Salado Creek is a waterway in San Antonio that runs from northern Bexar County for about 38 miles to the San Antonio River near Buena Vista. In 1992, a well was plugged in Fort Sam Houston, used for irrigation for farmers; the well had maintained the ecosystem of the creek since a decline in the number of springs that had fed it. In 1995, plans to revitalize the creek began. Groups such as the Salado Creek Foundation began work to restore the historic significance of the creek as a link of Northern Bexar County to the missions in the South; the creek was affected by the Floods of 1998 causing property damage and unconstructive erosion to the creek bed. In March 2001, the San Antonio Water System's Salado Creek WRC began using recycled water to help the creek flow for the first time in ten years; the creek was given its name in 1716 by Spanish explorer Domingo Ramón. It has been the site of two battles in Texas history, including the 1813 Battle of Rosillo and the 1842 Battle of Salado Creek following the Texas Revolution.
The Battle of Rosillo Creek started as a siege of Presidio La Bahía from November 7, 1812, to February 19, 1813, for the purpose of trying to recapture the fort after the Republican Army of the North under Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara and Samuel Kemper, numbered at 600 to 900 men, had taken over. The Spanish Royal Army of Texas, under Governor Manuel María de Salcedo and Nuevo León Governor Simón de Herrera, had retreated to San Antonio. In March 1813, the Spanish army, numbering 950 to 1,500, had planned an ambush on the republicans as they marched and searched for food along the creek banks; the republicans caught sight of the royal forces first and routed them within an hour, killing between 100 and 330 soldiers and capturing most of their arms and ammunition, six cannons, 1,500 horses and mules, at the expense of only six men. After the battle, the Spanish army retreated to San Antonio, signed a truce with Kemper on April 1, surrendered Salcedo and Herrera. On April 3, Herrera, 12 prisoners of war were executed by a vengeful Mexican soldier, near the site of the battle.
On April 6, 1813, the first Declaration of Independence and Constitution for Texas were drafted and Gutiérrez was named president, establishing the first Republic of Texas. The new republic was destroyed four months at the fateful Battle of Medina. A Battle of Salado Creek was fought between the volunteers of the Texas Republic and the Mexican forces of Brig. General and French Mexican soldier Adrián Woll; the conflict began following Brig. General Ráfael Vásquez's incursion into San Antonio in March 1842; the volunteers prepared for battle, but believed that peace was on the horizon after the release of prisoners from the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Because of this, a potential attack was called off by President Sam Houston. However, on September 11, 1842, Brig. Gen. Adrián Woll entered San Antonio with 1,000 regular infantry and 500 irregular cavalry. After this, about 200 volunteers from Gonzales and other lower Colorado River settlements joined together under Capt. Mathew Caldwell on the east bank of Salado Creek.
They met with Capt. John C. Hays's regiment of 14 rangers; the men took advantage of their good position on the bank and killed 60 Mexicans, losing only one of their own. Capt. Nicholas Mosby Dawson was traveling from La Grange with his 53-man company of volunteers to meet with Caldwell. Cut off from the larger body of their men and surrounded by Mexicans, they surrendered after a brief skirmish; the Mexicans killed 36 Texians and wounded several others, in what Americans called the Dawson Massacre. According to Texas Parks and Wildlife, Rio Grande cichlids, alligator gar, common carp have been caught in Salado Creek. List of rivers of Texas Salado Creek at The Edwards Aquifer Website
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park is a National Historical Park and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site preserving four of the five Spanish frontier missions in San Antonio, Texas, USA. These outposts were established by Catholic religious orders to spread Christianity among the local natives; these missions formed part of a colonization system that stretched across the Spanish Southwest in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. In geographic order from north to south the missions are located as follows: Mission Concepción, Mission San Jose, Mission San Juan, Mission Espada; the Espada Aqueduct part of the Park, is due east of Mission San Juan, across the river. The fifth mission in San Antonio, the Alamo, is not part of the Park, it is located upstream from Mission Concepción, in downtown San Antonio, is owned by the State of Texas. The Alamo was operated by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas until July 2015, when custodianship was turned over to the Texas General Land Office. On July 5, 2015, the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, along with the Alamo Mission in San Antonio, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
In October 2013, the Mission Reach Ecosystem Restoration and Recreation project was completed, adding 15 miles of hiking and paddling trails to the San Antonio Missions. This project connects Mission Concepcion, Mission San Jose, Mission San Juan, Mission Espada to the San Antonio Riverwalk, through a series of park portals. Visitors can experience the Missions by walking, bicycling, or using San Antonio's new VIVA Culture bus routes; the park was established in 1975 as the Mission Parkway on the National Register of Historic Places encompassing 84 separate historical sites along the San Antonio River on the southern side of the city of San Antonio. Within this listing, the National Historical Park was authorized on November 10, 1978, it was established on April 1983, containing many cultural sites along with some natural areas. Portions of the four missions are owned by the Archdiocese of San Antonio and are still run as active parishes. In 1905, custodianship for the Alamo was entrusted to the Daughters of the Republic of Texas.
