Siege of Inverness (1715)
The Siege of Inverness that took place in November 1715 was part of the Jacobite rising of 1715. The town of Inverness and Inverness Castle were being held by the Clan Mackenzie, led by Sir John Mackenzie of Coul who supported the rebel Jacobite cause. Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, chief of the Clan Fraser of Lovat besieged them, supported by men of the Clan Rose and Clan Forbes. Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat had been living in exile with the prospect of his clan and lands being taken over by a Mackenzie, married to Lady Amelia Fraser of Lovat, daughter of the 9th Lord Lovat and second cousin of Simon. Upon the outbreak of the Jacobite rising of 1715, Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat returned to Scotland and despite being a staunch Jacobite offered his services to John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, in overall command of British forces in Scotland in order to restore himself in Scotland; this would be a severe blow to the Jacobites and so Argyll had to give him a chance. Lord Lovat and John Forbes of Culloden who supported the Government met up at Kilravock Castle with Hugh Rose, chief of the Clan Rose.
Rose was a staunch supporter of the Hanoverian Government. Lovat and Rose formed up their united forces on the side of the River Ness opposite Inverness Castle; the Inverness Burgh Council sent out a messenger asking for help from the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch. The MacDonalds approached the Frasers from the rear but Lovat sent the Reverend Thomas Fraser of Stratherrick to parlay with them and as Keppoch MacDonald did not want to fight his way into Inverness he headed south through the hills. Sir John Mackenzie of Coul had sent a message to the Clan Mackintosh chief at Moy Hall requesting that he send 500 men to reinforce the 300 Mackenzies in Inverness. In response Lovat ordered his troops to break camp and head south of Inverness threatening to lay waste to Mackintosh country; the Mackintoshes backed down and swore that they only moved to defend their lands against MacDonald of Keppoch and that they did not want to take part in the rebellion. Lovat held a council amongst his men with the Whig lairds preferring a siege to starve out the Jacobites, but he resolved to attack the town instead.
However, before he could make a move Aurthur Rose, younger son of Rose of Kilravrock, along with his brother Robert and a handful of men had drifted towards Inverness in a boat. Rose of Kilravrock and Forbes of Culloden had blockaded the town from the south east. Sir John Mackenzie, on learning of the imminent attack took up position in the Tolbooth, a strong building in the centre of the town, served as the guard house. Arthur Rose had taken a sentry guard by surprise with his pistol in the dark and used him to get the door of the guard house open. Rose tried to storm in but the guard raised the alarm that he was an enemy and Rose ended up being crushed in the door and was shot dead in that position by the Mackenzies, his body was riddled with bullets. He was the only fatality of the siege; the following day Sir John Mackenzie of Coul agreed to surrender Inverness on the condition that he could go and join the Earl of Mar, the leader of the Jacobite army. Sir John Mackenzie and his men escaped by boats from the pier of Inverness, leaving all their baggage behind them, in a hurry to avoid contact with the approaching Frasers.
On 12 November 1715 the Hanoverians occupied Inverness. Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat marched into the town supported by 800 men from Clan Grant and 400 men from Clan Munro. Lovat left Inverness on 15 November 1715 after Sir Robert Munro, 6th Baronet had been appointed Governor of the town, for some time the disarming of the rebels went on helped by a Munro detachment under his younger brother, George Munro, 1st of Culcairn. On 10 March 1716, George I of Great Britain signed a document that confirmed Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat as a free, British subject for the first time in twenty years. Fraser, Sarah.. The Last Highlander: Scotland's Most Notorious Clan Chief, Rebel & Double Agent. ISBN 978-0-00-722950-5. Mackenzie, Alexander.. History of the Frasers of Lovat, with genealogies of the principal families of the name: to, added those of Dunballoch and Phopachy. Mackenzie, Alexander.. History of the Munros of Fowlis
Jacobite rising of 1719
The Jacobite Rising of 1719 or the Nineteen was a Spanish-backed attempt to restore the exiled James Francis Edward Stuart to the throne of Great Britain. The plan called for 7,000 Spanish troops to land in South West England, supported by a simultaneous invasion of Scotland by a Swedish expeditionary force; the Scottish rising was intended to enable the Swedes to disembark. Swedish involvement ended with the death of Charles XII of Sweden in November 1718, while the Spanish fleet was damaged by storms in late March 1719 and the invasion of England cancelled. Only the Scottish element took place and the Rising ended with defeat at the Battle of Glen Shiel in June. Jacobite leaders felt the revolt damaged the Stuart cause and over the next few years, many exiles like Bolingbroke, the Earl of Seaforth and Lord George Murray accepted pardons and returned home. Others like James Keith and George Keith took employment elsewhere; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht forced Spain to cede Sicily and Sardinia to Austria and Savoy and their recovery was a priority for Giulio Alberoni, the new Spanish Chief Minister.
