Invasion of Banu Nadir
The invasion of Banu Nadir took place in August 625 AD The account is related in Surah Al-Hashr which describes the banishment of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir who were expelled from Medina after being accused of plotting to assassinate the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to The Sealed Nectar, a modern Islamic biography of Muhammad written by the Indian Muslim author Saif ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri, once Muhammad with some of his Companions set out to see the Banu Nadir tribe and seek their help in raising the blood-money he had to pay to the Banu Kilab for the two men that ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari had killed by mistake in the Expedition of Bir Maona. On hearing his story they said they would share in paying the blood-money and asked him and his Companions Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Ali and others to sit under a wall of their houses and wait. Mubrakpuri says that the angel Gabriel came down to reveal the plot by the Banu Nadir to assassinate Muhammad, so he, with his Companions, hurried off back to Madinah.
On their way, he told his Companions of the Divine Revelation. Mubrakpuri said, that the Banu Nadir Jews held a short private meeting and they conspired to kill him. According to Norman Stillman, Muhammad found a casus belli by claiming to have received a divine revelation that the Banu Nadir were plotting to assassinate him; the Encyclopaedia of Islam, states that through Muhammad ibn Maslama, Muhammad ordered them to leave Medina within ten days. The tribe at first decided to comply, but Abdullah ibn Ubayy, the chief of the Khazraj, persuaded them to resist in their fortresses, promising to send 2,000 men to their aid. Huyayy ibn Akhtab decided to put up resistance, hoping for help from Banu Qurayza, despite opposition within the tribe. Mubrakpuri claims that in this regards, the Quran says: "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, we shall never obey anyone against you, if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you." The Banu Nadir were determined to fight. Their chief Huyai bin Akhtab relied on what Abdullah ibn Ubayy said.
So he sent a message to Muhammad saying: "We will not leave our houses. Do whatever you like to do." According to the Muslim Jurist, Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Abu Salmah gave an ultimatum to the Banu Nadir on the orders of Muhammad. Tabari claims that he said: Abu Salamah: Hearts have changed, Islam has wiped out the old covenants William Montgomery Watt mentions multiple possible reasons for the expulsion of the Banu Nadir in the foreword of the translation of the seventh volume of al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings. First, the underlying reason for the expulsion of the Banu Nadir was the same as that of the Banu Qaynuqa, namely Jewish criticisms and hostility towards Muhammad and Islam fueling suspicions among ordinary Muslims, keeping in mind that the attack came weeks after the Muslim loss of life in Al Raji and Bir Maona. Second, some members of Banu Nadir wanting to kill Muhammad, but Watt suggests that it is possible that this allegations was an excuse to justify the attack, adding that if true, this was not the fundamental reason for the attack.
Third, a chief of Banu Nadir gave information to Abu Sufyan during the barley-meal raid in 624. According to The Sealed Nectar, the Muslims made the decisive decisions of taking up arms whatever turn the consequences could assume; when the Muhammad received the reply of Huyai bin Akhtab he said: "God is Greatest, God is Greatest." and his Companions repeated after him. He set out to fight them after appointing Ibn Umm Maktum to dispose the affairs of Madinah during his absence; the standard was entrusted to ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. He laid siege to their forts for fifteen. Banu Nadeer resorted to their castles, mounted them and started shooting arrows and pelting stones at the Muslims enjoying the strategic advantage that their thick fields of palm trees provided; the Muslims were therefore ordered to burn those trees. In this respect, a Quranic Verse was revealed: "What you cut down of the palm-trees, or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allâh." This incident is mentioned in the Sahih Bukhari hadith collection in Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:39:519.
Quraizah tribe remained neutral, ‘Abd-Allah ibn Ubayyas well as Ghatafan failed to keep their promises of support to the Banu Nadir. Mubarakpuri says. Muhammad as a general
Abu Ali Muhammad Bal'ami called Amirak Bal'ami and Bal'ami-i Kuchak, was a Persian historian and vizier to the Samanids. He was from the influential Bal'ami family, he was born in Lashjerd in the district of Merv part of the Samanid Empire. He was the son of Abu'l-Fadl al-Bal'ami. Muhammad Bal'ami was appointed vizier during the late reign of Abd al-Malik I and kept holding the office under Abd al-Malik's successor Mansur I. According to Gardizi, Bal'ami died in March 974 while serving in office, but according to the Persian historian al-Utbi, he was from removed the vizierate office, was reappointed as the vizier of Nuh II, but chose to retire in 992, dying in an unknown date before 997. Bal'ami most famous work is Tarikh-i Bal'ami, a Persian translation and alteration of al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings. Bal ` ami. Contrary to al-Tabari, Bal'ami's version is presented from a Persian point of view. Having been written in 963, the Tarikh-i Bal'ami is the oldest New Persian prose work after the preface of the Shahnama-yi Abu Mansuri by Abu Mansur Muhammad.