In 2010, the office of the Texas Attorney General received a complaint that the DRT had been mismanaging not only the site, but the funds allocated for its management, an investigation was begun. After two years, the Attorney General's office concluded that the DRT had mismanaged the Alamo, cited numerous instances of misconduct on the DRT's part, including failing to properly maintain the Alamo in good order and repair, mismanagement of state funds, breach of fiduciary duty. During the course of the investigation, in 2011, a state law was passed, signed by then-governor Rick Perry, to transfer custodianship of the Alamo from the DRT to the Texas General Land Office; the transfer was enacted in 2015. While the DRT objected to the Attorney General's report, went so far as to file a lawsuit to prevent the transfer, the organization vowed to work with the Texas GLO to preserve the Alamo for generations to come. In July 2015, the missions were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Misión Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña was established in 1716 as Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Hainais in East Texas.
The mission was moved in 1731 to San Antonio. Founded by Franciscan friars, this is the best preserved of the Texas missions. Located at 807 Mission Road, Mission Concepcion was designated a National Historic Landmark on April 15, 1970. In 2002, Archbishop Patrick Flores appointed Father Jim Rutkowski the archdiocesan administrator of Mission Concepcion; as such, Fr. Rutkowski has been charged with the pastoral duties associated with the operation of the active church congregation. In 2009-10 Las Misiones Foundation began an active, aggressive campaign to restore the interior of the Mission. Restoration of the mission's interior was completed in March 2010 after six months of work. Fr. Rutkowski continues to offer Sunday Mass for the Mission community. Misión San José y San Miguel de Aguayo was established in 1720. Located at 6519 San Jose Drive, it was designated the San Jose Mission National Historic Site in 1941; the historic site was administratively listed on the National Register on October 15, 1966.
The church, still standing, was constructed in 1768. Mission San Jose was founded by Father Antonio Margil; the park's visitor center is located adjacent. Other missions bearing the name San José include the Mission San José located in Fremont and the Misión San Jose de Comondú in Baja California Sur. Misión San Juan Capistrano was established in 1716 as Misión San Jose de los Nazonis in East Texas; the mission was moved in 1731 to San Antonio. Located on Mission Road, San Juan was listed on the National Register on February 23, 1972. Another mission bearing the name San Juan Capistrano is the Mission San Juan Capistrano in San Juan Capistrano, California. Misión San Francisco de la Espada was established in 1690 as San Francisco de los Tejas near present-day Augusta. and renamed San Francisco de los Neches in 1721. The mission was given its current name. Located on Espada Road, this mission was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 23, 1972; the Park includes two other locations listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Espada Aqueduct, listed as a National Historic Landmark in 1964 Ethel Wilson Harris House, listed in 2001 Acequia Park Alamo Mission in San Antonio College of Guadalupe de Zacatecas College of Santa Cruz de Querétaro San Antonio Missions San Antonio Missions National
San Antonio River
The San Antonio River is a major waterway that originates in central Texas in a cluster of springs in midtown San Antonio, about 4 miles north of downtown, follows a southeastern path through the state. It feeds into the Guadalupe River about 10 miles from San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico; the river is 240 miles long and crosses five counties: Bexar, Karnes and Wilson. The first documented record of the river was from Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca on his explorations of Texas in 1535; the river was named after San Antonio de Padua by the first governor of Spanish Texas, Domingo Terán de los Ríos in 1691. On June 13, 1691, Governor Terán and his company camped at a rancheria on a stream called Yanaguana They renamed the stream "San Antonio" because it was Saint Anthony's Day. Father Damián Massanet accompanied Governor Terán on his trip. During the Texas Revolution, the river was host to several major conflicts; the Battle of Concepcion occurred when the Mexican forces in Bexar and Texian militia fired upon each other in a small skirmish on the mission's grounds.
