Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Louis de la Corne, Chevalier de la Corne
Louis de la Corne or Louis Chapt, Chevalier de la Corne was born at Fort Frontenac in what is now Kingston, Ontario and began his career in the colonial regular troops as a second ensign in 1722 and was made full ensign five years later. He married in 1728 and began investing in the commerce of the fur trade while continuing his military career; this was a common practice of the time. In the next few years both careers flourished, he received promotions to lieutenant and captain six years later. During King George's War, he had serious combat experience in Acadia for which he was awarded the cross of Saint Louis in May 1749 for his actions at the Battle of Grand Pre. During Father Le Loutre's War he was involved in other hostile military operations as well as organizing militias amongst new settlers in new territories. In 1752, La Corne began a three-year appointment as the western commander of the poste de l’Ouest, he succeeded Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre and set out in June 1753 with 57 men, leaving his brother Luc de la Corne to coordinate additional resources.
He crossed paths with Saint-Pierre north of Lake Superior and was briefed on what he would find in the west. During his tenure in the west, La Corne appears to have been an active commander, he built Fort Saint-Louis and explored the Carrot River valley. He was succeeded by Louis-Joseph Gaultier de La Vérendrye, Commander of the West from 1756 to 1758. By July 1755, La Corne was back east and was involved in military matters for the next five years, patrolling the Montreal to Lake Ontario waterway with a large contingent of men. More military recognition for his role was never occurred, he was to be deported to France in 1761 and was one of the victims when the ship, Auguste sank off the coast of Cape Breton Island on November 15 of that year. Russ, C. J.. "La Corne, Louis de, Chevalier de La Corne". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. III. University of Toronto Press. Jaenen, Cornelius J.. "The French Presence in the West, 1734-1874". Manitoba History. Vol. 24. Manitoba Historical Society
Duc d'Anville expedition
The Duc d'Anville expedition was sent from France to recapture Louisbourg and take peninsular Acadia. The expedition was the largest military force to set sail for the New World prior to the American Revolution; this effort was the fourth and final French attempt to regain the Nova Scotian capital, Annapolis Royal, during King George's War. The Expedition was supported on land by a force from Quebec under the command of Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay. Along with recapturing Acadia from the British, d'Anville was ordered to "consign Boston to flames, ravage New England and waste the British West Indies." News of the expedition spread fear throughout New England. The expedition was a complete failure, it took three months to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Many in the ships' crews and the troops being transported fell ill before the expedition reached Chebucto Bay, d'Anville died not long after its arrival, his successors in command attempted to mount an assault on Annapolis Royal, but gave up and returned to France.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow immortalized the expedition with his poem A Ballad of the French Fleet. The British had conquered the capital of Acadia in the siege of Port Royal and renamed it Annapolis Royal. Over the next fifty years, the French and their allies made six unsuccessful military attempts to regain the city; the Duc d'Anville expedition, coordinated with Ramezay's expedition from Quebec, was the last French attempt to retake the capital of Acadia. After the stinging French defeat at the siege of Louisbourg during King George's War, King Louis XV sent the expedition to win back Acadia by conquering Annapolis Royal; the expedition included a fleet of 64 ships. The expedition was led by French Admiral Jean-Baptiste Louis Frédéric de La Rochefoucauld de Roye, Duc d'Anville; the fitting-out of this fleet was slow and difficult, it did not set sail from Île-d'Aix, France until 22 June 1746. A subsequent storm in the Bay of Biscay and adverse winds slowed the transatlantic crossing. Disease broke out on the ships -- scurvy.
The fleet ran into a dead calm off the Azores. This ended in a storm, during which several vessels were struck by lightning, which, in one case, caused a magazine explosion that killed and wounded over thirty men. By 24 August, the expedition had been at sea for over two months but was still 300 leagues from Nova Scotia. On 10 September, lead elements of the expedition had arrived at Sable Island. Three days the vessels were scattered by a violent gale that damaged some ships, which were forced to return to France. One of the damaged vessels was Le Mars, she was damaged and taking on water in the storm off Sable Island and decided to return to France with Le Raphael. Several weeks another gale hit, damaging Le Mars further and separating her from Le Raphael. Twenty leagues off Ireland HMS Nottingham damaged Le Mars in an attack and took her as a prize in October 1746, she was added to the British Navy as HMS Mars An expedition under the command of Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay was sent from Quebec to work with d'Anville's expedition.
