click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Battle of Colenso

The battle of Colenso was the third and final battle fought during the Black Week of the Second Boer War. It was fought between British and Boer forces from the independent South African Republic and Orange Free State in and around Colenso, South Africa on 15 December 1899. Inadequate preparation and reconnaissance and uninspired leadership led to a British defeat. Shortly before the outbreak of the war, General Sir Redvers Buller was dispatched to South Africa at the head of an Army Corps, appointed Commander-in-Chief of all British forces in South Africa. On arrival, he found British garrisons besieged on separated fronts, with limited communications between the fronts. Having detached forces under Generals Lord Methuen and Gatacre to the western and central fronts, Buller assumed command of his largest detachment and proposed to lead it to the relief of a besieged British force in Ladysmith, in Natal. On this front, the Boers had conducted some raids and reconnaissances into the southern part of the province, but in the face of a large British army, they had retired north of the Tugela River at Colenso and dug in there, blocking the road and railway line to Ladysmith.

Buller intended making a flank march to cross the Tugela at Potgieters Drift 80 kilometres upstream of Colenso. On hearing that Gatacre and Methuen had been defeated at the battles of Stormberg and Magersfontein, Buller felt he needed to relieve Ladysmith as soon as possible and resume overall command of the forces in South Africa, was worried that a move to Potgieters would put him out of telegraph communications with the rest of South Africa, he lacked wagons and draught animals, feared that a defeat at Potgieters Drift would leave his force isolated and trapped. He decided to make a frontal assault at Colenso after two days' artillery bombardment, beginning on 13 December. Piet Joubert, Commandant-General of the Transvaal, had been incapacitated after falling from his horse; as a result, Louis Botha assumed command of the Boers on this front. The basic Boer fighting unit was the commando, nominally consisting of all the available fighting men from a district, led by an elected Commandant and administered by a Feldcornet.

Botha had the Swaziland Police available. He deployed his main force north of the river, his plan was to open fire when the British were about to cross, or were crossing, the river, enfilade their right flank and rear with a force deployed on a hill known as Hlangwane south of the river, attack their left with another force which would cross the river several miles upstream. The preparatory British artillery fire missed the camouflaged Boer trenches, but the defenders of Hlangwane abandoned their positions and retreated across the river. After exhortations arrived by telegram from President Paul Kruger of the South African Republic, detachments selected by drawing lots reoccupied Hlangwane the day before Buller attacked. Botha deployed the Middelburg and Johannesburg commandos, with a contingent from the Orange Free State, at Robinson's Drift, 13 kilometres upstream from Colenso. Buller was handicapped by a shortage of competent staff officers, as most of them had been dispersed from his Corps, like the Corps itself, to the various distant fronts throughout South Africa.

He lacked information on the geography of the area, possessed only a sparsely detailed blueprint map based on railway and farm surveys, a crude sketch map made by an artillery officer. Buller intended the 5th Brigade; the brigade consisted of the 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, the 1st Connaught Rangers, 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers, the 1st Border Regiment, was commanded by the confident Major General Arthur Fitzroy Hart. Meanwhile, the 2nd Brigade under Major-General Henry J. T. Hildyard would occupy the village itself. Hildyard's brigade consisted of the 2nd Devonshire Regiment, the 2nd Queen's Royal Regiment, the 2nd West Yorkshire Regiment, the 2nd East Surrey Regiment, its attack was to be supported by artillery under Colonel C. J. Long. A regiment of regular cavalry, the 1st Royal Dragoons, under Colonel J. F. Burn-Murdoch, protected the left flank. On the right flank, Buller intended that a brigade of colonial light horse and mounted infantry under Lord Dundonald, would capture Hlangwane.

Dundonald's brigade consisted of Bethune's Mounted Infantry, Thorneycroft's Mounted Infantry, the South African Light Horse and a composite regiment made of one squadron of the Imperial Light Horse, one squadron of the Natal Carbineers and two companies of mounted infantry detached from British infantry units. Two more infantry brigades were in reserve: they were the 4th Brigade under Major General Neville Lyttelton (consisting of 2nd Cameronians, 1st Rifle Brigade, 3rd King's Royal Rifle Corps and the 1st Durham

