Battle of Cold Harbor

The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought during the American Civil War near Mechanicsville, from May 31 to June 12, 1864, with the most significant fighting occurring on June 3. It was one of the final battles of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, is remembered as one of American history's bloodiest, most lopsided battles. Thousands of Union soldiers were killed or wounded in a hopeless frontal assault against the fortified positions of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's army. On May 31, as Grant's army once again swung around the right flank of Lee's army, Union cavalry seized the crossroads of Old Cold Harbor, about 10 miles northeast of the Confederate capital of Richmond, holding it against Confederate attacks until the Union infantry arrived. Both Grant and Lee, whose armies had suffered enormous casualties in the Overland Campaign, received reinforcements. On the evening of June 1, the Union VI Corps and XVIII Corps arrived and assaulted the Confederate works to the west of the crossroads with some success.

On June 2, the remainder of both armies arrived and the Confederates built an elaborate series of fortifications 7 miles long. At dawn on June 3, three Union corps attacked the Confederate works on the southern end of the line and were repulsed with heavy casualties. Attempts to assault the northern end of the line and to resume the assaults on the southern were unsuccessful. Grant said of the battle in his Personal Memoirs, "I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was made.... No advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we sustained." The armies confronted each other on these lines until the night of June 12, when Grant again advanced by his left flank, marching to the James River. It was an impressive defensive victory for Lee. In the final stage, he entrenched himself within besieged Petersburg before fleeing westward across Virginia. Grant's Overland Campaign was one of a series of simultaneous offensives the newly appointed general in chief launched against the Confederacy.

By late May 1864, only two of these continued to advance: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and the Overland Campaign, in which Grant accompanied and directly supervised the Army of the Potomac and its commander, Maj. Gen. George G. Meade. Grant's campaign objective was not the Confederate capital of Richmond, but the destruction of Lee's army. President Abraham Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, "Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also." Although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition. Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had greater resources to replace lost soldiers and equipment. On May 5, after Grant's army crossed the Rapidan River and entered the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, it was attacked by Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Although Lee was outnumbered, about 60,000 to 100,000, his men fought fiercely and the dense foliage provided a terrain advantage.

After two days of fighting and 29,000 casualties, the results were inconclusive and neither army was able to obtain an advantage. Lee had not turned him back. Under similar circumstances, previous Union commanders had chosen to withdraw behind the Rappahannock, but Grant instead ordered Meade to move around Lee's right flank and seize the important crossroads at Spotsylvania Court House to the southeast, hoping that by interposing his army between Lee and Richmond, he could lure the Confederates into another battle on a more favorable field. Elements of Lee's army beat the Union army to the critical crossroads of Spotsylvania Court House and began entrenching, a tactic that became essential for the outnumbered defenders. Meade was dissatisfied with Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's Union cavalry's performance and released it from its reconnaissance and screening duties for the main body of the army to pursue and defeat the Confederate cavalry under Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. Sheridan's men mortally wounded Stuart in the tactically inconclusive Battle of Yellow Tavern and continued their raid toward Richmond, leaving Grant and Meade without the "eyes and ears" of their cavalry.

Near Spotsylvania Court House, fighting occurred on and off from May 8 through May 21, as Grant tried various schemes to break the Confederate line. On May 8, Union Maj. Gens. Gouverneur K. Warren and John Sedgwick unsuccessfully attempted to dislodge the Confederates under Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson from Laurel Hill, a position, blocking them from Spotsylvania Court House. On May 10, Grant ordered attacks across the Confederate line of earthworks, which by now extended over 4 miles, including a prominent salient known as the Mule Shoe. Although the Union troops failed again at Laurel Hill, an innovative assault attempt by Col. Emory Upton against the Mule Shoe showed promise. Grant used Upton's assault technique on a much larger scale on May 12 when he ordered the 15,000 men of Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock's corps to assault the Mule Shoe. Hancock was successful, but the Confederate leadership rallied and repulsed his incursion. Attacks by Maj. Gen. Horatio G. Wright on the western edge of the Mule Shoe, which became known as the "Bloody Angle," involved 24 hours of desperate hand-to-hand fighting, some of the most intense of the Civil War.

Supporting attacks by Warren and by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside were unsuccessful. In the end, the battle was tactically inconclusive, but with 32,000 casualties on both sides, it was the costliest battle of the campaign. Grant planned to end the st


Argyractis is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae. Argyractis argentilinealis Hampson, 1897 Argyractis berthalis Argyractis coloralis Argyractis dodalis Schaus, 1924 Argyractis drumalis Argyractis elphegalis Argyractis flavalis Argyractis iasusalis Argyractis lophosomalis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis obliquifascia Argyractis parthenodalis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis subornata Argyractis tapajosalis Schaus, 1924 Argyractis albipunctalis Argyractis argyrolepta Argyractis cancellalis Argyractis constellalis Argyractis fulvicinctalis Argyractis glycysalis Argyractis lanceolalis Argyractis leucostola Hampson, 1917 Argyractis leucostrialis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis multipicta Argyractis nandinalis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis nigerialis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis niphoplagialis Hampson, 1897 Argyractis nymphulalis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis pentopalis Hampson, 1906 Argyractis pavonialis Argyractis pervenustalis Argyractis supercilialis Argyractis ticonalis Dyar, 1914 Dyar, H. G. 1906: The North American Nymphulinae and Scopariinae.