Since Austria or Savoy relied on the Royal Navy for naval support, regaining them required the British to either withhold this support or be prevented from doing so. Sardinia was reoccupied in 1717 unopposed but Sicily was viewed as a vital link in British trade with the Levant; when Spain landed on the island in 1718, British naval forces destroyed the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Cape Passaro in August and the War of the Quadruple Alliance began in December. Louis XIV had been the main source of support for the Stuarts. However, the 1715 Jacobite Rising showed they retained significant support and Alberoni sought to use this to divert British resources from the Mediterranean; the plan called for 7,000 Spanish troops under the Duke of Ormonde to land in South-West England, march on London and restore James Stuart. Ormonde added a second part, based on the relationship he had developed with Charles XII of Sweden through his involvement in peace talks between Sweden and Russia. Charles' support for the Jacobites arose from his dispute with Hanover over territories in Germany, an example of the post-1714 problems caused by the personal union between Hanover and Britain.
They agreed that a small Scottish force would secure Inverness, allowing a Swedish expeditionary force to disembark. Charles XII's death in November 1718 ended Swedish participation and the purpose of the Scottish rising but Spanish preparations continued in Cadiz, while Ormonde and James waited in Corunna. Departure was scheduled for early February but delays allowed the British government to make arrangements. Ormonde wrote a series of pessimistic letters to Alberoni telling him the plan was no longer viable. Historians question. Unlike many others, he had direct experience of amphibious operations and Cape Passaro demonstrated the Royal Navy's power in far less favourable circumstances; as the French demonstrated on numerous occasions, a threatened invasion was as useful in occupying the Royal Navy and far less risky, which would explain why his lack of concern at the delays. The fleet left Cadiz for Corunna in late March carrying 5,000 soldiers but was damaged by a two day storm off Cape Finisterre on 29 March and the invasion cancelled.
The Scottish landing was commanded by George Keith and on 8 March, he left Pasajes with 300 Spanish marines aboard two frigates, reaching Stornoway in the Isle of Lewis. Here they were joined by a group of exiles from France, including the Earl of Seaforth, James Keith, the Marquess of Tullibardine, Lord George Murray and Cameron of Lochiel. Britain complained to the French about allowing them free passage. Tullibardine wanted to hear from Ormonde, while Keith urged moving to capture Inverness before the garrison was warned, his view prevailed and on 13 April, they landed at Lochalsh in Mackenzie territory and set up base in Eilean Donan where they learned of Ormonde's failure. Tullibardine produced a commission from 1717 appointing him leader of Jacobite land forces and recommended retreat, which Keith prevented by ordering the frigates back to Spain; the Jacobite force totalled about 1,000 including 400 Mackenzies, 150 Camerons, the Spanish troops and other small groups, including one led by Rob Roy MacGregor.
Since they had more arms and ammunition than men, the excess was stored at Eilean Donan guarded by 40 Spanish soldiers while the rest prepared to march on Inverness. After receiving news of the landing in Stornoway, five ships of the Royal Navy arrived in the area at the beginning of May. Since they were unaware the Spanish frigates had left as instructed by Keith, this was a substantial force which included the 50-gun fourth-rates HMS Assistance, Worcester and Enterprise plus a 24-gun sloop Flamborough. While Assistance and Dartmouth patrolled the waters around Skye, Worcester and Flamborough anchored off Eilean Donan on the north side of Loch Duich early in the morning of Sunday 10 May. In the evening, a landing party captured the
Battle of Falkirk Muir
During the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Battle of Falkirk Muir on 17 January 1746 was the last noteworthy Jacobite success. The battlefield has been inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Historic Environment Act 2011. After turning back from Derby, for want of either any significant support from English Jacobites or a French invasion, the Jacobite Army returned to Scotland and besieged Major General Blakeney in Stirling Castle. Lieutenant General Henry Hawley led his troops from Edinburgh to relieve Blakeney; the Jacobite army was 8,000 strong, the largest assembled throughout the Rising. They were pitched against a regular Hanoverian army; the battle itself was a hectic and scrambling affair, fought in a storm of wind and torrential rain, so confusing that neither side was aware of the outcome. The Jacobite army left Glasgow on 3 January in two columns. One column of six Highland battalions, led by Lord George Murray marched towards Falkirk, via Cumbernauld, to make it appear as if they were heading towards Edinburgh.