French priest Jean-Louis Le Loutre was to coordinate the two expeditions. De Ramezay's force arrived in Nova Scotia in July 1746, he had 21 officers. He made camp at Beaubassin, where he was met by 300 Abenaki from St. John River and about 300 Mi'kmaq from Nova Scotia; the total French-Indian force numbered close to 1,300 men. De Ramezay's soldiers spent the summer and early fall at Chignecto and Minas waiting for the arrival of the long overdue D'Anville expedition; the d'Anville expedition reached Nova Scotia in late September, after enduring a three-month voyage. Hundreds of sailors and soldiers had died and hundreds more were gravely ill, suffering from disease. Forty-four vessels anchored in Chebucto; the sick were brought ashore near Birch Cove in the harbour's Bedford Basin. Some recovered from scurvy with the arrival of fresh supplies brought by the Acadians from Grand Pre and Pisiquid, but typhus and typhoid continued to ravage the men. Within six days of his arrival, on 27 September, d'Anville died after suffering a stroke.
On 29 September a council of war led by d'Anville's replacement, Constantin-Louis d'Estourmel, decided to send 1,500 men from the expedition and 300 from the Ramezay expedition to attack Annapolis Royal. D'Estourmel became overwhelmed and discouraged and resigned after a suicide attempt; the next to assume control of the expedition was the Governor General designate of New France and passenger with the fleet Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière. The plan to attack the capital Annapolis Royal intensified while men continued to die of disease. By mid-October, 41 percent of the men who reached Chebucto with the fleet were dead or ill – 2,861 petty officers and soldiers; the contagion spread to the Mi'
A militia is an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or members of a warrior nobility class. Unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves. Militia are limited by local civilian laws to serve only in their home region, to serve only for a limited time. With the emergence of professional forces during the Renaissance, Western European militias wilted; the civic humanist ideal of the militia was spread through Europe by the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instance, the members of some U.
S. Army National Guard units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to maintain the same standards as their "full-time" counterparts. Militias thus can be paramilitary, depending on the instance; some of the contexts in which the term "militia" is used include: Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory and laws. The entire able-bodied population of a community, county, or state, available to be called to arms. A subset of these who may be penalized for failing to respond to a call-up. A subset of these who respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation. A private, non-government force, not directly supported or sanctioned by its government. An irregular armed force enabling its leader to exercise military and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state. An official reserve army, composed of citizen soldiers. Called by various names in different countries, such as the Army Reserve, National Guard, or state defense forces.
The national police forces in several former communist states such as the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, but in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia. The term was inherited in other former CIS countries, where they are known as militsiya. In France the equivalent term "Milice" has become tainted due to its use by notorious collaborators with Nazi Germany. A select militia is composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population politicized. Militia derives from Latin roots: miles /miːles/: soldier -itia /iːtia/: a state, quality or condition of being militia /mil:iːtia/: Military serviceThe word militia dates back to ancient Rome, more to at least 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, Certain Discourses Military with the meanings: a military force, it should be noted that the term is used by several countries with the meaning of "defense activity" indicating it is taken directly from Latin. In the early 1800s Buenos Aires, by the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was attacked during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
As regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers, Santiago de Liniers drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the criollo peoples, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy, as well as some slaves. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated; the militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the criollos could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the May Revolution, which deposed the Spanish viceroy and began the Argentine War of Independence. A decree by Mariano Moreno derogated the system of promotions involving criollos, allowing instead their promotion on military merit; the Argentine Civil War was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts. These irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, assembled as leagues depending on political pacts.
This system had declined by the 1870s due to the establishment of the modern Argentine Army, drafted for the Paraguayan War by President Bartolome Mitre. Provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, Sarmiento and Roca. Armenian militia, or fedayi played a major role in the independence of various Armenian states, including Western Armenia, the First Republic of Armenia, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. Armenian militia played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993. In the Colony of New South Wales Governor Lachlan Macquarie proposed a colonial militia but the idea was rejected. Governor Ralph Darling felt. A military volunteer movement attracted wide
Military history of the Miꞌkmaq people
Miꞌkmaq militias were made up of Miꞌkmaq warriors who worked independently as well as in coordination with the Wabanaki Confederacy and Acadian forces throughout the colonial period to defend their homeland Miꞌkmaꞌki against the English. The Miꞌkmaq militias deployed effective resistance for over 75 years before the Halifax Treaties were signed. In the nineteenth century, the Miꞌkmaq "boasted" that, in their contest with the British, the Miꞌkmaq "killed more men than they lost". In 1753, Charles Morris stated that the Miꞌkmaq have the advantage of "no settlement or place of abode, but wandering from place to place in unknown and, inaccessible woods, is so great that it has hitherto rendered all attempts to surprise them ineffectual". Leadership on both sides of the conflict employed standard colonial warfare, which included scalping non-combatants. After some engagements against the British during the American Revolution, the militias were dormant throughout the nineteenth century, while the Miꞌkmaq people used diplomatic efforts to have the local authorities honour the treaties.