Arsenio Fernández de Mesa

Arsenio Fernández de Mesa is a Spanish politician of People's Party. He was commercial delegate and inspector of paintings for ships in the Maritime Department of International Marine Coatings with headquarters in the port of Ferrol, he started his political career as councillor of Ferrol, he was deputy mayor of Ferrol. In the 1989 national elections, he was elected deputy in the Congress of Deputies for the province of A Coruña. He was a government delegate in Galicia and during the Prestige disaster his work was criticized by the opposition, Nunca Máis and ecologists, he was elected as deputy for A Coruña in the elections of 2008 and 2011. In December 2011 he was elected general director of the Civil Guard, until 18 November 2016. In February 2017 he was hired as adviser of the electric company Red Eléctrica de España, criticized by some politicians and media as an example of revolving door

Campaniform sensilla

Campaniform sensilla are a class of mechanoreceptors found in insects, which respond to stress and strain within the animal's cuticle. Campaniform sensilla function as proprioceptors that detect mechanical load as resistance to muscle contraction, similar to mammalian Golgi tendon organs. Sensory feedback from campaniform sensilla is integrated in the control of locomotion; each campaniform sensillum consists of a flexible dome, embedded in a socket within the cuticle and innervated by the dendrites of a single bipolar sensory neuron. Campaniform sensilla are oval-shaped with long axes of about 5-10 µm. Campaniform sensilla are distributed across the body surface of many insects. Sensilla with similar orientations are grouped together in regions where stress is to be high, including on the legs and wings. For example, stick insects have groups of campaniform sensilla on the trochanter, a group on the proximal femur, a group on the proximal tibia, a small number of sensilla on the distal end of each tarsomere.

In Diptera like blow flies, the highest density of campaniform sensilla is found at the base of the modified hind-wings, or halteres, which function as gyroscopic sensors of self-motion during flight. The activity of campaniform sensilla was first recorded by John William Sutton Pringle in the late 1930s, who determined that the oval shape of many sensilla makes them directionally selective; when cuticular deformations compress a campaniform sensillum along its short axis, the socket edges indent the cuticular cap. This squeezes the dendritic tip of the sensory neuron and opens its mechanotransduction channels, which leads to the firing of action potentials that are transmitted to the central nervous system. Campaniform sensilla signal the rate of cuticular deformation. In walking control, sensory feedback from leg campaniform sensilla is thought to reinforce muscle activity during the stance phase and to contribute to inter-leg coordination, much like sensory feedback from mammalian Golgi tendon organs.

In flight control, sensory feedback from haltere and wing campaniform sensilla is thought to mediate compensatory reflexes to maintain equilibrium

Yasuyuki Honne

Yasuyuki Honne is a video game artist and producer. He is now working at Monolith Soft, he is known for his work on Xeno games and Baten Kaitos series. Yasuyuki Honne was born on March 5, 1971; when he was young, Honne enjoyed video games and playing fighting games in video arcades, but wanted to become a freelance illustrator. However, after graduating and moving to Tokyo, he saw a recruitment ad for Square in the magazine Gamest, with a picture of Final Fantasy VI. Since his design studies had made him interested in the relationship between a person's life and fantasy art, Honne decided to apply for a job at the company. Honne joined Square as a graphic artist in 1993 and notably worked on Front Mission and Chrono Trigger under graphic director Tetsuya Takahashi. Honne served as the art director of Square's Product Development Division-3 on Xenogears and Chrono Cross. In 1999, Honne left Square to join Monolith Soft, the new company founded by Takahashi Xenogears' director, who had suggested that Honne and he work together again after Honne finishes working on Chrono Cross.

Honne became a board member of Monolith Soft, owning 20 shares out of the total 2,400, the director of the company's graphics development division. His position includes handling the graphics work contracted for by external companies. After serving as the art director for Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht, Honne made his debut as a game director on Baten Kaitos: Eternal Wings and the Lost Ocean, the project that has left him with the fondest memories since the founding of Monolith Soft; this was followed by Baten Kaitos Origins. Honne's first project as a game producer was Dragon Ball Z: Attack of the Saiyans, during which he gained experience on the handling of licensed characters; when Takahashi was in the planning stages for the project that would become Xenoblade Chronicles, Honne produced a model of the two gods of the game's world in order to help explain the concept to the publisher Nintendo. Honne is working on an unannounced title; as of October 2011, he is part of Monolith Soft's new Kyoto studio.