Instead he moved just outside Stirling in Bannockburn. Murray stationed Lord Elcho at Linlithgow with a detachment of cavalry to patrol the road to Edinburgh. Charles Edward Stuart moved another column to Bannockburn via Kilsyth. There he set his headquarters and resided at Bannockburn House as the guest of Sir Hugh Paterson, a Jacobite supporter. Lord John Drummond set forth from Perth with heavy artillery. Now boasting a force of 8,000 men the Jacobites sent a drummer to Stirling on 5 January demanding the surrender of the town. A garrison of 500 militiamen responded by shooting at the drummer who ran for his life. Three days the town council agreed to surrender. Yet, Stirling Castle itself was held by a small garrison of trained militiamen and troops under the command of Major General William Blakeney, who politely declined to surrender. Thereupon Charles Stuart ordered the castle to be besieged, he entrusted this task to a French artillery'expert' of Scottish descent, Monsieur Mirabel de Gordon.
Gordon chose a poor location in digging trenches for the Jacobite cannons, lower and in range of the castle's own guns. Following the victory at Falkirk the cannon would be destroyed after firing a single shot; because of the man's demonstrated incapacity, the Scots afterward referred to Mirabel as "Mr. Admirable."At the same time, dissension arose as the Highland chiefs resented Charles Stuart's decision to not hold councils, relying only on the advice of his Irish "Men of Moidart." Causing concern was Charles's continued drinking. As this went on, General Hawley brought an army of 13,000 from Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh, sending an advance unit to Linlithgow on 13 January. Lord Elcho fell back to Falkirk. Hawley advanced with his main army of 6,000 on 15 January, intending to relieve Stirling Castle, whereupon Murray and Elcho withdrew to Bannockburn; the Jacobites planned for battle on 15 January at just southeast of Bannockburn. They were expecting an attack from Hawley's forces. Hawley was encamped at Falkirk, showed no signs of moving.
Thus, on the morning of 17 January, the Jacobites planned an offensive. The army moved cautiously towards Falkirk, avoiding the main road and heading for the Hill of Falkirk which overlooked Hawley's encampment below. With General Hawley established at nearby Callendar House, the government army was taken by surprise. At 1:00 pm an officer informed Hawley of the Jacobite approach. Hawley did not verify the information for himself. Instead, he remained at Callendar House, 2000 yards behind his camp, only sent instructions for his troops to put on their equipment as a precaution. By 2:00 pm the Jacobite attack was imminent and a second messenger from Major General John Huske was sent to Callendar House. Aware of the seriousness of the situation, Hawley arrived at his camp hatless and at the gallop. Led by the dragoons, the Hanoverian army filed south on Maggie Wood's Loan past the Bantaskin House and up the slope of the Falkirk ridge; as the leading elements reached the summit, they could see the Jacobite army bearing down on them from the northwest.
Marching across the front of the Highlanders, the dragoon regiments reached a bog on the far side of the rise and faced to their right. The infantry began facing west. About this time a storm struck the area with heavy rain, hindering deployment and wetting the black powder cartridges. In the subsequent action one out of four muskets missed fire. From left to right, the Hanoverian front line consisted of Ligonier's, Cobham's and Hamilton's Dragoon Regiments. Continuing the first line were Edward Wolfe's, Cholmondeley's, Pulteney's, The Royal, Price's and Ligonier's Regiments of Foot. In the second line stood Blakeney's, Munro's, Fleming's, Barrel's and Battereau's foot regiments. Last to arrive, Howard's regiment took position in a third line. A few hundred yards behind the dragoons, the Glasgow militia were drawn up; the Argyll militia took position on the far right of Hawley's line. Two cannon became stuck in a bog; when the battle began, the English gun crews were still trying to free them. The Jacobite army deployed in three lines, facing east.
