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Battle of France

The Battle of France known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War. On 3 September 1939 France had declared war following the invasion of its ally Poland. In early September 1939, France launched the Saar Offensive. By mid October, French troops had been withdrawn to their original start positions. In six weeks from 10 May 1940, German forces defeated Allied forces by mobile operations and conquered France, Belgium and the Netherlands, bringing land operations on the Western Front to an end until the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944. Italy invaded France over the Alps. In Fall Gelb, German armoured units made a surprise push through the Ardennes, along the Somme valley, cutting off and surrounding the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium to meet the expected German invasion; when British and French forces were pushed back to the sea by the mobile and well-organised German operation, the British evacuated the British Expeditionary Force and French divisions from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo.

German forces began Fall Rot on 5 June. The sixty remaining French divisions and two British divisions made a determined resistance but were unable to overcome the German air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France, occupying Paris unopposed on 14 June. After the flight of the French government and the collapse of the French army, German commanders met with French officials on 18 June to negotiate an end to hostilities. On 22 June, the Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed by Germany; the neutral Vichy government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain superseded the Third Republic and Germany occupied the north and west coasts of France and their hinterlands. Italy took control of a small occupation zone in the south-east and the Vichy regime retained the unoccupied territory in the south, known as the zone libre. In November 1942, the Germans and Italians occupied the zone under Case Anton, until the Allied liberation in 1944. During the 1930s, the French built fortifications along the border with Germany.

The line was intended to economise on manpower and deter a German invasion across the Franco–German border by diverting it into Belgium, which could be met by the best divisions of the French Army. The war would take place outside French territory; the main section of the Maginot Line ended at Longwy. General Philippe Pétain declared the Ardennes to be "impenetrable" as long as "special provisions" were taken to destroy an invasion force as it emerged from the Ardennes by a pincer attack; the French commander-in-chief, Maurice Gamelin believed the area to be safe from attack, noting it "never favoured large operations". French war games held in 1938, of a hypothetical German armoured attack through the Ardennes, left the army with the impression that the region was still impenetrable and that this, along with the obstacle of the Meuse River, would allow the French time to bring up troops into the area to counter an attack. In 1939, Britain and France offered military support to Poland in the case of a German invasion.

In the dawn of 1 September 1939, the German Invasion of Poland began. France and the United Kingdom declared war on 3 September, after an ultimatum for German forces to withdraw their forces from Poland was not answered. Following this, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada declared war on Germany. While British and French commitments to Poland were met politically, the Allies were not in a position to render meaningful military assistance to the Poles in a timely manner. If Allied military intervention in Poland had been feasible, it would have come at the risk of drawing the Soviet Union into the war on Germany's side due to the signed German-Soviet non-aggression pact and subsequent Soviet invasion of eastern Poland; as a result, the Allies settled on a long-war strategy and mobilised for defensive land operations against Germany, while a trade blockade was imposed and the pre-war re-armament was accelerated, ready for an eventual invasion of Germany. On 7 September, in accordance with their alliance with Poland, France began the Saar Offensive with an advance from the Maginot Line 5 km into the Saar.

France had mobilised 98 divisions and 2,500 tanks against a German force consisting of 43 divisions and no tanks. The French advanced until they met the thin and undermanned Siegfried Line. On 17 September, Gamelin gave the order to withdraw French troops to their starting positions. Following the Saar Offensive, a period of inaction called the Phoney War set in between the belligerents. Adolf Hitler had hoped that France and Britain would acquiesce in the conquest of Poland and make peace. On 6 October, he made a peace offer to both Western powers. On 9 October, Hitler issued a new "Führer-Directive Number 6". Hitler recognised the necessity of military campaigns to defeat the Western European nations, preliminary to the conquest of territory in Eastern Europe, to avoid a two-front war but these intentions were absent from Directive N°6; the plan was based on the more realistic assumption that German military strength would have to be built up for several years

Maicol & Manuel

Maicol & Manuel were a Puerto Rican reggaeton duo. They have their origins in the first wave of reggaeton artists as early as 1991; the duo have released countless songs on many various artists compilations. In addition they have released albums such as Yakaleo and El Desquite. A bit of controversy arose in 2006 when Hector El Father's single, "El Telefono", was released from his album Los Rompe Discotekas; the song, which featured Wisin & Yandel, became an instant hit but soon after it was released, a much older song began circulating on the Internet which featured the same chorus. The song was the original "El Telefono", released by Maicol & Manuel many years ago; this became a popular topic among reggaeton forums during the year, as Hector had a history of "copying" other artists' songs in his own without proper credit. It was not known, however, if Maicol & Manuel had sold the rights to the song or if Hector had used it without permission. A popular track was soon released, recorded in the same matter as a diss record Cam'ron released towards Jay-Z.

