recollect two Officers of Pre partition, Maj Gurbachan singh and Maj Weatherill, former rose to Army Cdr and latter speaker House of Lords.
Battle of Taku Forts, Pekin 1860, Ahmad Khel, Afghanistan 1878-80, Punjab Frontier, Somme 1916, Flers-Courcelette, Cambrai 1917, France and Flanders 1914–18, Sharon, Palestine 1918, Mayu Valley, Kangaw, Ru-Ywa, Tamandu, Rangoon Road, Burma 1942