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Battle of Fehrbellin

The Battle of Fehrbellin was fought on June 18, 1675, between Swedish and Brandenburg-Prussian troops. The Swedes, under Count Waldemar von Wrangel, had invaded and occupied parts of Brandenburg from their possessions in Pomerania, but were repelled by the forces of Frederick William, the Great Elector, under his Feldmarschall Georg von Derfflinger near the town of Fehrbellin. Along with the Battle of Warsaw, Fehrbellin was crucial in establishing the prestige of Frederick William and Brandenburg-Prussia's army. Prior to the battle the Swedes and Brandenburg had been allies in various wars against the Kingdom of Poland. However, when Elector Frederick William during the Franco-Dutch War had joined an allied expedition with Emperor Leopold I to Alsace against the forces of King Louis XIV of France, the French persuaded Sweden, isolated on the continent, to attack Brandenburg while her army was away; when Frederick William, encamping at Erstein, heard of the attack and occupation of a large part of his principality in December 1674, he drew his army out of the coalition but had to take winter quarters at Marktbreit in Franconia.

Leaving on 26 May 1675, he marched 250 kilometres to Magdeburg in only two weeks. This feat was considered one of the great marches in military history, he did it by abandoning his supply wagons and leaving large parts of the infantry behind, having his army buy supplies from the locals, but forbidding pillaging. The Swedes did not expect him to arrive that early. Once he returned to Brandenburg, Frederick William realized that the Swedish forces, occupying the swampy Havelland region between Havelberg and the town of Brandenburg, were dispersed and ordered Derrflinger to take the central town of Rathenow in order to split them down the middle; the elector bribed a local official loyal to him to hold a large and elaborate banquet for the Swedish officers of the fortress in order to get them drunk before the assault began in the night of June 14. This ruse, combined with the speed of the Elector's advance made the Swedes unaware of his arrival. Field Marshal Derfflinger personally led an attack on Rathenow with 7,000 cavalry and 1,000 musketeers, his approach slowed but hidden by heavy rain.

Derfflinger impersonated a Swedish officer and convinced the guards to open the gates of the town by claiming that a Brandenburg patrol was after him. Once the gates were opened for him, he led a charge of 1,000 dragoons against the city and the rest of the army soon followed, he was 69 years old at the time. Once Derfflinger had forced the Swedish garrison from Rathenow, Wrangel pulled back his troops toward Havelberg, his progress was impeded by marshes that the summer rains had turned treacherous. On June 17, the Brandenburgian troops reached Nauen. Meanwhile, Frederick William's advance parties, under the command of Colonel Joachim Hennings and guided by locals, blocked the exits of the area; the Swedes, who had planned to cross the Elbe river in order to join forces with Brunswick troops, were forced back to their last position at Fehrbellin. The Swedish commander, found himself hemmed in by a destroyed bridge over the Rhin river by the town of Fehrbellin. Impassable marshes on both flanks left Wrangel little choice but to give battle south of the nearby village of Hakenberg while his engineers repaired the span.

A total of 6,000–7,000 Brandenburgers with 13 cannons faced 7,000 Swedes with 28 guns. Wrangel omitted to secure the surrounding heights, Frederick William and Derfflinger, by placing their guns on a series of low hills to his left while the Swedes had only swamps to their flanks and a river behind them, gained a decisive tactical advantage; these guns opened fire around noon on the 18th and caused heavy casualties on the Swedish right flank. Wrangel, now aware of the threat, attempted several times to wrest control of the hills but was stopped each time by the Brandenburgian cavalry; this continued for some hours until Frederick William had his main attack press the right flank of the Swedes causing their cavalry to flee, thereby exposing their Dalwig Guard infantry to a flank attack led by Prince Frederick II of Hesse-Homburg. The Brandenburgian cavalry turned and routed a regiment of Swedish infantry; the Swedish right however had held up long enough though for the Fehrbellin bridge to be repaired and Wrangel was able to get a large portion of his army across before darkness fell.

