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Battle of Gaugamela

The Battle of Gaugamela called the Battle of Arbela, was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 331 BC Alexander's army of the Hellenic League met the Persian army of Darius III near Gaugamela, close to the modern city of Dohuk in Iraqi Kurdistan. Though outnumbered, Alexander emerged victorious due to his army's superior tactics and his deft employment of light infantry, it was led to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire. In November 333 BC Darius III had lost the Battle of Issus, resulting in the capture of his wife, his mother and his two daughters, Stateira II and Drypetis. Darius had retreated to Babylon; the victory at Issus had given Alexander control of southern Asia Minor. Following a victory at the Siege of Tyre, which lasted from January to July, Alexander controlled the Levant. After his victory at Gaza Persian troop counts were low and the Persian satrap of Egypt, peacefully surrendered to Alexander. Darius tried to dissuade Alexander from further attacks on his empire by diplomacy.

Ancient historians provide different accounts of his negotiations with Alexander, which can be separated into three negotiation attempts. Justin and Curtius Rufus write that Darius sent a letter to Alexander after the Battle of Issus, it demanded that he release his prisoners. According to Curtius and Justin he offered a ransom for his prisoners, but Arrian does not mention a ransom. Curtius describes the tone of the letter as offensive. Alexander refused his demands. A second negotiation attempt took place after the capture of Tyre. Darius offered Alexander a marriage with his daughter Stateira II and all the territory west of the Halys River. Justin is less specific, not mentioning a specific daughter and speaking of a portion of Darius' kingdom. Diodorus Siculus mentions the offer of all territory west of the Halys River, a treaty of friendship and a large ransom for the captives. Diodorus is the only ancient historian who mentions that Alexander concealed this letter and presented his friends with a forged one favorable to his own interests.

Again Alexander refused. Darius started to prepare for another battle after the failure of the second negotiation attempt. So, he made a third and final effort to negotiate after Alexander's departure from Egypt. Darius' third offer was much more generous, he praised Alexander for the treatment of his mother Sisygambis and offered him all territory west of the Euphrates, co-rulership of the Achaemenid Empire, the hand of one of his daughters and 30,000 talents of silver. In the account of Diodorus, Alexander deliberated this offer with his friends. Parmenion was the only one who spoke up, saying, "If I were Alexander, I should accept what was offered and make a treaty." Alexander replied, "So should I, if I were Parmenion." Alexander again refused the offer of Darius. He called on Darius to surrender to him or to meet him in battle to decide, to be the sole king of Asia; the descriptions given by other historians of the third negotiation attempt are similar to the account of Diodorus, but differ in details.

Diodorus and Arrian write that an embassy was sent instead of a letter, claimed by Justin and Plutarch. Plutarch and Arrian mention the ransom offered for the prisoners was 10,000 talents, but Diodorus and Justin give a figure of 30,000. Arrian writes that this third attempt took place during the Siege of Tyre, but the other historians place the second negotiation attempt at that time. With the failure of diplomacy, Darius decided to prepare for another battle with Alexander. After settling affairs in Egypt, Alexander returned to Tyre during the spring of 331 BC, he reached Thapsacus in August. Arrian relates that Darius had ordered Mazaeus to guard the crossing of the Euphrates near Thapsacus with a force of 3,000 cavalry, he fled. After crossing the Euphrates, Alexander followed a northern route instead of a direct southeastern route to Babylon. While doing so he had the mountains of Armenia on his left; the northern route made it easier to forage for supplies and his troops would not suffer the extreme heat of the direct route.

