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Battle of Hürtgen Forest

The Battle of Hürtgen Forest was a series of fierce battles fought from 19 September to 16 December 1944, between American and German forces on the Western Front during World War II, in the Hürtgen Forest, a 140 km2 area about 5 km east of the Belgian–German border. It was the longest battle on German ground during World War II and is the longest single battle the U. S. Army has fought; the U. S. commanders' initial goal was to pin down German forces in the area to keep them from reinforcing the front lines farther north in the Battle of Aachen, where the US forces were fighting against the Siegfried Line network of fortified industrial towns and villages speckled with pillboxes, tank traps, minefields. A secondary objective may have been to outflank the front line; the Americans' initial tactical objectives were to clear Monschau. In a second phase the Allies wanted to advance to the Rur River as part of Operation Queen. Generalfeldmarschall Walter Model intended to bring the Allied thrust to a standstill.

While he interfered less in the day-to-day movements of units than at the Battle of Arnhem, he still kept himself informed on the situation, slowing the Allies' progress, inflicting heavy casualties, taking full advantage of the fortifications the Germans called the Westwall, better known to the Allies as the Siegfried Line. The Hürtgen Forest cost the U. S. First Army at least 33,000 killed and wounded, including both combat and non-combat losses, with upper estimate at 55,000; the city of Aachen in the north fell on 22 October at high cost to the U. S. Ninth Army, but they failed to cross the Rur or wrest control of its dams from the Germans; the battle was so costly that it has been described as an Allied "defeat of the first magnitude," with specific credit given to Model. The Germans fiercely defended the area because it served as a staging area for the 1944 winter offensive Unternehmen: Wacht am Rhein, because the mountains commanded access to the Rur Dam at the head of the Rur Reservoir.

The Allies failed to capture the area after several heavy setbacks, the Germans held the region until they launched their last-ditch offensive into the Ardennes. This ended the Hürtgen offensive; the Battle of the Bulge gained widespread press and public attention, leaving the battle of Hürtgen Forest less well remembered. The overall cost of the Siegfried Line Campaign in American personnel was close to 140,000. By mid-September 1944, the Allied pursuit of the German army after the landings at Normandy was slowing down due to extended supply lines and increasing German resistance; the next strategic objective was to move up to the Rhine River along its entire length and prepare to cross it. Courtney Hodges′ First Army experienced hard resistance pushing through the Aachen Gap and perceived a potential threat from enemy forces using the Hürtgen Forest as a base; the U. S. 1st Infantry Division arrived in early October, joining elements of the XIX Corps and VII Corps, which had encircled Aachen.

Although the 1st Infantry Division called for the surrender of the German garrison in the city, German commander Oberst Gerhard Wilck refused to capitulate until 22 October. The Allies thought it was necessary to remove the threat posed by the Rur Dam; the stored water could be released by the Germans. In the view of the American commanders, Bradley and Collins, the direct route to the dam was through the forest; some military historians are no longer convinced by these arguments. Charles B. MacDonald — a U. S. Army historian and former company commander who served in the Hürtgen battle — has described it as "...a misconceived and fruitless battle that should have been avoided." The Hürtgen Forest occupies a rugged area between Aachen. The dense conifer forest is broken by few roads and firebreaks. In the autumn and early winter of 1944, the weather was cold and cloudy, prevented air support. Conditions on the ground became a muddy morass, further impeding vehicular traffic heavy vehicles such as tanks.

The German defenders had prepared the area with improvised blockhouses, barbed wire, booby-traps, hidden by the mud and snow. There were numerous concrete bunkers in the area belonging to the deep defenses of the Siegfried Line, which were centers of resistance; the dense forest allowed infiltration and flanking attacks, it was sometimes difficult to establish a front line or to be confident that an area had been cleared of the enemy. The small numbers of routes and clearings in the forest had allowed German machine gun and artillery teams to pre-range their weapons and fire accurately. Apart from the poor weather, the dense forest and rough terrain prevented proper use of Allied air superiority, which had great difficulties in spotting any targets; the American advantage in numbers, armor and air support was reduced by weather and terrain. In the forest small numbers of determined and prepared defenders could be effective. To exacerbate matters, as the American divisions took casualties, inexperienced replacements had to be fed directly into combat.