After confederation, Miꞌkmaq warriors joined Canada's war efforts in World War I and World War II. The most well-known colonial leaders of these militias were Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope and Chief Étienne Bâtard. According to Jacques Cartier, the Battle at Bae de Bic happened in the spring of 1534, 100 Iroquois warriors massacred a group of 200 Miꞌkmaq camped on Massacre Island in the St. Lawrence River. Bae de Bic was an annual gathering place for the Miꞌkmaq along the St. Lawrence. Miꞌkmaq scouting parties notified the village of the Iroquois attack the evening before the morning attack, they evacuated 30 of the infirm and elderly and about 200 Miꞌkmaq left their encampment on the shore and retreated to an island in the bay. They covered the entrance with branches; the Iroquois arrived at the village in the morning. Finding it vacated, they divided into search parties but failed to find the Miꞌkmaq until the morning of the next day; the Miꞌkmaq warriors defended the tribe against the first Iroquois assault.
After many had been wounded on both sides, with the rising tide, the Miꞌkmaq were able to repulse the assault and the Iroquois retreated to the mainland. The Mikmaq prepared a fortification on the island in preparation for the next assault at low tide; the Iroquois were again retreated to the mainland with the rising tide. By the following morning, the tide was again low and the Iroquois made their final approach, they had prepared arrows that carried fire which burned down the fortification and wiped out the Miꞌkmaq. Twenty Iroquois were thirty wounded in the battle; the Iroquois divided into two companies to return to their canoes on the Bouabouscache River. Just prior to Battle at Bae de Bic, the Iroquois warriors had left their canoes and hid their provisions on the Bouabousche River, which the Miꞌkmaq scouts had discovered and recruited assistance from 25 Maliseet warriors; the Miꞌkmaq and Maliseet militia ambushed the first company of Iroquois to arrive at the site. They killed ten and wounded five of the Iroquois warriors before the second company of Iroquois arrived and the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia retreated to the woods unharmed.
The Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia had stolen most of the Iroquois canoes. Leaving twenty wounded behind at the site, 50 Iroquois went to find their hidden provisions. Unable to find their supplies, at the end of the day they returned to the camp, finding that the 20 wounded soldiers that had stayed behind had been slaughtered by the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia; the following morning, the 38 Iroquois warriors left their camp, killing twelve of their own wounded who would not be able to survive the long journey back to their village. Ten of the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet stayed with the stolen canoes canoes and provisions while the remaining 15 pursued the Iroquois; the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia pursued the Iroquois for three days, killing eleven of the wounded Iroquois stragglers. Shortly after the Battle at Bouabouscache River, the retreating Iroquois set up camp on the Riviere Trois Pistoles to build canoes to return to their village. An Iroquois hunting party was sent to hunt for food; the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia killed the hunting party.
The Iroquois went to find their missing hunting party and were ambushed by the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia. They killed nine of the Iroquois, leaving 29 warriors who retreated to their camp on Riviere Trois Pistoles; the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia divided into two companies and attacked the remaining Iroquois warriors. The battle left 3 Maliseet warriors many others wounded; the Miꞌkmaq/ Maliseet militia was victorious, killing all but six of the Iroquois, whom they took prisoner and tortured and killed. Tradition indicates that there was war in the 16th century between the Miꞌkmaq; the great Miꞌkmaq chief Ulgimoo led his people. The conflict was settled through a peace treaty after the Miꞌkmaq were successful in removing the Kwedech out of the Maritimes. A subgroup of Miꞌkmaq who lived in New England were known as Tarrantines; the Tarrantines sent 300 warriors to kill his wife in 1619 at Mystic Fort. The remaining family had been sent off to safe haven. Nanapashemet's death ended the Massachusetts Federation.