Captured Persian scouts reported to the Macedonians that Darius had encamped past the Tigris River and wanted to prevent Alexander from crossing. Alexander found the Tigris succeeded in crossing it with great difficulty. In contrast, Diodorus mentions that Mazaeus was only supposed to prevent Alexander from crossing the Tigris, he would not have bothered to defend it because he considered it impassable due to the strong current and depth of the river. Furthermore and Curtius Rufus mention that Mazaeus employed scorched-earth tactics in the countryside through which Alexander's army had to pass. After the Macedonian army had crossed the Tigris a lunar eclipse occurred. Following the calculations, the date must have been October 1 in 331 BC. Alexander marched southward along the eastern bank of the Tigris. On the fourth day after the crossing of the Tigris his scouts reported that Persian cavalry had been spotted, numbering no more than 1000 men; when Alexander attacked them with his cavalry force ahead of the rest of his army, the Persian cavalry fled.

Most of them escaped. The prisoners told the Macedonians. Several researchers have criticized the Persians for their failure to harass Alexander's army and disrupt its long supply lines when it advanced through Mesopotamia. Peter Gree

Gölsen

The Gölsen is a river in Lower Austria, in the Mostviertel. It is a tributary of the Traisen; the river begins in Hainfeld with the confluence of the Ramsaubach. It flows through the communities of Hainfeld, Rohrbach an der Gölsen, Sankt Veit an der Gölsen, before discharging into the Traisen at Traisen; the Gölsen flows in an east-west direction and is around 15 km long, it has a difference in elevation of 80 metres. The river is nowadays obstructed due to its recurring floods (Gölsen Dam, On account of its recurrent floods, the Gölsen is nowadays controlled. However, within its broad riverbed, it can form gravel banks. Parallel to the river runs the so-called Gölsentalradweg, which runs from the Traisentalradweg to Hainfeld. An extension of the path to the Triesting Valley Cycle Way is planned. Parallel to the river, the so-called Gölsentalradweg was laid out, which runs continuously on asphalt from the Traisentalradweg to Hainfeld and on into the valley of the Triesting to the Triestingtalradweg.

Along the Gölsen runs a rail line, the Leobersdorf railway from Traisen to Hainfeld. In the past, the line continued to Kaumberg and farther into the Triesting valley. Since 2004, only special trains have operated on this section of line; the information in this article is based on a translation of its German equivalent

Sigrid Gurie

Sigrid Gurie was a Norwegian American motion picture actress from the late 1930s to early 1940s. Gurie was born in New York, her father was a civil engineer who worked for the New York City Subway from 1902 to 1912. Since Sigrid Gurie and her twin brother Knut Haukelid were born in America, the twins held dual Norwegian-American citizenship. In 1914 the family returned to Norway. Sigrid Gurie subsequently grew up in Oslo and was educated in Norway and Belgium. In 1935 Gurie married Thomas Stewart of California, her brother became a noted member of the Norwegian resistance movement during World War II. In 1936, Gurie arrived in Hollywood. Film magnate Sam Goldwyn took credit for discovering her, promoting his discovery as "the new Garbo" and billed her as "the siren of the fjords"; when the press discovered Gurie's birth in Flatbush, Goldwyn claimed "the greatest hoax in movie history." She starred as Kokashin, daughter of Kublai Khan, in the 1938 production of The Adventures of Marco Polo, went on to give worthwhile performances in such films as Algiers, Three Faces West and Voice in the Wind.

She had a minor role in the classic Norwegian film Kampen om tungtvannet. The movie was based principally on the book Skis Against the Atom, written by her brother, Knut Haukelid, a noted saboteur and member of the Norwegian resistance against German occupation in World War 2. In the late 1940s she attended the Kann Art Institute, operated in West Hollywood by abstract artist Frederick I. Kann, she studied oils and portraiture. Among her works were landscapes and pen and ink sketches. From 1961 to 1969 she lived in San Miguel de Allende, where she continued painting, was designing jewelry for Royal Copenhagen in Denmark, she entered the hospital in Mexico City on an emergency basis for a recurring kidney problem developed a blood clot that passed through her lungs, which led to her death. Sigrid Gurie on IMDb Sigrid Gurie at AllMovie Sigrid Gurie at the TCM Movie Database Sigrid Gurie at Find a Grave