In the front line, from right to left were the MacDonalds, Frasers, MacPhersons, Mackenzies and Stewarts of Appin. Posted in the second line were the regiments of Lord Lewis Gordon, Lord Ogilvy and the Atholl Brigade. In the third line were small
The Villasur expedition of 1720 was a Spanish military expedition intended to check the growing New France's influence on the Great Plains of central North America. Led by Lieutenant-General Pedro de Villasur, the expedition was attacked in present-day Nebraska by a Pawnee and Otoe force. Forty-six of the Spaniards and their Indian allies were killed; the survivors retreated to their base in New Mexico. In the first part of the 18th century, French explorers and fur traders began to enter the plains west of the Missouri River. In 1714, Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont became the first European known to have reached the mouth of the Platte River. Spain, which had claimed ownership of the Great Plains since the Coronado expedition of the 16th century, worried about the expansion of French influence in the region. In 1718, the War of the Quadruple Alliance broke out between Spain; the governor of the Spanish colony of Nuevo México, based in Santa Fe, directed Villasur to capture French traders on the plains.
Spanish authorities hoped to gather intelligence about French ambitions in the region. Villasur, who had no experience with Indians, left Santa Fe on June 16, 1720, leading an expedition that included about 40 cuera soldiers of a mounted frontier corps, 60–70 Pueblo allies, a priest, a Spanish trader, 12 Apache guides, who were tribal enemies of the Pawnee. Jose Naranjo, scout leader and explorer, was of African-Hopi parentage. A war captain for the Spanish Indian auxiliaries, Naranjo, by 1720, may have reached the South Platte River area; the expedition made its way northeast through present-day Colorado and Nebraska. In August, they made contact with the Otoe along the Platte and Loup rivers. Using Francisco Sistaca, a Pawnee held as a slave by the Spanish, Villasur made several attempts to negotiate with Indians in the area. On August 13, Sistaca disappeared from camp. Nervous about the possibility of attack and the increasing number and belligerence of the Pawnee and Otoe, Villasur camped that night just south of the Loup-Platte confluence, near what is now Columbus, Nebraska.
The Pawnees and Otoes attacked at dawn on August 14, shooting heavy musketry fire and flights of arrows charging into combat clad only in paint, headbands and short leggings. Some survivors reported that Frenchmen had been among the attackers, men in European dress are shown in a surviving painting of the battle; the Spanish were asleep at this hour. In a brief battle, they killed 36 Spaniards, including Villasur and Naranjo, 10 Pueblo scouts, Jean L'Archevêque, a Frenchman, brought as an interpreter on the understanding that the French were gaining influence on the plains; the Pueblo allies were encamped nearby, but separately from the Spanish and were not the first targets of the attack. The few "leather soldiers" who escaped were horse-holders, who were able to break loose while their comrades attempted to form a defensive cluster; the Spanish and Pueblo survivors returned to Santa Fe on September 6. The expedition had journeyed farther to the north and east than any other Spanish military expedition, its defeat marked the end of Spanish influence on the central Great Plains.
The governors of New Mexico inquired into and apportioned blame for the disaster over the next seven years. The French in Illinois were elated to learn of the battle in October, but subsequent French expeditions did not succeed in establishing French trade and influence in the area. Nebraska Studies.org: "Villasur Sent to Nebraska" NMHistorymuseum.org: "The Segesser Hides Explorer"
Enlightenment in Spain
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700. This period in Spanish history is referred to as Bourbon Spain. "Like the Spanish Enlightenment, the Spanish Bourbon monarchs were imbued with Spain's Catholic identity." The period of reform and'enlightened despotism' under the Bourbons focused on centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government, improvement of infrastructure, beginning with the rule of King Charles III and the work of his minister, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca. In the political and economic sphere, the crown implemented a series of changes, collectively known as the Bourbon reforms, which were aimed at making the overseas empire more prosperous to the benefit of Spain; the Bourbon monarchs sought the expansion of scientific knowledge, urged by Benedictine monk Benito Feijóo. From 1777 to 1816, the Spanish crown funded scientific expeditions to gather information about the potential botanical wealth of the empire.
When Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt proposed a self-funded scientific expedition to Spanish America, the Spanish crown accorded him not only permission, but the instructions to crown officials to aid him. Spanish scholars sought to understand the decline of the Spanish empire from its earlier glory days, with the aim of reclaiming its former prestige. In Spanish America, the Enlightenment had an impact in the intellectual and scientific sphere, with elite American-born Spanish men involved in these projects; the Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula was enormously destabilizing for Spain and the Spanish overseas empire. The ideas of the Hispanic Enlightenment have been seen as a major contributor to the Spanish American wars of independence, although the situation is more complex; the French Bourbons had a strong claim on the Spanish throne following the 1700 death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, who died without an heir. France lost the War of the Spanish Succession but the victors, due to their claimant inheriting the Holy Roman Empire, allowed the Bourbon monarchy to in turn inherit the Spanish crown, on the condition that the Spanish and French crowns were never merged.
Once it consolidated rule in Spain, the Bourbon monarchs embarked upon a series of reforms to revitalize the Spanish empire, which had declined in power in the late Habsburg era. The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment had a strong impact in Spain and a ripple effect in Spanish American Enlightenment Spain's overseas empire; when French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Iberian peninsula and placed Napoleon's brother Joseph on the throne of Spain, there was a crisis of legitimacy in both Spain and its overseas empire. A cortes was convened in Cádiz, which ratified a liberal constitution in 1812, limiting the power of the monarchy constitutionally as well as the power of the Catholic Church. Ferdinand VII claimed he supported the liberal constitutions, but once restored to power in 1814, he renounced it and reverted to unfettered absolutist rule. In most parts of Spanish America during the Napoleonic period in Spain, wars of independence broke out, so that by the time Bourbon Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne in 1814, much of Spanish America had achieved independence and established constitutional republics.
New Spain and Peru were the exceptions, becoming independent in 1821 and 1824. Mexico had a monarchy under royalist military officer turned insurgent Agustín de Iturbide, overthrown in favor of a federated republic under the Constitution of 1824; the last few years of the rule of the mentally challenged and childless Charles II, were dominated by the politics of who would succeed the unfortunate monarch, the last Spanish king of the Habsburg dynasty. Spain was at the center of this political crisis, but it was the "object not the arbiter." Economic troubles, the decay of the Spanish bureaucracy, a series of defeats in wars against France, the erosion of imperial institutions in the seventeenth century had left Charles the king of a declining empire, his physical and mental weakness provided him with little ability to reverse the course of his country. The vastness of the Spanish Empire in the New World, along with her naval resources, had made Spain a vital part of European power politics. If the throne of Spain was to go to a relative of the king of France, or if the two countries were to be united, the balance of power in Europe might shift in France's favor.
If it remained in the hands of another member of the anti-French, Austrian Habsburg dynasty, the status quo would remain. European politics during the seventeenth century became dominated by establishing an orderly succession in Spain that would not alter the balance between Europe's great powers. Charles II, the unfortunate result of generations of Habsburg inbreeding, decreed in one of his last official acts that his crown would pass to his nephew, Philip of Anjou, the grandson of King Louis XIV of France of the House of Bourbon, the heir to the French throne. Castilian legitimists, who valued the succession of the closest heir of the king over the continuation of Habsburg rule, supported the king's plan. Spanish officials were concerned with Spain remaining an independent country, rather than another part of the French or Austrian empires. So, on hearing the news that his grandson had become King of Spain, Louis XIV proclaimed, "The Pyrenees are no more." At age 17, Philip V arrived in Madrid in early 1701 without visible opposition.
Philip confirmed the fueros of Catalunya and Aragon, to all appearances the Bourbon
Battle of Achnashellach
The Battle of Achnashellach was a Scottish clan battle said to have taken place in the year 1505, in the Scottish Highlands at Achnashellach. It was fought by the Clan Cameron against the Clan Munro. Little is known of the events concerning the Battle of Achnashellach as there is little contemporary evidence to support it; however the Clan Munro records that "Sir William Munro of Foulis was sent to Lochaber on the King's business and was killed in an engagement between the Camerons and MacKays at a place called Achnashellach in 1505". Aside from this there is little evidence of the battle, however it is Clan Cameron tradition that they defeated a joint force of Munros and Mackays. Alexander Munro, a cadet of the Munro of Obsdale branch of the Clan Munro had to write a birth brief to Charles I of England in the 17th century which mentions his ancestor William Munro of Foulis and states that he was killed by treachery; this birth brief was published in Alexander Mackenzie's History of the Munros of Fowlis in 1898 and states: William Munro of Foulis, plainly a knight most valiant for leading an army at the command of the King against certain factious northern men, he perished by treachery.