Before 1620, the Penobscot-Tarrantine War happened in current day Maine, in which the Pawtucket Tribe supported the former. This led to retaliatory raids by the Tarrantines on the Pawtucket and Agawam Tribes. In 1633 Tarrantines raid the camp of Chief Masconomet at Agawam in Essex County; the first doc
40th (the 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot
The 40th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1717 in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 82nd Regiment of Foot to form the Prince of Wales's Volunteers in 1881; the regiment was raised at Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia by General Richard Philipps as the Richard Philipps's Regiment of Foot in August 1717 out of independent companies stationed in North America and the West Indies. Prior to Father Rale's War, the Mi'kmaq resisted the establishment of a British fort at Canso, Nova Scotia by raiding the fishing station in 1720. Phillips sent a company of the 40th, under the command Major Lawrence Armstrong, to take up garrison of a small fort in Canso built by the New England fishermen; the Mi'kmaq continued preying on shipping, forcing the garrison to take action in February 1723. Serving as marines, the troops and local fishermen were able to disperse the marauding Indians; the next engagement came in July 1724. The garrison responded with a poorly calculated sortie from the town's dilapidated fort, resulting in the death of a sergeant and private, the wounding of an officer and three privates, the repulse of the troops.
After some pillaging, the Mi'kmaq departed with a number of civilian prisoners. From 1717 to 1743, Phillips' Regiment, garrisoning Annapolis and Canso, was successful in protecting settlers from Indian attacks, checking French influence in the area, preserving the British foothold in Atlantic Canada. At the outbreak of King George's War, the French at Louisbourg engaged in the Raid on Canso in May 1744. A flotilla containing 900 French regulars and militia; the four poorly supplied. The town was destroyed and the prisoners sent to Louisbourg. Once the regiment's officers and men were paroled in September 1744, the regiment was evacuated to Boston where they provided valuable information on the defences of Louisbourg for the British siege the following year. Governor Shirley was having difficulty raising troops requested by Mascarene and therefore he ordered the ex-Canso garrison to Annapolis Royal; the Newfoundland Campaign started during August 1744. Captain Robert Young, of the 44-gun ship Kinsale, lying in St. John's, received intelligence that five French ships were in the port of Fishotte and resolved on despatching an armed prize to attack them.
The prize was named the St. Philip, was manned by eighty men of the Kinsale's crew, commanded by one of her lieutenants, accompanied by three 10-gun colonial privateers; the St. Philip succeeded, after grounding several times, in reaching the Moderate, of twelve guns and seventy-five men, boarded and carried; the St. Philip had ten killed, thirty wounded; the loss on board the French ships was more severe. The five vessels, which had on board 18,000 quintals of fish and eighty tons of oil, mounted together sixty-six guns, carried 342 men. In July 1744, three hundred Indians under command of a French priest named Le Loutre attacked Annapolis, the only British garrison in Nova Scotia. Only eighty men of Phillips' Regiment were available to meet this threat, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Paul Mascarene. Mascarene refused to surrender to Le Loutre. Le Loutre's party burned a number of houses and withdrew. Following this, George II authorized the reorganization of the regiment which increased to six regiments the garrison at Annapolis, with an authorized complement of 450.
Only seventy additional men were received. Recruitment efforts continued and Governor Shirley sent 206 recruits in February 1746. Despite the additional manpower the regiment remained under strength, it was at this time that Captain John Winslow first took command of a Philipp's regiment at Annapolis Royal, after being transferred from Newfoundland. In September the enemy, this time three hundred regulars and militia with Indian support, reappeared outside the dilapidated earthworks of Annapolis Royal. After a four-week siege and lacking a train of artillery, the French withdrew from the defiant garrison. A force of six hundred French and Indians again attempted to take Annapolis in May 1745; this demonstration ended with the French and Mi'kmaq being ordered back to help defend Louisbourg from the British. The only other action seen by Phillips' Regiment occurred. A detachment from the garrison at St. John's, Newfoundland volunteered to serve on a captured twenty-gun ship for an expedition with three privateers to Fishotte Bay.