The Grass Fight occurred when Texian militia mistook mules carrying grass to feed horses as mules carrying supply and gold money. The siege of Bexar was the climax of all these previous events when the Texian militia surrounded Bexar and began continuous attacks into the Mexican stronghold of Bexar until the Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos surrendered; the Goliad Campaign occurred when 50 Texian militia captured the mission at Goliad, being used as a garrison by the Mexican forces. The Battle of the Alamo occurred when 180 Texian regulars and volunteers occupied a 3-acre garrison built around an old Spanish mission, they withheld a Mexican force of around 3,000 troops for 12 days until the garrison was overrun by a Mexican assault on dawn of the 13th day. During Fiesta every April, the River Parade runs on the San Antonio River in downtown San Antonio, it is one of Fiesta's most popular events. Five major 18th-century Spanish missions are lined up along the historical course of the river in San Antonio, including Mission Espada, Mission Concepcion, Mission San José, Mission San Juan Capistrano.
The most famous mission is San Antonio de Valero, better known as the Álamo, its complementing fortress is Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. These five missions in San Antonio are now designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site; the Presidio La Bahía and its mission, Mission Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga in Goliad, are located along the southern portion of the river. The waterway is host to the San Antonio River Walk, one of San Antonio's primary tourist destinations and the centerpiece of the city, with several river improvement projects occurring so far; the Riverwalk was extended to the north in 2009, that section of the river is now called the Museum Reach and features attractions such as the Pearl Brewery and the San Antonio Museum of Art. In 2013, the Mission Reach stretch of the Riverwalk was opened in the south, which features hiking and paddling trails. Work was authorized to begin in 2015 by the Bexar County Commissioners Court on the restoration of the former Hot Wells hotel and bathhouse, located along the San Antonio River in the south side of the city.
San Antonio River Authority San Antonio Missions National Historical Park List of rivers of Texas U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Antonio River Edwards Aquifer history of the San Antonio River Official site of the San Antonio River Walk "San Antonio River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Martín Perfecto de Cos
Martín Perfecto de Cos was a Mexican Army general and politician during the mid-19th century. Born in Veracruz, the son of an attorney, he became an army cadet at the age of 20, a lieutenant in 1821, a brigadier general in 1833. Cos is best known as a commander of Mexican forces during the Texas Revolution in the 1830s. In September 1835, he was sent by President-General Antonio López de Santa Anna to investigate the refusal of Texians to pay duties during the Anahuac Disturbances. General Cos dispersed the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas in session at Monclova, landed 300 men at Matagorda Bay, established a headquarters in San Antonio, declared his intention of ending Anglo-American resistance in Texas, he attempted to arrest several Texian critics of Santa Anna. Cos and his men were released on their pledge not to oppose further the Constitution of 1824, which Santa Anna had repealed. Texians believed this pledge was broken when Cos returned in the spring of 1836 to command a column in the attack on the Alamo.
On April 21, 1836, he reached San Jacinto with reinforcements and crossed Vince's Bridge just before the Texians destroyed it. He was taken prisoner by Sam Houston in the general surrender and released, after which he returned to Mexico. Cos commanded a post at Tuxpan during the Mexican–American War, he died in Minatitlán, Veracruz, in 1854, while serving as commandant general and political chief of the Tehuantepec territory. It is accepted that Martín Perfecto de Cos was a relative of Antonio López de Santa Anna, most accounts refer to him as a brother-in-law; the Encyclopedia of the Mexican American War states that he was married to Lucinda López de Santa Anna, the general's sister. Some early Texas accounts credit him as being either a cousin or nephew of Santa Anna; when the Mexican government moved away from a new local-level federalist political ideology to create a centralist authoritarian government under Santa Anna, Martín Perfecto de Cos became military commander of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas in 1833.