The 12th-century poet Nizami Aruzi makes mention of a book composed by Bal'ami named Tawqi'at, two lines by Bal'ami are cited in the Farhang-e Jahangiri by Jamal al-Din Hosayn Enju Shirazi. However, it is not known if this refers to Bal'ami or his father, Bal'ami the Elder. Ashraf, Ahmad. "Iranian identity iii. Medieval Islamic period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XIII, Fasc. 5. Pp. 507–522. Frye, R. N.. "The Sāmānids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 136–161. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Khalegi-Motlagh, Dj.. "AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 9. Pp. 971–972. Archived from the original on 2012-11-17. Zadeh, Travis. "al-Balʿamī". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume III. Leiden and New York: BRILL. ISBN 90-04-09419-9. Yarshater, Ehsan. Persian Historiography: History of Persian Literature A, Volume 10. I. B. Tauris. Pp. 1–400. ISBN 9780857721402. Media related to Muhammad Bal'ami at Wikimedia Commons
Battle of Uhud
The Battle of Uhud was a battle between the early Muslims and their Qurayshi Meccan enemies in 625 CE in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula. Many Muslims were killed and the battle was considered a setback for the Muslims; the battle was fought on 23 March 625 at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from which many of the Muslims had emigrated; the Battle of Uhud was the second military encounter between the Meccans and the Muslims, preceded by the Battle of Badr in 624, where a small Muslim army had defeated a larger Meccan army. Marching out from Mecca towards Medina on 10 December 624 CE, the Meccans desired to avenge their losses at Badr and strike back at Muhammad and his followers; the Muslims readied for war soon afterwards and the two armies fought on the slopes and plains of Mount Uhud. Whilst outnumbered, the Muslims gained the early initiative and forced the Meccan lines back, thus leaving much of the Meccan camp unprotected.
When the battle looked to be only one step away from a decisive Muslim victory, a serious mistake was committed by a part of the Muslim army, which altered the outcome of the battle. A breach of Muhammad's orders by the Muslim archers, who left their assigned posts to despoil the Meccan camp, allowed a surprise attack from the Meccan cavalry, led by Meccan war veteran Khalid ibn al-Walid, which brought chaos to the Muslim ranks. Many Muslims were killed, Muhammad himself was badly injured; the Muslims had to withdraw up the slopes of Uhud. The Meccans marched back to Mecca declaring victory. For the Muslims, the battle was a significant setback. Although they had been close to routing the Meccans a second time, their breach of Muhammad's orders in favor of collecting Meccan spoils reaped severe consequences; the two armies would meet again in AD 627 at the Battle of the Trench. Muhammad had preached the religion of Islam in Mecca from 613 to 622, he had attracted a small community of followers, but drew staunch opposition from the rest of the Quraysh, the tribe that ruled Mecca and to which he belonged.
The Muslims established themselves at Medina. The Quraysh had seized the properties and families of Muslims in Mecca and dispatched caravans to Damascus which the Muslims intercepted and raided; the Meccans sent out a small army to stop their raiding. At the Battle of Badr in 623, a small Muslim force defeated the much larger Meccan army. Many Muslims considered this unexpected victory a proof that they had been favored by God and believed they were assured such victories in the future. A number of the leading tribesmen of Quraysh had been killed at Badr and so leadership passed to Abu Sufyan, he forbade the mourning of the losses at Badr, for he was eager to exact revenge upon Muhammad, vowing to conduct a retaliatory raid on the city of Medina. Several months Abu Sufyan accompanied a party of 200 men to the city, obtaining temporary residence with the chief of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir and learning more of the current situation in Medina, he and his party left Medina, burning down two houses and laying waste to some fields in fulfillment of his vow.