The prize engaged a number of anchored French ships. After five hours of fighting and the loss of ten killed and thirty wounded, the ship had captured three fourteen-gun and two twelve-gun enemy ships; the lagging privateers entered the harbour and assisted in the destruction of French fishing stages and the removal of enemy ships and prisoners. By the end of the war Phillips' Regiment, after defending Britain's foothold in Nova Scotia with a skeleton complement, had its establishment raised to seventy men for each company. Men were impressed in England for service in the regiment. Between 1746 and 1748 the regiment contented itself with garrison duty at Annapolis and St. John's. With a continuing problem of finding recruits in Britain for the Philipp's regiment George II took the unusual step of allowing recruitment from the c
Skmaqn–Port-la-Joye–Fort Amherst is a National Historic Site located in Rocky Point, Prince Edward Island. This location has the double distinction of hosting one of the first Acadian settlements in present-day Prince Edward Island, as well as the first military fortification on the island while under control of France as well as the first military fortification on the island while under control of Britain. From 1720 to 1770 Port-la-Joye named Fort Amherst, served as the seat of government and port of entry for settlers to the island while under both French and British control; as such, it played an important role as a colonial outpost in the French-British struggle for dominance in North America. The site was designated a National Historic Site by Alvin Hamilton, the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources, on May 27, 1958, on the advice of the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board; the property was acquired by the federal government in 1959, the present visitor center opened in 1973.
The site's name was changed from Port-la-Joye—Fort Amherst NHS to Skmaqn—Port-la-Joye—Fort Amherst NHS on February 16, 2018. The additional Mi’kmaq word means “the waiting place”, is thought to originate between 1725 and 1758, "when Mi’kmaq and French leaders met annually at the site to renew their relationship and military alliance." The first European settlers in the area were French military personnel from Fortress Louisbourg who founded a settlement in 1720 named Port La-Joye on the southwestern part of the harbour opposite the present-day city of Charlottetown. This settlement effort was led by Michel Haché-Gallant, who used his sloop to transport Acadian settlers from Louisbourg on Île Royal. Acadian settlers established farms in the surrounding area while under French control from 1720–1745 and 1746–1758 and the French military established a small military force at the outpost, garrisoned with troops from Louisbourg. Morale was low and troops were infrequently relieved due to its unpopularity.
The wood barracks were poor protection from harsh winters when wind and snow swirled between picket walls and rotten planked roofs. The first Siege of Louisbourg by British military forces took place in May–June 1745 as part of King George's War; when the French commander of Louisbourg capitulated to the invasion force composed of New England irregulars, this resulted in the de facto surrender of Île Saint-Jean. Following the French surrender at Louisbourg, a British military detachment landed that summer at Port-la-Joye. Under the command of Joseph de Pont Duvivier, the French garrison at that time comprised 20 soldiers; the French troops fled. Duvivier and his soldiers retreated up the Northeast River, pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from local Acadian settlers and the Mi'kmaq; the French troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englanders back to their ships. The British forces returned to Louisbourg while Duvivier and his 20 troops left to seek refuge in Quebec.
After the fall of Louisbourg, the resident French population of Île Royal were deported to France while the Acadians of Île Saint-Jean lived under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the war. The British had left a garrison of 200 soldiers as well as two Royal Navy ships at Port-La-Joye to over-winter. To regain control of Acadia for France, Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region in 1746 to join forces with the Duc d'Anville Expedition. Upon arriving at Fort Beausejour on the Isthmus of Chignecto, he sent French officer Boishébert to Île Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the British forces. After Boishebert returned, de Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-La-Joye; the battle took place in July 1746 near the site of Port-la-Joye on the banks of the Northeast River. Montesson and his troops killed or imprisoned 34 of the New England irregulars and Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command.
The fall of Port-la-Joye saw. French military forces constructed a star-shaped fort on the site between 1748-1749 in a style influenced by Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban; the first three years of the Seven Years' War had little impact on Île Saint-Jean, the deportation of Acadians from Nova Scotia as a result of the Bay of Fundy Campaign saw an influx of refugees to the colony in the late summer and fall of 1755. In July 1758 the final Siege of Louisbourg saw the French commander surrender to British forces. In late August a small British fleet of four ships carrying 500 soldiers under command of Lord Rollo arrived at Port-la-Joye. Lord Rollo, travelling aboard HMS Hind, had been told to expect 300-500 Acadians but was surprised to find 3,000-5,000 instead; the British Army proceeded to round up 3,000 Acadians for deportation back to France. Thirteen additional ships departed overseas.