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Battle of Fontenoy

The Battle of Fontenoy took place on 11 May 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Belgian municipality of Antoing, near Tournai. A French army of 50,000 commanded by Marshal Saxe defeated a larger Pragmatic Army of 52,000, led by the Duke of Cumberland. Despite setbacks elsewhere, at the end of 1744 the French held the initiative in the Austrian Netherlands, their leaders considered this theatre offered the best opportunity for a decisive victory. In late April, they besieged Tournai. Leaving 22,000 men in front of Tournai, Saxe placed his main force 8-kilometre away in the villages of St Antoine and Fontenoy, along a strong feature which he strengthened with defensive works. After a series of unsuccessful flank assaults, the Allies attacked the French centre with a column of 15,000 men, which nearly succeeded in breaking through before being repulsed. Although the Allies retreated in good order, Tournai fell shortly afterwards, followed by Ghent, Oudenaarde and Dendermonde.

The withdrawal of British forces in October to deal with the Jacobite Rising facilitated the capture of Ostend and Nieuwpoort. However, by early 1746, France was struggling to finance the war and began peace talks at the Congress of Breda in May. Despite victories at Rocoux in October 1746 and Lauffeld in July 1747, the war continued until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748; the immediate cause of the War of the Austrian Succession was the death in 1740 of Emperor Charles VI, last male Habsburg in the direct line. This left his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as heir to the Habsburg Monarchy, whose laws excluded women from the succession; the 1713 Pragmatic Sanction waived this and allowed her to inherit, but this was challenged by Charles of Bavaria, the closest male heir. The dispute became a European issue because the Monarchy formed the most powerful single element in the Holy Roman Empire. A federation of German states, it was headed by the Holy Roman Emperor, in theory an elected position but held by the Habsburgs since 1440.

In January 1742, Charles of Bavaria became the first non-Habsburg Emperor in 300 years, with the support of France and Saxony. Maria Theresa was backed by the so-called Pragmatic Allies, which in addition to Austria included Britain and the Dutch Republic. After four years of war, the main winner was Prussia, which captured the Austrian province of Silesia during the 1740 to 1742 First Silesian War; the richest province in the Empire, Silesian taxes provided 10% of total Imperial income and contained large mining and dyeing industries. Regaining it was a priority for Maria Theresa and led to the 1744–1745 Second Silesian War. Shortly after Charles died in January 1745, the Austrians over-ran Bavaria and on 15 April, defeated a combined Franco-Bavarian force at Pfaffenhofen. Charles' son, Maximilian III Joseph, now sued for peace and supported the election of Maria Theresa's husband, Francis Stephen, as the new Emperor. With Bavaria out of the war, Austria could focus on Silesia. In the first half of 1744, France made significant advances in the Austrian Netherlands, before being forced to divert resources to meet threats elsewhere.

Maurice de Saxe persuaded Louis XV this was the best place to inflict a decisive defeat on Britain, whose military and financial resources were central to the Allied war effort. His plan for 1745 was to bring the Pragmatic Army to battle on a ground of his choosing, before they could establish numerical superiority; the Austrian Netherlands referred to as Flanders, was a compact area 160 kilometres wide, the highest point only 100 metres above sea level, dominated by rivers running east to west. Until the advent of railways in the 19th century, commercial goods were transported by water and wars in this theatre were fought for control of major waterways, including the Lys and Meuse; the most important was the River Scheldt, which began in Northern France and ran for 350-kilometre before entering the North Sea at Antwerp. Saxe planned to attack Tournai, a town close to the French border that controlled access to the upper Scheldt basin. In March 1745, George Wade was replaced as Allied commander in Flanders by the 24-year-old Duke of Cumberland, advised by the experienced Earl Ligonier.

In addition to British and Hanoverian troops, the Pragmatic Army included a large Dutch contingent, commanded by Prince Waldeck, with a small number of Austrians, led by Count Königsegg. Cumberland's inexperience was magnified by his tendency to ignore advice and internal divisions. On 21 April, a French cavalry detachment under d'Estrées feinted towards Mons and Cumberland prepared to march to its relief. Although it soon became clear this was a diversion, French intentions remained unclear until the siege of Tournai began on 28 April; this uncertainty, combined with intelligence estimates that Saxe had only 30,000 men, meant the Allies failed to reinforce their field army with garrison troops. After confirming the Allies were approaching from the south-east, Saxe left 22,000 men to continue the siege and placed his main force around the villages of Fontenoy and St Antoine, 8-kilometre from T

From Left to Right

From Left to Right is an album by American jazz pianist Bill Evans, released in 1971. From Left to Right was reissued on CD by Verve Records on November 1998 with bonus tracks. From Left to Right was reissued on CD by Universal in 2005 with the same bonus tracks as the 1998 release. "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life?" – 4:05 "I'm All Smiles" – 5:42 "Why Did I Choose You?" – 5:04 "Soirée" – 3:24 "The Dolphin-Before" – 3:05 "The Dolphin-After" – 3:06 "Lullaby for Helene" – 2:50 "Like Someone in Love" – 5:38 "Children's Play Song" – 4:11 2005 bonus tracks: "What Are You Doing the Rest of Your Life?" – 4:44 "Why Did I Choose You?" – 4:18 "Soirée" – 3:26 "Lullaby for Helene" – 2:39 Bill Evans – grand piano, electric piano Eddie Gómezbass Marty Morelldrums Sam Brownguitar Michael Leonardconductor, arranger Unidentified brass and strings Jazz Discography entries for Bill Evans Bill Evans Memorial Library discography

Vehicle snorkel

A vehicle snorkel is the land-based equivalent of the submarine snorkel which allows submarines to use diesel engines while submerged. Snorkels, when used by vehicles with air-breathing internal combustion engines, sometimes allow limited deep wading capability for river crossing or amphibious landing operations in the case of tanks and other armored vehicles. In such cases, the snorkel supplies air for both the engine and the sealed crew compartment, allowing total submersion; the snorkel pipe is of large diameter and fits over the crew hatch, to provide an escape route for the crew in case the vehicle becomes stuck or disabled while underwater. Military wheeled vehicles, such as a HEMTT transport or a Unimog are capable of mounting snorkels for the engine air intake only, to allow them to wade through deep water, limited by the height of snorkel intake and the driver's head; the crew compartment is not watertight, the crew will be immersed, unlike in tracked vehicles, which are totally sealed.

The maximum depth is dictated by the height of the snorkel. In the case of a World War II-era amphibious Jeep, all of the engine openings and electrical wiring are sealed, the driver must first operate a damper that prevents water from entering the intake manifold. After fording, all vehicles wheel bearings must be repacked with new lubricants due to water contamination. Modern military vehicles come from the factory with waterproofed wiring systems. For extreme off-road driving enthusiasts, similar snorkel equipment is available as an aftermarket accessory for many civilian four-wheel drive vehicles, or available as a "universal" kit, making a home-built snorkel system is not difficult for most vehicles; the snorkel is routed out through one of the front fenders or directly through the hood, up beside the "A" pillar to the level of the roofline where it is terminated with either a mushroom intake or a forward-facing intake, although a simple aftermarket cone filter on the end of a flexible length of plastic tubing works just as well.

As long as all air intake parts inside the engine bay are sealed, it will work successfully. Although most external system wiring on modern vehicles is quite well sealed, it is wise to use additional sealing on computers, fuse boxes, etc. and interior electronics such as radios and entertainment systems are not waterproofed and will be ruined by water entering the vehicle. It is important to install extended ventilation lines to the axles and transfer case. With extended vent lines, water can leak past the oil seals.