Frederick William rejected all his officers' suggestions to shell the town. The Brandenburg troops lost about 500 men. Wrangel's forces lost more than the Brandenburgers but it is unclear how many; the Swedish infantry under Delwig lost 300–400 men alone, with 200 additional losses attributed to the cavalry. All in all, the Swedes had lost about 500–600 killed and captured in the battle Wrangel lost many more in the coming days' retreat due to the pursuit of Brandenburg troops and the wrath of local peasants, some of whom still remembered the Swedes' atrocities during the Thirty Years' War. Of the 1,200 Dalwig Guards, all but 20 were captured. Near Wittstock alone, some 300 Swedes and their officers were slain by peasant raiders. Raiding parties and starvation meant that, by July 2, every last Swedish soldier in the Mark had retreated or been killed or captured. At the day of battle, the Swedes had no intention to deliver battle beyond joining their forces and moving off what they accomplished, while the Brandenburgers intended to prevent this, which failed.

Regardless the battle became a watershed moment. By established military tradition since classical antiquity, the side that controlled the battlefield at the end w

Ekkathat

Ekkathat or Borommaracha III or King of Suriyatamarin Throne Hall was the 6th monarch of the Phluluang clan and the 33rd and the last monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom, ruling from 1758 to 7 April 1767 prior to the fall of the kingdom. Moreover, he was called by the people at the time being that "King Khiruean", meaning "the king with skin disease". Ekkathat, Prince Anurakmontri, was a son of Borommakot, his elder brother, Prince Thammathibet, was made the Front Palace in 1732. However, Thammathibet had an affair with two of his father's wives. Ekkathat, upon knowing this, told Boromakot about the lovers. Thammathibet was thus beaten to death in 1746. Ekkathat, next in the succession line, were expected to be the Front Palace. However, Borommakot halted the appointment because of Ekkathat's incompetence. One year before his death, Borommakot decided to skip Ekkathat, forcing him into the priesthood, appointed Ekkathat's younger brother, Uthumphon, as the Front Palace. In 1758, Borommakot died. Uthumphon was crowned.

However, two months after that, Ekkathat claimed for the throne. Ekkathat settled himself in the Suriyat Amarin Palace—therefore came his name Somdet Phra Thi Nang Suriyat Amarin. Uthumphon arrested and executed his half-brothers Krom Mun Chit Sunthon, Krom Mun Sunthon Thep and Krom Mun Sep Phakdi. Uthumphon willingly abdicated, entered the priesthood, Ekkathat was crowned. According to an account of Siamese captive after the fall of Ayutthaya, the early years of Ekathat witnessed the revival attempt; the king followed the tradition by donating money to temples. Building of new temples occurred; the trade with foreigners was supported. The western coast ports such as Mergui and Tenasserim were active. However, according to the Burmese and English accounts, when the Mons took refuge in the kingdom, after the Burmese conquest, Ayutthaya became the next target of the Burmese. However, the king "was incompetent and only interested in the different pleasures of the flesh." In 1759, Alaungpaya ordered his second son, Hsinbyushin, to attack Tenasserim and Mergui, telling Siam their friendship with Burma was ended since Siam refused to deliver a rebel Mon nobleman who had fled in a French vessel to Mergui.

Meeting little resistance, the Burmese continued their advance by attacking other Siamese provincial towns. After capturing Phetchaburi, Alaungpaya decided to advance to Ayutthaya in 1760; the Siamese capital was in an uproar after the Burmese had taken Ratchaburi. Ekkathat was forced to invite his abdicated brother, Uthumphon, to leave the priesthood and resume the sovereignty. Ekkathat became Somdet Phrachao Luang, "king who had abdicated his throne". Umthumphon prepared the capital for a siege. However, Alaungpaya was wounded during the siege, died during the Burmese retreat; this postponed the death of Ayutthaya for another 7 years. Siam under Ekkathat was in turmoil. Ayutthaya lost its control over network cities and Ekkathat was said to be indulged by the luxury of the court and concubines; the peasants went on the rebellion. In 1766, the Burmese armies again invaded Siam—through Mergui under Mahanoratha and Lanna under Neimyo Thihapate after subjugating Lanna and Laotian kingdoms; the Burmese captured various peripheral cities to cut down any supports given to Ayutthaya.