The track showcased various verses that Hector has used from other artists, as well as the original verses sung or rapped by their original artists. The song was titled "Hector El Copion"; some of the artists from the track "Hector El Copion" are Eddie Dee, O. G. M. and Oakley. After this wave of controversy, Maicol & Manuel, along with Alberto Stylee and Nano MC, released a version of "El Telefono", with a much more modern beat than the original, dissing Hector and Wisin & Yandel. Maicol & Manuel temporarily split and started developing music as solo artists. Maicol signed to the Diririri Business record label, while Manuel operated independently at Yakaleo Music, they are staging a comeback together, releasing many underground songs of a different style than their songs from 2002 and 2003. With DJ Blass, they made a more underground style of reggaeton, they announced that "Back To The Underground: Yakaliando Edition" was going to be released on September 27, 2013. However it was delayed until October 3, 2013.

1996: D' Underground 1999: Los Reyes Del Underground 2002: Yakaleo 2005: El Desquite "Somos de la Calle" "No Hay Ley" "Como los Tiempos de Antes" "Hey Lady" "Quiero Estar Contigo" featuring Ñejo y Dalmata "Tú Y Yo" featuring Ñejo y Dalmata "Yalakeo" featuring Lito y Polaco "Te Ando Buscando" featuring Plan B "Tu Me Tienes Loco" "Bebe" "Chocopop" featuring Jowell & Randy "Yo Quiero" "Si tu la Ves" "Ataka" featuring various artists "Pan Pan" "Sacudelo" featuring Jowell & Randy "Matraca" featuring Jowell "Ando" featuring Jowell & Randy Maicol & Manuel at AllMusic Maicol & Manuel discography at Discogs

Emily Dutton

Emily Dutton was a businesswoman and socialite of South Australia, wife of Henry Hampden Dutton. She was for managing director of Anlaby Pastoral Company. Emily was born in Gawler, South Australia, the daughter of John Felix Martin and his wife Christina, née McNeil, who married in Gawler on 10 October 1879, she was an accomplished musician, studying violin and piano under Mrs. Alfred Law of Denbigh Cottage and the Anglican Sisters' school at North Adelaide; the Martins entertained at their home "Martindale" in Duffield Street, Gawler East, where Emily learned the art of the gracious hostess. Cultivated and strikingly beautiful, if somewhat austere, her name was in the "Social Pages", they were engaged in July 1905 and married four months on 29 November 1905. They took their honeymoon in Europe, they travelled a lot, stayed at the best hotels. When the couple visited London in 1910, G. W. Lambert painted her portrait, they were in England again when they received news of Henry's father's death on 25 August 1914.

They returned to Anlaby. A memorial service was held on Sunday 24 October at nearby Hamilton, in St. Matthews Anglican Church, with its fine pipe organ, had been financed by the "Squire of Anlaby". Emily played the voluntary and recessional and C. de N. Lucas presided at the organ during the service, her involvement with the arts never waned – she was a founding member of the South Australian Symphony Orchestra in 1920, displayed considerable talent with the brush, exhibiting with the Royal South Australian Society of Arts. Like her adventurous husband, Emily was a keen motorist. Following his historic drive from Adelaide to Darwin in August 1908, in 1921 the two of them motored from Oodnadatta to Katherine, around 1,400 miles, the rest of the journey from Adelaide to Darwin being taken by rail; the party consisted of two Dodge cars, the second being driven by the Duttons' chauffeur, a Mr. Brearley, though arduous the trip was trouble-free, she made many friends, including George II of Greece, among the élite of Britain and Europe, was holidaying there in 1932 with daughter Helen when her husband died at Anlaby, the same week of her court appearance in Buckingham Palace.

Her civic and charitable interests included the Australian Red Cross Society, of which she was a longtime divisional councillor, from 1937 assistant controller of the Voluntary Aid Detachment and from 1938 country supervisor for the Voluntary Service Detachment and district officer for the St John Ambulance Brigade. She was buried in the family plot, St Matthew's Church, Hamilton. Emily Martin married Henry Hampden Dutton on 29 November 1905. Margaret was a daughter of Victor Marra Newland, he was convicted of several serious driving offences, moved to Sydney and she divorced him in 1940. Bryony Helen Carola Dutton was engaged to William Weatherly in 1940 but married American soldier William Robert Curkeet on 24 August 1942, she returned to South Australia in 1945. They had two children:Charlotte Blackburn Calder Tom Blackburn SCGeoffrey Piers Henry Dutton, noted writer, married Ninette Trott in 1944, they had two sons and a daughter.