Honne is married. He enjoys traveling, his hobbies include practicing judo and playing plucked string instruments. Honne has been credited with the following games: Front Mission: assistant graphic designer Chrono Trigger: map designer Treasure Conflix: main graphic Xenogears: art director, map textures Chrono Cross: art director, map painter Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht: art director, map designer Baten Kaitos: Eternal Wings and the Lost Ocean: director, art director, map painter Dirge of Cerberus -Final Fantasy VII-: special thanks Baten Kaitos Origins: director, art director, map painter, opening movie Super Smash Bros. Brawl: Adventure Mode map design Dragon Ball Z: Attack of the Saiyans: producer, art director Xenoblade Chronicles: concept model The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword: special thanks Project X Zone: map graphic supervisor Animal Crossing: New Leaf: special thanks Pikmin 3: special thanks The Legend of Zelda: A Link Between Worlds: special thanks Splatoon: special thanks Animal Crossing: Happy Home Designer: special thanks Project X Zone 2: map graphic supervisor The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild: special thanks Splatoon 2: special thanks Xenoblade Chronicles 2: artwork Duende, Yasuyuki Honne's personal blog Yasuyuki Honne on IMDb

Gamini Kularatne

Corporal Gamini Kularatne PWV, SLSR was a Sri Lankan soldier. He was the first recipient of the Parama Weera Vibhushanaya, the highest award for gallantry awarded by the Sri Lanka Army for his actions during the Elephant Pass Siege, in which he was killed. Gamini Kularatne was the second son of a family of a sister, he obtained his primary education at Ranasinghe Premadasa Madhya Maha Vidyalaya at Hasalaka. Some claim that he was a survivor of the Aranthalawa Massacre on 2 June 1987 as Mahiyangane Dhammajothi Thero. After seeing the brutality of the Tiger massacre he pleaded with the chief Thero and left robes to join the Sri Lanka Army on 27 August 1987 with the blessings of his father S. G Babanis and mother S. G Juliet. On the night of 10 July 1991 over 5000 LTTE fighters surrounded the 600 strong army garrison located at Elephant Pass; the base was known as the gateway to the northern Jaffna Peninsula. Enlisted to the Sri Lankan Army Sinha Regiment Sixth Battalion as a Rifleman, Lance Corporal Gamini Kularatne, along with the rest of his regiment, was tasked with watching for possible LTTE infiltrators.

As dusk fell the LTTE launched several human wave attacks. Flanked by hundreds of armed fighters, they surrounded the Army's fortifications; as the battle ensued a unknown armored bulldozer resembling a tank advanced on the military installation. Equipped with a machine gun and containing a haul of arms and ammunitions inside, the armored bulldozer rumbled towards the southern entrance of the camp. Lance Corporal Kularatne recognized the armored rolling weapon would be able to swarm the garrison within seconds, inflict heavy casualties. Above all the fall of Elephant Pass to the enemy would be catastrophic and counterproductive at a national level. Although the LTTE began pounding the Army camp with heavy mortars and weapons to the cries of injured and dying soldiers amidst deafening explosions, all eyes were still centered on the enemy's approaching mysterious bulldozer laden with sophisticated weapons. Lance Corporal Kularatne, holding two grenades in his hands, dashed out towards the oncoming bulldozer tank, clambered up the tank's ladder and tossed the two grenades inside it, disregarding the numerous injuries he himself had suffered from LTTE bullets.

The grenades disabled the bulldozer amidst bursts of fire accompanied by a series of explosions. Lance Corporal Kularatne was flung to lay motionless; as the siege of Elephant Pass Army Camp was broken, one of the most ferocious battles in Sri Lanka's modern history ended. The camp had been saved from being overrun by the LTTE in part by Corporal Kularatne's bravery. In recognition of his act of gallantry Lance Corporal Gamini Kularatne was promoted to the rank of Corporal posthumously and honored with the award of "Parama Weera Vibhushanaya" on 10 October 1991, the highest gallantry award in Sri Lanka for the first time in the history of Sri Lanka Army, he came to be known as the Hasalaka Weeraya After the war was over, a memorial to Corporal Gamini was set up in Elephant Pass with the remains of the bulldozer he destroyed. The memorial, as well as the destroyed vehicle, can be seen on the A9 road on the way to Jaffna. A statement made by Dambara Amila Thero in March, 2015 in recommending the removal of this memorial sparked massive public outcry and widespread condemnation.

The Sri Lankan Baila singer Dhanapala Udawatta sang "Hasalaka Gamini", a song tribute to the famous war hero. Awards and decorations of the military of Sri Lanka Elephant Pass Hasalaka Gamini Kularatne - Supreme Sacrifice No one told him - he knew what had to be done: Sunday Times Article Sri Lankan Army Website Article Created by using Blogspot Article that released under the GNU Free Documentation License Army, Sri Lanka.. "50 YEARS ON" - 1949-1999, Sri Lanka Army. ISBN 955-8089-02-8 Sri Lanka Army Ministry of Defence: Sri Lanka Media Center for National Security: Sri Lanka SPUR