He was headquartered in Saltillo. San Antonio had always governed its own affairs and its citizens ethnic Anglo-Americans with closer ties to the emerging United States, resented Cos being given power over them; as tensions between Mexico City and Mexican Texas increased, Cos headed north to put down the rebellion. Cos arrived in Texas by sea at the port of Copano on September 20, 1835 with 500 soldiers and proceeded to the town of Goliad on October 1, where he ordered the arrest of rebel leaders and garrisoned his men inside the nearby Presidio La Bahía. Before his arrival, a group of Texians had plotted to kidnap Cos at either Copano or Goliad, but a rebellion committee rejected the idea; the Texas Revolution began in earnest with the Battle of Gonzales on October 2, upon learning of the Texian victory, Cos hurried to San Antonio de Béxar, leaving with the bulk of his men on October 5. Texians assaulted the Presidio La Bahía at the Battle of Goliad on October 10, only to learn that Cos had left.
Once he was in San Antonio, the town and Cos' men were besieged by the Texian Army under the leadership of Stephen F. Austin. After a 56-day siege of the town and the Alamo Mission, on December 9, Cos surrendered San Antonio de Béxar and its weapons to the Texians proceeded to retreat back across the Rio Grande. Cos and his men were allowed to keep their muskets for protection, as well as one four-pound cannon. Mexican losses during the siege were about 150. On his way south, Cos met up with Santa Anna's forces at Laredo, who were marching north to put down the rebellion. In February 1836, Cos returned to San Antonio with Santa Anna and led a column of 300 soldiers in the siege of the Alamo, his men assaulted the northwest corner of the mission on March 6 overrunning the north wall. On April 21, Cos arrived with over 500 reinforcements for Santa Anna shortly before the Battle of San Jacinto; that afternoon Texian forces led by General Sam Houston decisively defeated Santa Anna's army in a battle which lasted only eighteen minutes.
Cos and Santa Anna both escaped during the battle. General Santa Anna subsequently surrendered his army and all Mexican claims to Texas, ending the Texas Revolution. Following the Texas Revolution, Martín Perfecto de Cos remained in the Mexican Army and was given command of an army outpost in Tuxpan, where he served during the Mexican–American War and afterwards, until his death in 1854. Among the depictions of Martín Perfecto de Cos on film is that of the Mexico City-born actor Rodolfo Hoyos, Jr. in the 1956 picture The First Texan, about the rise of Sam Houston in Texas. In the film, Cos orders the arrest of William B. Travis and directs his Mexican soldiers to scale the walls of The Alamo. In the 2004 film The Alamo, General Martín Perfecto de Cos is portrayed by Francisco Philibert. Flores, Richard R.. Remembering the Alamo: Memory and the Master Symbol. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-79647-8 – via Project MUSE.. Fowler, Will. Santa Anna of Mexico. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-5646-0 – via Project MUSE..
Huson, Hobart. Captain Phillip Dimmitt's Commandancy of Goliad, 1835–1836: An Episode of the Mexican Federalist War in Texas, Usually Referred to as the Texian Revolution. Austin, Texas: Von Boeckmann-Jones Co. Jackson, Jack. Almonte
Battle of Goliad
The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In the early-morning hours of October 9, 1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, a fort near the Mexican Texas settlement of Goliad. La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano. In September, Texians began plotting to kidnap Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos, en route to Goliad to attempt to quell the unrest in Texas; the plan was dismissed by the central committee coordinating the rebellion. However, within days of the Texian victory at the Battle of Gonzales, Captain George Collinsworth and members of the Texian militia in Matagorda began marching towards Goliad; the Texians soon learned that Cos and his men had departed for San Antonio de Béxar but continued their march. The garrison at La Bahía was understaffed and could not mount an effective defense of the fort's perimeter. Using axes borrowed from townspeople, Texians were able to chop through a door and enter the complex before the bulk of the soldiers were aware of their presence.
After a 30-minute battle, the Mexican garrison, under Colonel Juan López Sandoval, surrendered. One Mexican soldier had been killed and three others wounded, while only one Texian had been injured; the majority of the Mexican soldiers were instructed to leave Texas, the Texians confiscated $10,000 worth of provisions and several cannons, which they soon transported to the Texian Army for use in the Siege of Béxar. The victory isolated Cos's men in Béxar from the coast, forcing them to rely on a long overland march to request or receive reinforcements or supplies. In 1835, Mexico operated two major garrisons within its Texas territory, the Alamo at San Antonio de Béxar and Presidio La Bahía near Goliad. Béxar was the political center of Texas, Goliad laid halfway between it and the major Texas port of Copano. Military and civilian supplies and military personnel were sent by sea from the Mexican interior to Copano Bay and could be transported overland to the Texas settlements. In early 1835, as the Mexican government transitioned from a federalist model to centralism, wary colonists in Texas began forming Committees of Correspondence and Safety.