Further skirmishes between the Meccans and the Muslims would occur thereafter. The reason for the battle was to retaliate against the Muslims for the Battle of Badr; the following year on 10 December 624, with Abu Sufyan at the helm, the Meccans, anxious to avenge their defeat at Badr, raised another force numbering 3,000 and set out for the Muslim base in Medina. Rather than attacking Medina itself, populated by numerous strongholds that would have required long sieges to overcome, they camped on the pastures north of the city, hoping that the Muslims would come out to meet them. According to the early Muslim historian Ibn Ishaq, a number of Meccan women are said to have accompanied Abu Sufyan's army to provide vocal support, including Hind bint Utbah, his wife. A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers late on Thursday March 21; the next morning, a Muslim conference of war convened, there was dispute over how to best repel the Meccans. Muhammad and many of the senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of its fortified strongholds.
Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops, that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Muhammad conceded to the wishes of the latter, readied the Muslim force for battle. A group of 1,000 Muslim men set out on late Friday from Medina and managed to circle around the Meccan forces. Early the next morning, they took a position on the lower slopes of the hill of Uhud. Shortly before the battle commenced,'Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy and his followers withdrew their support for Muhammad and returned to Medina, with reports suggesting Ibn Ubayy's discontent with the plan to march out from Medina to meet the Meccans. Ibn Ubayy and his followers would receive censure in the Qur'an for this act. What ye suffered on the day the two armies Met, was with the leave of Allah, in order that He might test the believers,-And the Hypocrites also; these were told: "Come, fight in the way of Allah, or drive." They said: "Had we known how to fight, we should have followed you."
They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts but Allah hath full knowledg
Umar spelled Omar, was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. He was a senior companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, he succeeded Abu Bakr as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. He was an expert Muslim jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq, he is sometimes referred to as Umar I by historians of Islam, since a Umayyad caliph, Umar II bore that name. Under Umar, the caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate, ruling the Sasanian Empire and more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire, his attacks against the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in less than two years. According to Jewish tradition, Umar set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed them into Jerusalem and to worship. Umar was killed by the Persian Piruz Nahavandi in 644 CE. Umar is revered in the Sunni tradition as a great ruler and paragon of Islamic virtues, some hadiths identify him as the second greatest of the Sahaba after Abu Bakr.
He is viewed negatively in the Shia tradition. Umar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, responsible for arbitration among the tribes, his father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantama bint Hisham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. In his youth he used to tend to his father's camels in the plains near Mecca, his merchant father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe. Umar himself said: "My father, Al-Khattab was a ruthless man, he used to make me work hard. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Umar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling, he was physically powerful and a renowned wrestler. He was a gifted orator who succeeded his father as an arbitrator among the tribes. Umar became a merchant and made several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met various scholars and analyzed Roman and Persian societies; as a merchant he was unsuccessful. Like others around him, Umar was fond of drinking in his pre-Islamic days.
In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam. Like many others in Mecca, Umar opposed Islam and he threatened to kill Muhammad, he resolved to defend the traditional polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and prominent in persecuting Muslims, he recommended Muhammad's death. He believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord. Due to persecution, Muhammad ordered some of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia; when a small group of Muslims migrated, Umar became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated. Umar converted to Islam in one year after the Migration to Abyssinia; the story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah. On his way to murder Muhammad, Umar met his best friend Nua'im bin Abdullah who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Umar; when Umar informed him that he had set out to kill Muhammad, Nua'im said, “By God, you have deceived yourself, O Umar!
Do you think that Banu Abd Manaf would let you run around alive once you had killed their son Muhammad? Why don't you return to your own house and at least set it straight?"Nuaimal Hakim told him to inquire about his own house where his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, Umar found his sister and brother-in-law Saeed bin Zaid reciting the verses of the Quran from sura Ta-Ha, he started quarreling with his brother-in-law. When his sister came to rescue her husband, he started quarreling with her, yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will not give up Islam". Upon hearing these words, Umar slapped his sister so hard that she fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth; when he saw what he did to his sister, he calmed down out of guilt and asked his sister to give him what she was reciting. His sister replied in the negative and said "You are unclean, no unclean person can touch the Scripture." He insisted, but his sister was not prepared to allow him to touch the pages unless he washed his body.