The densely forested terrain limited the use of tanks and provided cover for German anti-tank teams equipped with panzerfaust shaped-charge grenade launchers. The Allies made improvised rocket launchers, using rocket tubes from aircraft and spare Jeep trailers. In the battle, it proved necessary to blast tank routes through the forest. Transportation was similar

The Lady from Sockholm

The Lady from Sockholm is a 2005 American comedy film directed by Eddy Von Mueller and Evan Lieberman. Lynn Lamousin produced, it is a parody of 1940s film noir. It stars the voices of Vince Tortorici, Chris Clabo, R. T. Steckel, Eric Goins, Melanie Parker, Melanie Walker. During Wool War II, New Jersey private investigator Terrence M. Cotton is hired to find a missing husband; when Cotton finds the man dead, he is drawn further into a conspiracy that takes him to Chinatown and its criminal elements. Vince Tortorici as Terrence M. Cotton Chris Clabo as Archie Goodfoot, Callous McGhee, The Haberdashery Clerk, Blue-ring Tube Sock R. T. Steckel as Big Toeny, Sgt. O'lastic, Patches the Barber, Red-ring Tube Sock, House of Bootah Waiter Eric Goins as Phoot Fung Us, Spats Sinclair, Old Wool Sock Melanie Parker as Heelda Brum, Tootsie Melanie Walker Kicky LaFetiche, Baby Bootsey, MadameVince Tortorici, Evy Wright, Annie Peterle, Reay Kaplan performed as puppeteers. Writer Lynn Lamousin was inspired to write a story about distrust of foreigners after the September 11 attacks.

The idea for sock puppets grew out of her desire to find a creative way to tell the story. The co-directors are faculty at Emory University, they become involved after they liked the script. The film was intended to be converted to black and white, but during post-production, it was decided to keep it in color. Shooting used local Atlanta talent for the puppets; the Lady from Sockholm premiered at Atlanta Film Festival on June 12, 2005. Dennis Harvey of Variety described it as "a brief yet tiresome low-budgeter which spoofs film noirs in a manner to bore adult and child viewers alike". Melissa Starker of Columbus Alive praised the film's visual style and puns. Stina Chyn of Film Threat rated it 3.5/5 stars and wrote, "More adorable than Lambchop and friends and a delight to watch, the puppets in The Lady of Sockholm will leave you itching for a sequel." The Lady from Sockholm on IMDb The Lady from Sockholm at Rotten Tomatoes Official website

Phonetic Symbol Guide

The Phonetic Symbol Guide is a book by Geoffrey Pullum and William Ladusaw that explains the histories and uses of symbols used in various phonetic transcription conventions. It was published with a second edition in 1996, by the University of Chicago Press. Symbols include letters and diacritics of the International Phonetic Alphabet and Americanist phonetic notation, though not of the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet; the Guide was consulted by the International Phonetic Association when they established names and numerical codes for the International Phonetic Alphabet and was the basis for the characters of the TIPA set of phonetic fonts. The following are not supported by Unicode as of version 13.0, though all are supported by TIPA: The Beach click letters ⟨⨎⟩ for the palatal clicks and curly-tail ʇ ʗ ʖ ⨎ for the nasal clicks of Khoekhoe. Used by other linguists for e.g. Sandawe; some typewriter substitutions made by overstriking a Latin letter with a virgule: ⟨b̸⟩, for a voiced bilabial fricative ⟨d̸ ⟩, for a voiced dental fricative ⟨w̸ ⟩, used for Nahua Some of the symbols are idiosyncratic proposals by well-known scholars that never caught on: triple virgule, ⦀, used in a passing mention of retroflex clicks in the Cole article "Bushman Languages" in the 1966 Encyclopædia Britannica.