Andrew Munro of Coul wrote an MS History of the Munros in about 1717, published in 1805 in the book Chronological and Genealogical Account of the Ancient and Honorable Family of the Fowlis. This has a brief account of the skirmish stating that Munro was killed by Cameron and that: the house was surrounded and refused to surrender; the memoirs of Ewen Cameron of Lochiel were published in 1842 and in the author's introduction chapter, which gives a history of the Clan Cameron, the following is mentioned regarding the feud between the Camerons against the Mackays and Munros during the chiefship of Ewen Cameron of Lochiel. Besides the other wars wherein Locheill was engaged, he had a ruffle with the Barron of Rea, Chief of the Mackays, a people living many miles north of Lochaber. What the quarrall was, I know not, but it drew on an invasion from the Camerons, that ane engagement wherein the Mackays were defeated, the Laird of Foules, Chief of the Monros, who assisted them, killed upon the spot.
Donald Gregory's book History of the Western Highlands and Isles of Scotland from AD 1493 to AD 1625, published in 1881, with quoted source, gives an insight into the circumstances in Scotland, in the years prior to the battle: A. D.1502: A commission was afterwards given to the Earl of Huntly, the Lord Lovat, William Munro of Fowlis to proceed to Lochaber and let the King's lands of Lochaber and Mamore, for the space of five years, to true men. At the same time, the commissioners had strict instructions to expel all broken men from these districts, which, in the state of affairs at that time, was equivalent to an order to expel the whole population. Similar directions were given relative to the lands forfeited by MacLeod of Lewis. Alexander Mackenzie wrote an account of the Battle of Achnashellach in his book History of the Munros of Fowlis in 1898. Mackenzie quote's Gregory's book for the events of 1502 as mentioned above, the Lochiel Memoirs given above. Sir William is said to have been killed in the prime of his life, in 1505, at a place called Achnashellach or Achnaskellach, in Lochaber, by Ewen "MacAlein Mhic Dhom'huill Duibh", XIII. of Lochiel, in a raid, thus described in Lochiels Memoirs.
Besides the other wars wherein Lochiel was engaged, he had a ruffle with Baron of Reay, Chief of the MacKays, a people living many miles north of Lochaber. What the quarrel was I know not, but it drew on an invasion from the Camerons, that an engagement wherein the MacKays were defeated and the Laird of Fowlis, Chief of the Munros, who assisted them, was killed upon the spot. In 1502 a Royal Commission had been given to the Earl of Huntly, Thomas fourth Lord Lovat, Sir William Munro of Fowlis, to proceed to Lochaber and let the King's lands of Lochaber and Mamore for the space of five years to true men, this is what led to the raid and the collision with the Camerons in which Sir William was slain. John Stewart of Ardvorlich wrote a brief account of the events surrounding the Battle of Achnashellach in his book The Camerons, A History of Clan Cameron, without quoting a source: There is tradition that the Clan Cameron took part in an expedition to the country of the Mackays in Sutherlandshire and that they defeated a joint force of Munros and Mackays but the object of this enterprise is not clear.
Sir William Munro of Foulis was the Earldom of Ross. In 1505 he was killed by "Ewen McAllan Vicoldui" at Achnashellach; as Ewen MacAllan had supported the rebellion of Donald Dubh in 1503 and as Achnashellach is only 12 miles from the Castle of Strome in Lochalsh, which he was constable, it seems that Ewen was acting in support of Donald Dubh when Munro was killed. Alister Farquhar Matheson writing in 2014, but with no quoted source gives more details of the battle. According to Matheson the Earl of Huntly, James IV of Scotland's commander in the north, called on his deputy, Sir William Munro of Foulis to lead a punitive expedition against the rebel MacDonalds of Lochalsh; the Mackays of Strathnaver demonstrating their loyalty to the king, joined Sir William Munro's force. There is a tradition that the Clan Sutherland contributed a regiment as the Earl of Huntly's son, Adam was married to Elizabeth, the heiress to the earldom of Sutherland. Ewen Cameron, chief of Clan Cameron was hereditary constable of Strome Castle on behalf of the MacDonalds and he gathered a force to protect the lands of MacDonald of Lochalsh.