Wraxall, Somerset

Wraxall is a village in North Somerset, England 6 miles west of Bristol. Until 1811 the parish of the same name included Nailsea and Flax Bourton, it is now within the parish of Failand. The origin of the name Wraxall, shared with other villages in Somerset and Dorset, is thought to be "a nook of land frequented by buzzards". Earthworks of an oval defended settlement, surrounded by a bank and ditch, indicated the site of an Iron Age defended settlement 400 metres south of Manor Farm. Wraxall Court was the original manor house. After the Norman conquest the Manor belonged to the De Wrokeshale family until it passed to the Moreville and Gorges family by marriage; the parish of Wraxall was part of the Portbury Hundred. In Victorian times the Ford family lived at the Court, it was taken over by the Admiralty during the Second World War and became a Hall of Residence for Bristol University. Earthworks from a deserted medieval settlement, 300 metres east-south-east of Wraxall House, indicate houses, enclosures and a watermill which were occupied in the Middle Ages.

The only waterwheel still operating on the Land Yeo is at Watercress Farm. The 6 feet diameter wheel, built before 1885 and is housed in a small brick building, is used as a water pump; the other mill in the parish of Wraxall operated in the 19th centuries. It fell out of use by 1885 and was a ruin by 1950; the mill was demolished in 1961 to allow for the road straightening of Wraxall Score. Today the only remains are crumbling walls by the entrance to Wraxall House. An area known as "The Rocks" stretches north from the Battleaxes to Failand, its many quarries being the source of some of the local building stone. Failand once now has the Victorian church of St Bartholomew; the Battleaxes free house, known as the Widdicombe Arms, was built in 1838 and is a grade II listed building. It was built as the meeting house for the workers at Tyntesfield Estate. Wraxall Cross Tree, a large elm, used to be found on in the small triangle of land where Wraxall Hill meets with the Bristol Road; the original tree had become hollow and local children were seen climbing inside it.

It succumbed to Dutch Elm disease and was felled in May 1977. Children at Wraxall School were given the day off to see the spectacle of the tree being craned and transported to Watercress Farm where it was burned for large barbecue. An oak tree has been planted in its place. A new housing estate, built at the edge of Nailsea in the mid 1990s, is now referred to as Lower Wraxall. Much more housing has been built since with Wraxall becoming a dormitory town for Bristol. In April 2007 a new children's hospice opened at Charlton Farm, part of the Tyntesfield Estate associated with the medieval Charlton House. Children's Hospice South West provides in-patient palliative care for eight children and their families, plus outpatient and day-care facilities for a number of other children; the opening follows years of fund raising in Somerset area. In 1950-53 an archaeological dig was undertaken at Tower House Farm towards the lower end of Tower House Lane. A Roman Villa was found. There are other Roman features scattered throughout the valley.

Cadbury Camp is located just over 2.5 kilometres away. The Church of England parish church of All Saints was built in the 12th century, with tower and bells being added in centuries, it has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. There are painted stone figures of his wife in the chancel; the large churchyard contains several monuments to the Tynte family which gave its name to the nearby Tyntesfield Estate. The church tower has a peal of eight bells in the key of E flat; the oldest bell was cast in Chew Stoke in the early 18th century and the heaviest bell is just over 1.1 tonnes. The nearby rectory was built in the 17th century. To the south east of the churchyard, next door to the village blacksmith, Wraxall once had a public house called "Remember Lot's Wife." It was demolished by Colonel George Gibbs, in about 1920, when he gave the lower churchyard to the village as an extension. Two large manor houses were situated on the estate before the estate was split after Baron Wraxall's death in 2001:Tyntesfield is a Victorian Gothic Revival house which used to be part of a much larger estate.

The National Trust bought the house in 2002. A number of celebrities were interested including Kylie Minogue; the house and some of the grounds are undergoing renovations and restoration, but local trades people have questioned the way in which the Trust is managing the restoration projects. During the 1940s "Tyntesfield Camp" was built as an American hospital with a vast network of centrally-heated hot-water radiators. After the war it was returned to the fields; the lesser known Belmont House is situated about 1 kilometre to the east. It contains a real tennis court. A dame school was recorded as early as 1801 and several schools followed, the present one being built in 1856; this is the current school, Wraxall Church of England School, which educates children between the ages of five to twelve years. Across the road from this was the village blacksmith, nearby were the stocks and whipping post, for centuries the site of the annual "Stumps Fair"; this area is locally referred to as Wraxall Cross Tree.

The old Boys' School was located just over 350 metres towards Bristol. The school was built in 1856 on land donated by Sir G Smyth with building expenses donated by William Gibbs; the sch