The symbol was removed from editions. A right-tail hooktop h, found for the velar fricative in the Germanic'fortis' voiceless spirant series f þ ɦɳ, contrasting with the voiced series ƀ ð ᵹ and the Indo-European'lenis' spirants ɸ θ χ in Prokosch A Comparative Germanic Grammar. Prokosch describes the symbol as a "modified h, since h is the usual spelling in all Germanic languages", though other authors write these sounds f þ h. superscript spacing diacritic ⟨←⟩, used to indicate clicks in Smalley Several symbols may be variants of characters that are supported by Unicode: t and d with a horizontal hook to the left, used by Daniel Jones before ⟨ʈ⟩ and ⟨ɖ⟩ were adopted by the IPA in 1923. Unlike ⟨ʄ⟩, in the Smalley letter the hook connects to the dot of the jay and so is detached from the body of the letter. P with a tail facing reversed o with ogonek; the first is an allograph in Doke of ⟨ƍ⟩, the latter a misanalysis by the Guide of the same letter. Several symbols were only mentioned in the 1949 Principles of the International Phonetic Association as recent suggestions for further improvement and were never adopted: h-m ligature, approx.

Hm or ɰ for turned K, for a generic consonant. Γ̡, to replace γ̯ gamma with a retroflex tail turning right, approx. Γ̢, to replace γ̣ a fusion of ᴛ + n for the dental nasal a reversed small capital L, ʟ, for a labial lateral approximant.


Hōtōzan Hōju-in Daishin-ji, abbreviated Daishin-ji, is a Buddhist temple of the Jōdo sect in Minato, Japan. In 1611, the founder, Ryō-kō Shōnin, was given land for the temple in Minami Hatchōbori by the Tokugawa shogunate; the temple was named Hōtōzan. In 1635, it was relocated to its present site in Mita 4 chōme by order of the government, to accommodate the continuing expansion of Edo. In 1636, Ishimura Genzaemon, considered the first shamisen craftsman in Edo, was buried in the temple. From Ishimura Omi, the graves of eleven generations of the family were constructed there. For this reason, the temple is sometimes nicknamed "The Shamisen Temple." Daishin-ji Web site 35°38′37″N 139°44′13″E

Albertville Depot

The Albertville Depot known as L&N Railroad Depot, is a historic train depot in Albertville, Alabama. It was built by the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway in 1892, one year after the town was incorporated; the building measures 112 by 40 feet, is divided into three rooms: two offices and one larger warehouse space. The depot is one of the only structures in Albertville to survive the tornado of 1908. Passenger service ended in the 1940s. Although the NC&StL was purchased by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad in 1880, the two companies operated separately until 1957; the depot was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on February 20, 1975. The building was renovated for use as a senior center in the mid-1990s. A former L&N caboose next to the depot houses the Albertville Museum

Comet ISON

Comet ISON, formally known as C/2012 S1, was a sungrazing comet discovered on 21 September 2012 by Vitaly Nevsky and Artyom Novichonok. The discovery was made using the 0.4-meter reflector of the International Scientific Optical Network near Kislovodsk, Russia. Data processing was carried out by automated asteroid-discovery program CoLiTec. Precovery images by the Mount Lemmon Survey from 28 December 2011 and by Pan-STARRS from 28 January 2012 were located. Follow-up observations were made on 22 September 2012 by a team from Remanzacco Observatory in Italy using the iTelescope network; the discovery was announced by the Minor Planet Center on 24 September. Observations by Swift in January 2013 suggested that Comet ISON's nucleus was around 5 kilometers in diameter. Estimates were that the nucleus was only about 2 kilometers in diameter. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observations suggested the nucleus was smaller than 0.8 kilometers in diameter. Shortly after Comet ISON's discovery, the media reported that it might become brighter than the full Moon.