A Dutch source said. The capital lost contact with its satellite. Ayutthaya was helpless. Local accounts told that Ekkathat tried to counter the Burmese, he ordered his remaining armies and fleets to counter the Burmese at Ratchaburi and Thon Buri, but the Burmese crushed them all. The two Burmese armies laid the siege on the city. A foreign account claimed that his family secretly fled from the capital; the nobles agreed to surrender. On April 7, 1767, Ayutthaya fell; the Burmese burnt the city to the ground. Siamese chronicles said Ekkathat died upon having been in starvation for more than ten days while concealing himself at Ban Chik Woods, adjacent to Wat Sangkhawat, his dead body was discovered by a monk. It was buried at a mound named "Khok Phra Men", in front of a revered Siamese temple called "Phra Wihan Phra Mongkhonlabophit"; the Burmese occupation did not last long. By the end of 1767, the remaining Burmese troops in Siam had been recalled to defend their homeland against the Chinese invasions, leaving Siam in a power vacuum.

Taksin founded the Kingdom of Thonburi in 1768, emerged as the primary contender by 1769

Jeannine Beeken

Jeannine Clementine Theodora Beeken is a Flemish linguist. Her work in Dutch linguistics includes amongst others the development of the first academic software teaching platform for Dutch, esp. Dutch syntax, in the late 1980s, the discovery of three additional objects in contemporary Dutch and the rules for the revised Dutch spelling system, Groene Boekje 2005. Beeken was educated at Heilig-Grafinstituut, Sint-Truiden, Flanders. After leaving Heilig-Grafinstituut in 1979 she entered K. U. Leuven to read Dutch and German linguistics and literature. Reading Dutch linguistics and general linguistics Beeken completed her master's degree in 1983 receiving a magna cum laude for her thesis'Generalised Phrase Structure Grammar: theorie en praktijk'. Having completed her masters, Beeken was approached to work at K. U. Leuven Department of Linguistics as a research assistant. From 1985 to 1993 Beeken worked as a member of academic staff with Guido Geerts while completing her Doctor of Philosophy under the supervision of Flip G Droste publishing'Spiegelstructuur en variabiliteit: pre- en postposities in het Nederlands' receiving a summa cum laude and two awards, the Award of the Royal Academy for Dutch Linguistics and Literature, 1993, the L.

K. Engels Award for theoretical linguistics, 1993, Leuven. From 1993, as a K. U. Leuven Research Fellow in Linguistics, Beeken developed a number of software tools and packages for Dutch: CSE, syntactic parsing for grammar and writing instruction/computational linguistics and for spelling. During this period of research Beeken worked on the development of electronic dictionaries: Beknopte ABN-gids with Dirk Geeraerts and Dirk Speelman. From 1993–1996 Beeken continued her research with the NFWO project,'De lexicale thesaurus als begin- en eindpunt van de interactie tussen lexicologische theorie en lexicografische toepassing' From 1997–1999 Beeken was employed by the Dutch Language Union to work on the revision of the Groene Boekje 1995 towards the creation of the 2005 Groene Boekje, she was the project manager of the Dutch HLT Agency / TST-Centrale from 2004 to 2007. From 2007 to 2014 Jeannine Beeken was director of the Institute for Dutch Lexicology. Beeken's first major contribution to Dutch linguistics was the design and construction of the first analytical software for Dutch syntax.

Her work continued to impact on the Dutch language with her development of Dutch spelling algorithms concerning the problems of DT in the 1990s and her writing of the revised Dutch spelling rules in 2005 Groene Boekje. Beeken's PhD broke new Dutch linguistic grounds when she named 3 additional objects. Beeken has courted controversy with her opposition to traditional dictionary making, arguing for modern theoretical and computational adaptations and solutions to lexicological and lexicographical problems and challenges. Throughout Beeken's career, her publications have covered a breadth of linguistic areas, she was interested in solutions for academic unemployment. In 1994 she contributed to Roger Blanpain book ‘The nine zeros of learning Flanders. From repetitive to creative jobs’, in 1995 she addressed the feminisation of job titles for the Flemish social-economic council and the Ministries in Flanders and the Netherlands. More her published work has focused on lexicology, computational lexicography, digitised language resources and spelling, including her contribution to ‘Hebrew and Yiddish words in Dutch’, her involvement in the Dutch Medical Journal, publishing ‘The successful disclosure of a medical journal through a medical lexicon’.

Jeannine Beeken: Website*