Manuel Dorrego was an Argentine statesman and soldier. He was governor of Buenos Aires in 1820, again from 1827 to 1828. Dorrego was born in Buenos Aires on 11 June 1787 to José Antonio do Rego, a Portuguese merchant, to María de la Ascensión Salas, he enrolled in the Real Colegio de San Carlos in 1803, moved to the Real Universidad de San Felipe in the Captaincy General of Chile to continue his studies. He supported the early steps of the Chilean War of Independence in 1810, which led to the removal of the Spanish colonial authorities and the establishment of the first Chilean Government Junta, he moved to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, joined the Army of the North, under the command of Manuel Belgrano. He fought in the battles of Salta, being injured in both, he was sanctioned by Belgrano for promoting a duel. As a result, he did not take part in the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, two defeats of the Army of the North, Belgrano regretted the absence of Dorrego from them. Dorrego opposed the Luso-Brazilian invasion of the Banda Oriental, encouraged by Juan Martín de Pueyrredón to counter the influence of José Gervasio Artigas.
He was exiled by Pueyrredón, stayed some time in Baltimore. He studied federalism in the United States, thought that each state of a country should have some autonomy, rejecting the strong centralization into a single government sought by Pueyrredón. During this times he wrote the Cartas apologéticas, criticizing the support of Pueyrredón to the Luso-Brazilian invasion, he returned to Buenos Aires following the departure of Pueyrredón. He was appointed as interim governor, fought against the armies of Alvear and Estanislao López. Still, he was resisted in the city, the stable appointment as governor was given to Martín Rodríguez instead, he was banished again, moved to Upper Peru. He met Simón Bolívar in Quito, supported his ideas of unifying all the continent into a giant federation. Dorrego returned to Buenos Aires a short time afterwards and worked in the legislature of Buenos Aires in the 1826 Constituent Assembly, he supported a federal system of government and criticized the qualified suffrage.
However, the 1826 Constitution promoted qualified suffrage. Dorrego opposed the government of the unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia, appointed as the first president of Argentina, voiced his criticism in the newspaper "El Tribuno". Resisted by all the provinces, Rivadavia resigned as president, vice president Vicente López y Planes resigned as well. No longer having a national head of state, the legislature appointed Dorrego as governor of the Buenos Aires province, he took measures to support the poor, promote a federal organization of the country, ended the Argentine–Brazilian War. The Argentine troops were discontented with Dorrego because he accepted the conditions imposed by the British diplomacy despite their military victories in the conflict. Encouraged by the Unitarian party, Juan Lavalle led a coup against Dorrego on 1 December 1828. Dorrego organized his forces in the countryside, he was defeated, executed by Lavalle. Lavalle closed the legislature and began a period of political violence against the Federals, but he was defeated and forced to resign by Juan Manuel de Rosas, who restored the institutions that existed before Lavalle's coup.
Argentine Civil War Manuel Dorrego national institute Galasso, Norberto. Historia de la Argentina, vol. I&II. Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-950-563-478-1
San Salvador de Jujuy
San Salvador de Jujuy known as Jujuy and locally referred to as San Salvador, is the capital city of Jujuy Province in northwest Argentina. It is the seat of the Doctor Manuel Belgrano Department, it lies near the southern end of the Humahuaca Canyon. Its population at the 2001 census was 237,751 inhabitants. If its suburbs are included, this figure rises to around 300,000; the current mayor is Raúl Jorge. The city lies on National Route 9 that connects La Quiaca 289 km with Salta 120 km, it is 1,525 km from Buenos Aires. Tourist destinations not far from the city are Tilcara 84 km, Humahuaca 126 km, the Calilegua National Park 111 km. Jujuy is located near the Andes, at the junction of the Xibi Xibi River and the Río Grande de Jujuy, 1,238 meters above sea level; the weather is dry and cold during the winter. Temperatures vary between day and night; the city is the provincial government and cultural centre. Most administrative offices related to economic activities that take place in other parts of the province are located here.
The city has a colonial city centre including the Cabildo, the Cathedral, colourful Andean carnivals. The population of the city, of the province in general, has a much more aboriginal character than the rest of the country, reflected in the predominant Quechua and Chiriguano people and cultures; the Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport at coordinates 24°24′00″S 65°05′00″W, is 33 km southeast of the city and has regular flights to Buenos Aires. After previous attempts in 1565 and 1592, the current city was founded as San Salvador de Velazco en el Valle de Jujuy on April 19, 1593, by Francisco de Argañarás y Murguía; the settlement developed as a strategic site on the mule trade route between San Miguel de Tucumán and the silver mines in Potosí, Bolivia. Reaching its peak importance during the colonial period, San Salvador de Jujuy declined to the status of a remote provincial capital after the Argentine Declaration of Independence in 1816; the town became the capital of Jujuy Province when the latter separated from Salta Province in 1834.