However, as events transpired, it never became bright enough to be visible to the naked eye. Furthermore, it broke apart. Reports on 28 November 2013 indicated that Comet ISON had or disintegrated due to the Sun's heat and tidal forces; however that day CIOC members discovered a coma-like feature, suggesting a small fragment of it may have survived perihelion. On 29 November 2013, the coma dimmed to an apparent magnitude of 5. By the end of 30 November 2013, the coma had further faded to below naked-eye visibility at magnitude 7. On 1 December 2013, the coma continued to fade further as it finished traversing the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's view. On 2 December 2013, the CIOC announced that Comet ISON had disintegrated; the Hubble Space Telescope failed to detect fragments of ISON on 18 December 2013. On 8 May 2014, a detailed examination of the disintegration was published, suggesting that the comet had disintegrated hours before perihelion. During routine observations on 21 November 2012, Vitali Nevski and Artyom Novichonok monitored areas of Gemini and Cancer after their observations were delayed by clouded weather for much of the night.

The team used ISON's 0.4-meter reflector near Kislovodsk, CCD imaging to carry out their observations. Shortly after their session, Nevski processed data using CoLiTec, an automated asteroid discovery software program. In analysis he noted an unusually bright object with slow apparent movement, indicating a position outside the orbit of Jupiter based on the use of four 100-second CCD exposures. At the time of discovery, the object's apparent magnitude ranged from 19.1 to as bright as 18.8. The group reported their discovery to the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams as an asteroidal object, subsequently forwarded to the Minor Planet Center. However, the group reported that the object had a cometary appearance with a coma 8 arcseconds across; the object's position and cometary appearance was confirmed by several other unaffiliated observers, as such the comet was named ISON, after the international observational project and in accordance with International Astronomical Union naming guidelines.

Comet ISON was precovered in analysis of Mount Lemmon Observatory imagery by G. V. Williams and Pan-STARRS imagery in Haleakalā. Precovery images from Mount Lemmon were first taken on 28 December 2011 and indicated that the comet had an estimated apparent magnitude ranging from 19.5 to 19.9. Images from Pan-STARRS were taken on 28 January 2012 and in those images the comet had an estimated apparent magnitude ranging from 19.8 to 20.6. Comet ISON came to perihelion on 28 November 2013 at a distance of 0.0124 AU from the center point of the Sun. Accounting for the solar radius of 695,500 km, Comet ISON passed 1,165,000 km above the Sun's surface, its trajectory appeared to be hyperbolic, which suggested that it was a dynamically new comet coming freshly from the Oort cloud or a candidate interstellar comet. Near perihelion, a generic heliocentric two-body solution to the orbit suggests that the orbital period was around 400,000 years, but for objects at such high eccentricity, the Sun's barycentric coordinates are more stable than heliocentric coordinates.

The orbit of a long-period comet is properly obtained when the osculating orbit is computed at an epoch after leaving the planetary region and is calculated with respect to the center of mass of the Solar System. Using JPL Horizons, the barycentric orbital elements for epoch 1 January 2050 generate a hyperbolic solution. On its closest approach, Comet ISON passed about 0.07248 AU from Mars on 1 October 2013, the remnants of Comet ISON passed about 0.43 AU from Earth on 26 December 2013. Shortly after its discovery, similarities between the orbital elements of Comet ISON and the Great Comet of 1680 led to speculation that there might be a connection between them. Further observations of ISON, showed that the two comets are not related; when Earth passed near the orbit of Comet ISON on 14–15 January 2014, it was predicted that micron-sized dust particles blown by the Sun's radiation might cause a meteor shower or noctilucent clouds. Because Earth only passed near Comet ISON's orbit, not through the tail, the chances that a meteor shower would occur were slim.

In addition, meteor showers from long-period comets that