Umar at last gave in. He washed his body and began to read the verses that were: Verily, I am Allah: there is no God but Me, he declared, "Surely this is the word of Allah. I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." On hearing this, Hadhrat Khabbab came out from inside and said: "O, Umar! Glad tidings for you. Yesterday Muhammad prayed to Allah,'O, Allah! Strengthen Islam with either Umar or Abu Jahl, whomsoever Thou likest.' It seems that his prayer has been answered in your favour."Umar went to Muhammad with the same sword he intended to kill him with and accepted Islam in front of him and his companions. Umar was 39 years old. Following his conversion, Umar went to inform the chief of Quraish, Amr ibn Hishām, about his acceptance of Islam. According to one account, Umar thereafter prayed at the Kaaba as the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hishām and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb watched in anger; this further helped the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. At this stage Umar challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to interfere wi
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Battle of the Trench
The Battle of the Trench known as the Battle of the Confederates, was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000; the outnumbered defenders of Medina Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, broke up the confederacy against him; the well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering few casualties.
Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution; the defeat caused the Meccans to lose much of their prestige. The battle is named after "trench", or khandaq, dug by Muslims in preparation for the battle; the word khandaq is the Arabised form of the Persian word kandak. Salman farsi; the battle is referred to as the Battle of Confederates. The Qur'an uses the term confederates in sura Al-Ahzab to denote the confederacy of non-believers and Jews against Islam. After their flight from Mecca, the Muslims fought the Meccan Quraysh at the Battle of Badr in 624, at the Battle of Uhud in 625. Although the Muslims neither won nor were defeated at the Battle of Uhud, their military strength was growing. In April 626 Muhammad raised a force of 300 men and 10 horses to meet the Quraysh army of 1,000 at Badr for the time. Although no fighting occurred, the coastal tribes were impressed with Muslim power.
Muhammad tried, with limited success, to break up many alliances against the Muslim expansion. He was unable to prevent the Meccan one; as they had in the battles of Badr and Uhud, the Muslim army again used strategic methods against their opponents. In this battle they dug a trench to render the enemy cavalry ineffective; the reason for this battle was to defend Medina from attack, after Banu Nazir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes formed an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa and Invasion of Banu Nadir. The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet" Early in 627, the Banu Nadir met with the Quraysh of Makkah.
Huyayy ibn Akhtab, along with other leaders from Khaybar, travelled to swear allegiance with Safwan ibn Umayya at Makkah. The bulk of the Confederate armies were gathered by the Quraysh of Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan, who fielded 4,000 foot soldiers, 300 horsemen, 1,000–1,500 men on camels; the Banu Nadir began rousing the nomads of Najd. The Nadir enlisted the Banu Ghatafan by paying them half of their harvest; this contingent, the second largest, added a strength of about 2,000 men and 300 horsemen led by Unaina bin Hasan Fazari. The Bani Assad agreed to join, led by Tuleha Asadi. From the Banu Sulaym, the Nadir secured 700 men, though this force would have been much larger had not some of its leaders been sympathetic towards Islam; the Bani Amir, who had a pact with Muhammad, refused to join. Other tribes included the Banu Murra, with 400 men led by Hars ibn Auf Murri, the Banu Shuja, with 700 men led by Sufyan ibn Abd Shams. In total, the strength of the Confederate armies, though not agreed upon by scholars, is estimated to have included around 10,000 men and six hundred horsemen.