The 1863 Jujuy earthquake leveled the town, it recovered in the following decades. Jujuy began to grow following the arrival of the Northern Central Railway in 1900, its first institution of higher learning, the Economic Sciences Institute, was established in 1959, was incorporated into the new National University of Jujuy in 1973. The city was the location of a number of Argentine films, including Veronico Cruz and Una estrella y dos cafés; the city's impoverished Lower Azopardo neighborhood would give rise to Milagro Sala's Indigenist Tupac Amaru Neighborhood Association. Jujuy has a pleasant humid subtropical climate because of the altitude. Summers bring warm days at 28 nights at 16 °C with frequent thunderstorms; the rest of the year is sunny, with temperatures at about 24 °C during the day and 11 °C at night, dry winters with warm days of 19 °C and cold nights at 6 °C, sunny springs with warm days and cool nights. During heat waves, temperatures can sometimes reach 35 °C but these are not frequent and nights always bring significant cooling, as opposed to many low-lying areas in Northern Argentina.
During the winter, temperatures can reach −7 °C and snow, although rare, may fall on occasion. Precipitation is about 800 mm; the highest temperature recorded was 42.4 °C on October 16, 2014 while the lowest temperature recorded was −6.9 °C on August 14, 1978. List of twin towns and sister cities in Argentina Municipal site City tourist and Cultural office Digital Newspaper
Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the Department of Potosí in Bolivia. It is one of the highest cities in the world at a nominal 4,090 metres. For centuries, it was the location of the Spanish colonial mint. Potosí lies at the foot of the Cerro de Potosí —sometimes referred to as the Cerro Rico — a mountain popularly conceived of as being "made of" silver ore that dominates the city; the Cerro Rico is the reason for Potosí's historical importance since it was the major supply of silver for Spanish Empire until Guanajuato in Mexico surpassed it in the 18th century. The silver was taken by llama and mule train to the Pacific coast, shipped north to Panama City, carried by mule train across the isthmus of Panama to Nombre de Dios or Portobelo, whence it was taken to Spain on the Spanish treasure fleets; some of the silver made its way east to Buenos Aires, via the Rio de la Plata. Cerro de Potosí's peak is 4,824 metres above sea level. Located in the Bolivian Tin Belt, Cerro Rico de Potosí is the world's largest silver deposit and has been mined since the sixteenth century, producing up to 60,000 tonnes by 1996.
Estimates are. Potosí became the second largest city, the site of the first mint, in the Americas. By 1891, low silver prices prompted the change to mining tin, which continued until 1985. At peak production in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the ore contained up to 40% silver; the ore deposits reside in veins present in the dacite volcanic dome. The hill is "honeycombed" with underground workings, reaching from the summit to depths of 1,150 metres; the conical hill has a reddish-brown gossan cap of iron-oxides and quartz, with grayish-blue altered dacite and many mine dumps below. Basement rocks consist of Ordovician clastic sediments consisting of phyllite with some sandstone interbedding. At about 13.8 Ma, the dome was extruded. During the explosive process, the Venus breccia formed when the ascending dacite magma reacted with groundwater to produce a phreatic eruption; the released pressure allowed the formation of the Caracoles tuff ring on top of the breccia. The magma extruded outward from a dike to form a volcanic dome over the tuff.
The dacite dome is 1,700 metres by 1,200 metres at the surface and narrows down to the 100 metres wide dike at depth. Hydrothermal circulation and fracturing soon followed, altering the dacite and depositing ore minerals and gangue in the veins. Founded in 1545 as a mining town, it soon produced fabulous wealth, the population exceeded 200,000 people; the city gave rise to a Spanish expression, still in use: vale un Potosí, meaning "to be of great value". The rich mountain, Cerro Rico, produced an estimated 60% of all silver mined in the world during the second half of the 16th century. Potosi miners at first mined the rich oxidized ores with native silver and silver chloride that could be fed directly into smelting furnaces. Successful were the small clay “flower pot” furnaces called guayras, used by the Incas, but by 1565, the miners had exhausted the direct-smelting ore, silver production plummeted. Silver production was revived by the introduction of the patio process, invented in Mexico in 1557.