A central committee in San Felipe de Austin coordinated their activities. The Texians staged a minor revolt against customs duties in June. In July, Colonel Nicolas Condelle, led 200 men to reinforce Presidio La Bahía; the following month, a contingent of soldiers arrived in Béxar with Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea. Fearing that stronger measures were needed to quell the unrest, Santa Anna ordered his brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos to "repress with strong arm all those who, forgetting their duties to the nation which has adopted them as her children, are pushing forward with a desire to live at their own option without subjection to the laws". Cos landed at Copano Bay on September 20 with 500 soldiers. Cos toured the port at Copano Bay and the small garrison at nearby Refugio and left small groups of soldiers to reinforce each of these locations; the main body of soldiers arrived in Goliad on October 2. Unbeknownst to Cos, as early as September 18, several Texians, including James Fannin, Philip Dimmitt, John Lin, had independently begun advocating a plan to seize Cos at either Copano or Goliad.
As soon as Cos's warships were spotted approaching Copano Bay, Refugio colonists sent messengers to San Felipe de Austin and Matagorda to inform the other settlements of Cos's imminent arrival. Concerned that a lack of artillery would make the presidio at Goliad impossible to capture, the central committee chose not to order an assault. Although Fannin and Linn continued to push for an attack on Goliad, Texian attention soon shifted towards Gonzales, where a small group of Texians were refusing to obey orders from Ugartechea. Colonists eagerly rushed to assist, on October 2 the Battle of Gonzales opened the Texas Revolution. After learning of the Texian victory, Cos made haste for Béxar, he left with the bulk of his soldiers on October 5, but because he was unable to find adequate transportation most of his supplies remained at La Bahía. On October 6, members of the Texian militia in Matagorda convened at the home of Sylvanus Hatch; as their first order of business they elected George Collinsworth as their captain.
C. Collinsworth became the unit's second lieutenant. After appointing their leaders, the men decided to march on La Bahía, they intended to kidnap Cos and, if possible, steal the estimated $50,000, rumored to accompany him. The Texians sent messengers to alert nearby settlements of their quest. By afternoon, 50 Texians were ready to march from Matagorda. During the march, for unknown reasons the men fired Carleton and appointed James W. Moore as the new first lieutenant; the following day the expedition stopped at Victoria, where they were soon joined by English-speaking settlers from other settlements and 30 Tejanos led by Plácido Benavides. Although no accurate muster rolls were kept, historian Stephen Hardin estimated that the Texian ranks swelled to 125 men. Forty-nine of them signed a "Compact of Volunteers under Collinsworth" on October 9; these men pledged that they were loyal to the Mexican federal government and would harm no one who remained loyal to the federalist cause. One of the new arrivals, merchant Philip Dimmitt, received a missive from the Goliad customs agent with news that Cos and his war chest had departed La Bahía to travel to San Antonio de Béxar.
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
Battle of La Concepción
The Battle of Concepción was a battle fought between Chilean and Peruvian forces on July 9 and July 10, 1882, during the Sierra Campaign of the War of the Pacific. Outnumbered, the Chilean detachment of 77 men under the command of Lieutenant Ignacio Carrera Pinto was annihilated by a 1,300 Peruvian force, many of them armed with spears, commanded by Col. Juan Gasto and Ambrosio Salazar after a 27-hour fight in the small town of Concepción in the Peruvian Andes. After the defeat at Miraflores and the invasion of the Peruvian capital city, many Peruvian officers escaped to the mountains and organized resistance. Among these men was Col. Andres Caceres, who gained the sympathies of the farmers who lived disconnected from the preceding campaigns; the Chilean occupation was directed by the appointed Admiral Patricio Lynch, who sent a division divided into several columns with the intention of sweeping the Andes and gaining control of the towns in the region. The first major force to be sent was a division under the command of Col Ambrosio Letelier, successful in his task, but committed abuses against the population.