Journal of the New York Entomological Society 14: 77–107. Dyar, H. G. 1917: Notes on North American Nymphulinae. Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 5: 75–79. Hampson, G. F. 1897: On the classification of two subfamilies of moths of the family Pyralidae: The Hydrocampinae and Scoparianae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London': 127–240. Hampson, G. F. 1906: Descriptions of new Pyralidae of the subfamilies Hydrocampinae and Scopariinae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology and Geology, 18: 373–393, 455–472. Hampson, G. F. 1917: Descriptions of new Pyralidae of the subfamilies Hydrocampinae, Scoparianae, & c. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology and Geology, 19: 361–376, 457–473. Schaus, W. 1906: Descriptions of new South American moths. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 30: 85-141. Schaus, W. 1924: New species of Pyralidae of the subfamily Nymphulinae from tropical America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 26: 93-130.

Walker, F. 1859: Pyralides. List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum, 19: 799–1036. Warren, W. 1889: On the Pyralidina collected in 1874 and 1875 by Dr. J. W. H. Trail in the basin of the Amazons. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1889: 227–295

Cnoc na PĂ©iste

Cnoc na Péiste, anglicised Knocknapeasta, at 988 metres, is the fourth-highest peak in Ireland, on the Arderin and Vandeleur-Lynam lists. Cnoc na Péiste is part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks range in County Kerry, it is one of only two 3,000 ft peaks in the Reeks with a prominence above the Marilyn threshold of 150 metres, is the highest summit of the Eastern Reeks. In 1943, a USAAF plane crashed into the mountain, killing all five crew, parts of the wreckage can still be seen in Lough Cummeenapeasta. Cnoc na Péiste is the highest point in the Eastern Reeks section of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks range, which consists of a long narrow ridge that takes in several summits before ending at Cruach Mhór 932 metres and descending into the Gap of Dunloe, to the Head of the Gap, only to rise up again towards the Purple Mountain Group. To the southwest of Cnoc na Péiste is the peak of Maolán Buí at 973 metres and a flat grassy ridge to the col at the Devil's Ladder. To the northeast is the narrow sharp rocky arête that joins with The Big Gun 939 metres, Cruach Mhór 932 metres, which marks the end of the eastern ridge of the Reeks.

Between Cnoc na Péiste and The Big Gun are two small lakes—Loch Coimín Piast and Lough Googh — one on either side of the ridge. A stream called Glasheencummeennapeasta flows northwards from Lough Cummeenapeasta into Hag's Glen, to join the Gaddagh River. On the other side of the ridge, a stream flows southwards from Lough Googh into the Derrycarna River; because of its positioning, Cnoc na Péiste is climbed as part of a horseshoe of the eastern section of the Reeks, starting from the Hag's Glen, taking in Maolan Bui and The Big Gun, or as part of the longer MacGillycuddy's Reeks Ridge Walk. It is the 231st-highest mountain in Ireland on the Simm classification. Cnoc na Péiste is regarded by the Scottish Mountaineering Club as one of 34 Furths, a mountain above 3,000 ft in elevation, meets the other SMC criteria for a Munro, but, outside of Scotland. Knocknapeasta's prominence qualifies it to meet the British Isles Marilyn classification, being the only other 3,000 foot Reek alongside Carrauntoohil to meet the 150 metre Marilyn prominence threshold.

Cnoc na Péiste exceeds the P600 prominence threshold of 600 metres, which classes it as a "Major" mountain. Cnoc na Péiste meets the Arderin and Hewitt classifications. Knocknapeasta ranks as the second-highest mountain in Ireland on the MountainViews Online Database, 100 Highest Irish Mountains, where the prominence threshold is over 100 metres. At about 7 am on 17 December 1943, during World War II, a United States Army Air Forces plane crashed into the northerly face of Cnoc na Péiste; the plane was a Douglas Dakota with five crewmen aboard. It struck the mountain just above Lough Cummeenapeasta at an altitude of about 2,000 ft—killing all five passengers; the Gardaí were not alerted to the crash until 3 February 1944, the following day an Irish Army detachment was sent to recover the bodies. Pieces of the aircraft can still be seen on the mountainside, in the lake below. A plaque was placed at the shore of the lake to commemorate the victims. Lists of mountains in Ireland List of mountains of the British Isles by height List of Furth mountains in the British Isles List of Marilyns in the British Isles MountainViews: The Irish Mountain Website, Knocknapeasta MountainViews: Irish Online Mountain Database The Database of British and Irish Hills, the largest database of British Isles mountains Hill Bagging UK & Ireland, the searchable interface for the DoBIH Ordnance Survey Ireland Online Map Viewer Logainm: Placenames Database of Ireland