The patio process used mercury amalgamation to extract silver from lower-grade ores, those containing silver sulfide, as was typical of the unoxidized ores found deeper in the mountain. In 1609, another mercury amalgamation method, the pan amalgamation process was invented in Potosi, proved better-adapted to the conditions at Potosi. Spanish American mines were the world's cheapest sources of silver during this time period. Spanish America's ability to supply a great amount of silver and China's strong demand for this commodity resulted in a spectacular mining boom; the true champion of this boom in the silver industry was indeed the Spanish crown. By allowing private-sector entrepreneurs to operate mines and placing high taxes on mining profits, the Spanish empire was able to extract the greatest benefits. An example of a tax, levied includes the quinto, a 20% severance tax on gross value. From the raw materials extracted from the mines, coins called pieces of eight were fashioned at the Potosí mint.
For Europeans, Peru–Bolivia was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and was known as Alto Perú before becoming independent as part of Bolivia. Potosi was a mythical land of riches, it is mentioned in Miguel de Cervantes' famous novel, Don Quixote as a land of "extraordinary richness". One theory holds that the mint mark of Potosí is the origin of the dollar sign, although the likelier origin of the symbol is the $-shaped scroll-wrapped columns on the reverse of the Spanish dollar. By the early 17th century, Basques were well established in the city and made up for a substantial number of the inhabitants in Potosí, they gathered in a confederation opposed to another one, the Vicuñas, a melting pot of natives and non-Basque Spanish and Portuguese colonists, fighting for control over ore extraction from the mines and its management. Tension among both factions came to a head, resulting in the eruption of overt armed conflict starting 1622 up to 1625; the Spanish Crown intervened, siding at one point with the Basques.
Both factions reached a settlement sealed with a wedding between the son and daughter of the leaders in either side, the Basque Francisco Oyanume and the Vicuña general Castillo. Native-American laborers were conscripted and forced to work in Potosí's silver mines through the traditional Incan mita system of contributed labor. Many of them died due to the harsh conditions of t
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero is the capital of Santiago del Estero Province in northern Argentina. It has a population of 252,192 inhabitants, making it the twelfth largest city in the country, with a surface area of 2,116 km², it lies on the Dulce River and on National Route 9, at a distance of 1,042 km north-northwest from Buenos Aires. Estimated to be 455 years old, Santiago del Estero was the first city founded by Spanish settlers in the territory, now Argentina; as such, it is nicknamed "Madre de Ciudades". It has been declared the "mother of cities and cradle of folklore."The city houses the National University of Santiago del Estero, founded in 1973, the Universidad Católica, founded in 1960. Other points of interest include the city's Cathedral, the Santo Domingo Convent, the Provincial Archeology Museum; the Santiago del Estero Airport is located 6 kilometres north of the city, has regular flights to Buenos Aires and San Miguel de Tucumán. The climate is subtropical with a dry season winter and sometimes autumn.
It receives an average annual precipitation of 600 mm, the climate is warm and dry. Santiago del Estero and its region are home to about 100,000 speakers of the local variety of Quechua, making it the southernmost outpost of the language of the Incas, it is one of the few indigenous languages surviving in modern Argentina. After a series of exploratory expeditions from Chile starting in 1543, Santiago del Estero del Nuevo Maestrazgo was founded on July 25, 1553 by Francisco de Aguirre. Although it is the oldest city in Argentina, it preserves little of its former Spanish colonial architecture, except for several churches. In 1576, the governor of a province in Northern Argentina commissioned the military to search for a huge mass of iron, which he had heard that Natives used for their weapons, they called the area "Heavenly Fields," translated into Spanish as Campo del Cielo. The city was the capital of the Intendency of San Miguel de Tucumán during the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, first seat of its bishop.
Santiago del Estero stands in the middle of an extensive but semi-arid agricultural region. A dry forest area, the abundance of quebracho attracted timber industries of British capital during the 19th century, leading to extensive deforestation; the province, in 1948, elected Carlos Juárez, as its Governor. Santiago del Estero's central political figure during the second half of the 20th Century, he soon became indispensable to local politics. A true Caudillo, his amiable demeanor belied a record of ruthlessness towards opposition figures; the construction of the nearby Quiroga Dam in 1950, eased the city's chronic water shortage and spurred the growth of local agriculture, based on cotton and olives. The city's first school of higher education, the Instituto Superior del Profesorado, was established in 1953; the city developed a sizable manufacturing sector based on textile mills and other light industry from the 1950s on, though the public sector remained the largest employer. Santiago del Estero's population reached 100,000 in 1970.