Matheson tradition is that one of Cameron's officers was Alasdair MacRuairidh, chieftain of the Clan Matheson Nor
William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine
William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine was a Scottish nobleman and Jacobite who took part in the rebellions of 1715, 1719, 1745. Attainted for his role in 1715, his younger brother succeeded as Duke of Atholl in 1724, although Tullibardine was made Duke of Rannoch in the Jacobite peerage. One of the Seven Men of Moidart who accompanied Prince Charles to Scotland in 1745, he was captured after Culloden in April 1746 and died in the Tower of London on 9 July. William Murray was born on 14 April 1689, at Huntingtower near Perth, second son of John Murray, Duke of Atholl and his first wife, Katherine Hamilton; when his elder brother John was killed at Malplaquet in August 1709, he became Marquess of Tullibardine and heir to the dukedom but was attainted for his part in the 1715 Rising. His younger brother succeeded as 2nd Duke of Atholl in 1724. Tullibardine spent most of his life post 1715 in exile, returning to Scotland only to take part in the rebellions of 1719 and 1745. Captured after Culloden in April 1746, he died in the Tower of London on 9 July unmarried and without children.
After a short spell at the University of St Andrews, he joined the Royal Navy in 1707 against Atholl's wishes. He served under Byng during the War of the Spanish Succession but following appeals from his father he returned in 1712 and went to live in London; the same year Atholl unsuccessfully attempted to arrange his marriage to Elizabeth, the daughter of Tory leader Robert Harley. He soon fell into debt, a recurring problem throughout his life and by 1714 was receiving regular payments from the Stuart court in Saint-Germain. Queen Anne died in August 1714 and was succeeded by the Hanoverian George I, with the Whigs replacing the previous Tory government. Of the Tory leaders, Harley was imprisoned in the Tower and Bolingbroke joined James Francis Edward in France. Deprived of his offices, in September 1715 the Earl of Mar launched a Rebellion at Braemar in Scotland, without prior approval from James. Choice of sides was as much driven by the political contest between Whigs and Tories as it was allegiance to the Stuarts or Hanoverians.
Atholl had opposed the 1707 Acts of Union but by 1715 he was a pro-Hanoverian Unionist and forbade his sons to participate in the Rebellion, threatening to disinherit them if they did so. Despite this and his brothers Charles and George joined the Jacobite army. Atholl blamed their defection on Lady Nairne, a committed Jacobite married to his cousin Lord William Murray, whose husband and sons took part in the 1715 and 1745 Risings. However, his other sons fought for the government in 1715 and like many others, Atholl had a history of balancing both sides, having spent the 1689 Rising in England. During the rising, Blair Castle was occupied by a'Jacobite' garrison under Patrick Stewart, a trusted family retainer and besieged by his eldest son John, careful not to damage his ancestral home. Lord Charles was captured at the Battle of Preston, a few days before the Battle of Sheriffmuir on 13 November, where Tullibardine commanded the left flank; the Jacobite right routed their opponents but their pursuit exposed their own centre and left wing, which now fled in their turn.
While inconclusive, Sheriffmuir was a Jacobite strategic defeat and without external support the Rebellion collapsed. Lord Charles, who held a commission in the 5th Dragoons, was tried as a deserter and sentenced to be shot. Charles was pardoned but his two brothers exiled; the Murrays were involved in efforts to gain support for another invasion from Sweden in dispute with Hanover over Pomerania and an example of the complexity caused by its ruler being British monarch. This was resurrected as part of the 1719 Rebellion. Tullibardine and Lord George arrived in Stornoway in April 1719 where they met up with other exiles, including 300 Spanish marines under George Keith. For various reasons, only the Scottish element took place and the rebellion collapsed after defeat in the Battle of Glenshiel on 10 June; the manner of the rebellion's failure led Tullibardine to conclude that a Stuart restoration was hopeless unless supported by a landing in England as well as Scotland. In a letter of 16 June 1719 to the Earl of Mar, he concluded "our being brought away so unreasonably will I'm affraid ruin the Kings Interest and faithful subjects in these parts.
Senior leaders like Bolingbroke and the Earl of Seaforth were allowed home, while George Keith and his brother James became Prussian officers. When their father died in 1724, James succeeded as Duke of Atholl. Lord George returned home in 1725, while his brother remained in Paris. Details are scarce but in a long and incoherent letter to James Stuart of March 1723, Tullibardine announced his retirement into private life, on the grounds that he was'unfit … for meddling with the deep concerns of state.'There are indications he suffered from both physical and mental illness and was continually short of money, despite financial support from his family in Scotland. A memorandum of 1731 stated that Tullibardine had sold his horse as he was unable to buy it fodde