He was sent to Santiago to be court-martialed. The abuses perpetrated by Letelier's division generated discontent and hate of the invading troops, allowing Caceres to increase his troops easily. In Lima, the Battle of Sangra took place on June 26, 1881, at the Hacienda de Sangrar, where a Chilean company commanded by José Luis Araneda fought with Peruvian forces commanded by Manuel Encarnación Vento. In 1882, Col. Estanislao del Canto was sent to the Junin Department with orders to maintain control on the region and to find and eliminate Caceres forces. Del Canto's division had about 2,300 men and was formed from the "Tacna" 2nd Line, Lautaro and "Chacabuco" 6th Line Infantry battalions, one "Yungay Carabiners" Cav. Squadron, one artillery brigade from the 1st Artillery Regt. At Pucara on February 5, Caceres's and del Canto's forces clashed. On the 22nd, Caceres defeated his fellow Peruvian Col. Arnaldo Panizo at Acuchimay, taking control of Panizo's army and increasing his own. Ambrosio Salazar Márquez was sent by Cáceres to organize a guerrilla unit in Comas, but his attempt to organize was rejected by the rural farmers.
Chileans sacked rural ranches in Huancayo, the mayor of Comas asked Salazar to resume organizing. Salazar armed two columns of residents, one with 30 guns and 50 men, they achieved a victory in Sierra Lumi, where they acquired more weapons and support from the population. Salazar sent a request to Cáceres for military support; the guerrillas from Comas lacked the peasants being armed only with spears. The peasants arrested Salazar in early July 1882 on the arrival of two columns sent by Caceres to reorganize the guerrillas with orders to attack Concepción. Ambrosio Salazar commanded the columns Cazadores de Comas and Guerrilla Andamarca who accompanied them with reinforcements; the news of the Chilean situation reached Caceres, who saw an opportunity to destroy the entire division fighting them in their garrisons. He decided to launch a simultaneous attack on several Chilean garrisons in the Andes. Gasto, with Pucara Nº4 and America battalions, plus the Libres de Ayacucho columns, was to join the Salazar guerrillas at Comas and to march toward Concepcion.
Meanwhile, Col. Maximo Tafur was sent to La Oroya, with the objective of destroying the bridge there and closing any escape route for del Canto. Caceres himself, with the rest of his troops would attack the 4th company of the "Santiago" 5th Line Battalion at Marcavalle. Del Canto's division was scattered through the southern region of the Peruvian Andes, divided into small groups stationed in several towns and enduring a severe lack of supplies including food, clothes and ammunition, heavy casualties from disease and the cold of these heights. In fact, the most common causes of death in the Chilean division were frostbite; the Chilean high command was reasonably concerned about the situation of the soldiers, requested of the Chilean authorities permission to leave the mountains, but these requests fell on deaf ears. When the situation turned desperate, Col. del Canto himself traveled to Lima to request authorization to retreat. After the report of Dr. Jovino Novoa about the troops' situation, permission to retreat was granted.
After an initial success, the lack of supplies and medicines, combined with high mortality among Chilean lines owing to unknown illnesses and cold temperatures, forced Estanislao del Canto to retreat from the Andes to Lima. The plan was to evacuate the division while marshaling the scattered garrisons as the column left the mountains; the garrison posted at Concepcion was the 4th company of the "Chacabuco" 6th Line Battalion, consisting of 77 soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Ignacio Carrera Pinto. Unknown to him, he had been promoted to captain. Along with the soldiers about to deliver. Eleven men were sick at the time of the battle; the garrison lacked ammunition, having only one hundred rounds per soldier. Carrera Pinto was waiting for the retiring division in order to join it and continuing refolding from the Andes. Although no attack was expected, he maintained the garrison on alert status, he did not know that when Col. del Canto could leave his position at Huancayo, its south wing was defeated by Caceres' followers at Marcavalle, delaying again the advance of the Chilean troops towards Concepcion.
Meanwhile, the montoneras of Ambrosio Salazar and the Peruvian regular forces of Juan Gasto were gathered at Leon hill and waiting for the attack signal. By 14:00 of July 9, the Chilean sentries sounded the alarm ann