In January 627 the army, led by Abu Sufyan, marched on Medina. In accordance with the plan the armies began marching towards Medina, Meccans from the south and the others from the east. At the same time horsemen from the Banu Khuza'a left to warn Medina of the invading army; the men from Banu Khuza'a reached Muhammad in four days, warning him of the Confederate armies that were to arrive in a week. Muhammad gathered the Medinans to discuss the best strategy of overcoming the enemy. Meeting the enemy in the open, waiting for them inside the city were both suggested; the outnumbered Muslims opted to engage in a defensive battle by digging deep trenches to act as a barrier along the northern front. The tactic of a defensive trench was introduced by Salman the Persian; every capable Muslim in Medina including Muhammad contributed to digging the massive trench in six days. The ditch was dug on the northern side only, as the rest of Medina was surrounded by rocky mountains and trees, impenetrable to large
Battle of Khaybar
The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Hagai Mazuz, “The Jewish community of northern Arabia was one of the largest ancient Jewish communities in the history of the Jewish people.” For a thousand years Jews lived in the oases of Teyma and Yathrib, in the northern Arabian Peninsula. According to Muslim sources, the Muslim soldiers attacked the native Jews who had barricaded themselves in forts. Two hadith of Bukhari state that the major purpose for raiding Khaybar was to procure food: Narrated'Aisha: When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we will eat our fill of dates!". Other reasons are given as well. Muslim sources accuse Jews living in Khaybar of a plan to unite with other Jews from Banu Wadi Qurra, Taima', Fadak as well as Ghafataan Arab tribe to attack Madinah. Scottish historian William Montgomery Watt notes the presence in Khaybar of the Banu Nadir, who were working with neighboring Arab tribes to protect themselves from the Islamic community in Medina who had earlier sent into exile the Jewish tribes for violating the terms of the Charter of Medina and for conspiring to kill Muhammad.
Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the booty which could be used to supplement future campaigns. The Jews of Khaybar surrendered after seeing no way out and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years; the imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of tribute known as jizya from Dīn under Muslim rule, confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community. In the 7th century, Khaybar was inhabited by Jews; the inhabitants had stored in a redoubt at Khaybar a siege-engine, lances and other weaponry. In the past some scholars attempted to explain the presence of the weapons, suggesting that they were used for settling quarrels among the families of the community.
Vaglieri suggests that it is more logical to assume that the weapons were stored in a depôt for future sale. The Jews kept 20 bales of cloth and 500 cloaks for sale, other luxury goods; these commercial activities as a cause of hostility, Vaglieri argues, are similar to the economic causes behind persecutions in many other countries throughout history. The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shikk, al-Katiba separated by natural divisions, such as the desert, lava drifts, swamps; each of these regions contained several fortresses or redoubts including homes and stables. Each fortress was occupied by a separate family and surrounded by cultivated palm-groves. In order to improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or basalt rocks. After they were sent into exile in 625 from Medina by Muslim forces, the Banu Nadir had settled in Khaybar. In 627, the Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab together with his son joined the Meccans and Bedouins besieging Medina during the Battle of the Trench.
In addition, the Nadir paid Arabian tribes to go to war against the Muslims. Bribing Banu Ghatafan with half of their harvest, Banu Nadir secured 2,000 men and 300 horsemen from the tribe to attack Muhammad, persuaded the Bani Asad, they attempted to get the Banu Sulaym to attack the Muslims, but the tribe gave them only 700 men, since some of its leaders were sympathetic towards Islam. The Bani Amir refused to join them all together. Once the battle started, Huyayy ibn Akhtab persuaded the Banu Qurayza to go against their covenant with Muhammad and turn against him during the battle. After the defeat of the confederates in the battle, Qurayza's subsequent surrender, Huyayy was killed alongside the men of the Qurayza. After Huyayy's death, Abu al-Rafi ibn Abi al-Huqayq took charge of the Banu Nadir at Khaybar. Al-Huqayq soon approached neighboring tribes to raise an army against Muhammad. After learning this, the Muslims, aided by an Arab with a Jewish dialect, assassinated him. Al-Huqayq was succeeded by Usayr ibn Zarim.
It has been recorded by one source that Usayr approached the Ghatafan and rumors spread that he intended to attack the "capital of Muhammad". The latter sent Abdullah bin Rawaha with a number of his companions, among whom were Abdullah bin Unays, an ally of Banu Salima, a clan hostile to the Jews; when they came to Usayr, they told him that if he would come to Muhammad, Muhammad would give him an appointment and honour him. They kept on at him. Abdullah bin Unays mounted him on his beast until he was in al-Qarqara, about six miles from Khaybar. Usayr changed his mind about going with them. Abdullah perceived Usayr's bad intention. So Abdullah struck him with his sword cutting off his leg. Usayr hit Abdullah with a stick of shauhat wood which he wounded his head. All Muhammad's emissaries fell upon the thirty Jewish companions and killed them except one man who escaped on his feet. Abdullah bin Unays is the assassin who volunteere