The province, remained one of the poorest in Argentina, falling further behind. In 1993, the city made international headlines. What began as a protest by government workers who had not been paid in 3 months, soon grew to 4,000 demonstrators who burned cars, destroyed government buildings and invaded the homes of prominent politicians. Juárez, by the 1990s, was ordering his opponents' deaths, notably that of former Governor César Iturre in 1996 and of Bishop Gerardo Sueldo in 1998; the 2002 deaths of two local women, were traced to Juárez's assassin, Antonio Musa Azar, in an attempt to retain power, Juárez resigned. The bid failed, however, as President Néstor Kirchner signed an executive order removing Mrs. Juárez from her post, in March, 2004; the Juárez couple, in their nineties, subsequently lived under house arrest in the city of Santiago del Estero. The Vicecomodoro Ángel de la Paz Aragonés Airport was built in 1959 and has flights to and from Buenos Aires operated by Aerolíneas Argentinas and its subsidiary Austral Líneas Aéreas.
In recent years it has undergone refurbishment and expansion given that it was operating at full capacity. The city's main road connection to other provinces is National Route 9, which connects it to the cities of Cordoba and Buenos Aires to the south and San Miguel de Tucumán, Salta and San Salvador de Jujuy to the north. National Route 64 connects the city to San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, the capital of Catamarca Province. In November 2008, a new long distance bus terminal was inaugurated, replacing the previous bus terminal in the city; the city has been connected through the Belgrano and Mitre railways. An elevated commuter rail line known as Tren al Desarrollo is under construction in the city, connecting Santiago del Estero to the city of La Banda. Notes: 1 Un
Unitarianists or Unitarians were the proponents of the concept of a unitary state in Buenos Aires during the civil wars which shortly followed the Declaration of Independence of Argentina in 1816. They were opposed to the Argentine Federalists. In the Argentine War of Independence the forces of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata fought Spanish royalists who attempted to regain control of their American colonies after the Napoleonic Wars. After the victorious May Revolution of 1810, disagreements arose between the dominant province of Buenos Aires, who were known as Unitarianists, the other provinces of Argentina, known as the Federalists; these were evident at least as early as the declaration of Argentine independence in 1816. The Unitarianists lost their controlling power after the Battle of Cepeda, followed by several months of chaos. However, the Unitarianists were forced to sign a treaty with other provinces; this did not solve the conflicts between the Federalists and the Unitarians.
Under President Bernardino Rivadavia, the Unitarianists gained control for a short period of time. The Constitution of 1826 allowed for a balance between the ideas of the Unitarianists and the Federalists: “It provided for a centralized national authority while leaving the provinces with considerable local powers.” However, the constitution was rejected by provincial caudillos, military leaders, the conflict continued. Forced to resign, the Government of Buenos Aires and the Foreign relations of the country were taken over by Federalist Manuel Dorrego. However, a contingent of military led by Juan Lavalle, opposed to the peace negotiations with the Brazilian Empire after the end of the Cisplatine War took over the Buenos Aires Government and shot Dorrego at Navarro. In 1829, Juan Manuel de Rosas, the leader of a troop of Federalists, became the Governor of Buenos Aires after defeating General Juan Lavalle, forced into exile. Although Rosas was a Federalist, his following of the principles of Federalism has been questioned.
In 1830, the Unitarian League was created by General José María Paz in order to defeat the Federalists. The Federalists faced Paz and his troops on May 31, 1831 and the Unitarianists were defeated after the Gauchos captured the Unitarianist commander; the Provinces of the Unitarian League joining into the Federal Pact and the Argentine Confederation. Although the Unitarians exiled in neighboring countries, the Civil War would continue for another two decades, the Unitarians being led by Lavalle, Paz and many others. With support from Corrientes Province and the Brazilian Empire, Justo José de Urquiza, Federalist caudillo of Entre Ríos Province defeated Rosas at the Battle of Caseros on February 3, 1852. On May, the San Nicolás Agreement was signed by the provincial governors; the pact reinstated the 1831 Federal Pact original provisions for a constitutional convention. In 1853 the Autonomists of Buenos Aires broke away from the Argentine Confederation after Urquiza nationalized the customs receipts from Buenos Aires and allowed the free flow of trade on the Parana and Uruguay rivers.
In 1859 Buenos Aires was forced to accept the federal constitution of 1853 after six years of secession, after Mitre was defeated at the 1859 Battle of Cepeda by Urquiza. However, the federal constitution was "amended to allow Buenos Aires greater influence" after the ensuing 1861 Battle of Pavón. Mitre was chosen as President of a new national government. Opposition to the Unitarianists continued until 1890 under the Córdoba League. History of Argentina United Provinces of South America Bernardino Rivadavia "unitario" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9100157>. "Cepeda, battles of" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9022115>. Crow, John A. he Epic of Latin America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07723-2