Battle of Ichi-no-Tani
Ichi-no-Tani was a Taira defensive position at Suma, to the west of present-day Kobe, Japan. It sat on a narrow strip of shore, between mountains on the north, the sea to the south; this made it quite defensible, but made it difficult to maneuver troops inside the fortress. The Taira suffered a crucial defeat to the forces of Noriyori. Yoshitsune split his force in two. Noriyori's force attacked the Taira in the woods a short distance to the east. A second detachment, no more than a hundred horsemen under Yoshitsune, attacked the Taira at Ichinotani from the mountain ridge to the north. At the chosen hour, the Minamoto forces attacked causing confusion amongst the Taira who neither deploy nor retreat. Only about 3000 Taira escaped to Yashima, while Shigehira captured. Killed from the Taira clan were Lord Michimori, Noritsune, Moromori, Tomoakira and Moritoshi. Ichi-no-Tani is one of the most famous battles of the Genpei War, in large part due to the individual combats that occurred here. Benkei the most famous of all warrior monks, fought alongside the Minamoto Yoshitsune here, many of the Taira's most important and powerful warriors were present as well.
The death of Taira no Atsumori at the hand of Kumagai no Naozane is a famous passage in Heike Monogatari. It has been dramatized in noh and kabuki, in popular fiction, Oda Nobunaga is portrayed as performing the noh at his own death; the death of Atsumori is arguably among the most celebrated acts of single combat in all of Japanese history. Ichi-no-Tani is the last recorded instance in which crossbows were used in a Japanese siege
Mount Fuji, located on Honshū, is the highest volcano in Japan at 3,776.24 m, 2nd-highest peak of an island in Asia, 7th-highest peak of an island in the world. It is a dormant stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–1708. Mount Fuji lies about 100 kilometers south-west of Tokyo, can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone, snow-capped for about 5 months a year, is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers. Mount Fuji is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains" along with Mount Haku, it is a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japan's Historic Sites. It was added to the World Heritage List as a Cultural Site on June 22, 2013. According to UNESCO, Mount Fuji has "inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries". UNESCO recognizes 25 sites of cultural interest within the Mount Fuji locality; these 25 locations include the mountain and the Shinto shrine, Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha, as well as the Buddhist Taisekiji Head Temple founded in 1290 immortalized by Japanese ukiyo-e artist Katsushika Hokusai.
The current kanji for Mount Fuji, 富 and 士, mean "wealth" or "abundant" and "a man of status" respectively. However, the name predates kanji, these characters are ateji, meaning that they were selected because their pronunciations match the syllables of the name but do not carry a meaning related to the mountain; the origin of the name Fuji is unclear, having no recording of it being first called by this name. A text of the 9th century, Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, says that the name came from "immortal" and from the image of abundant soldiers ascending the slopes of the mountain. An early folk etymology claims that Fuji came from 不二, meaning without nonpareil. Another claims. A Japanese classical scholar in the Edo era, Hirata Atsutane, speculated that the name is from a word meaning, "a mountain standing up shapely as an ear of a rice plant". A British missionary Bob Chiggleson argued that the name is from the Ainu word for "fire" of the fire deity, denied by a Japanese linguist Kyōsuke Kindaichi on the grounds of phonetic development.
It is pointed out that huchi means an "old woman" and ape is the word for "fire", ape huchi kamuy being the fire deity. Research on the distribution of place names that include fuji as a part suggest the origin of the word fuji is in the Yamato language rather than Ainu. A Japanese toponymist Kanji Kagami argued that the name has the same root as wisteria and rainbow, came from its "long well-shaped slope". Modern linguist Alexander Vovin proposes an alternative hypothesis based on Old Japanese reading /puⁿzi/: the word may have been borrowed from Eastern Old Japanese 火主 meaning'fire master', see wikt:富士#Etymology 2. In English, the mountain is known as Mount Fuji; some sources refer to it as "Fuji-san", "Fujiyama" or, redundantly, "Mt. Fujiyama". Japanese speakers refer to the mountain as "Fuji-san"; this "san" is not the honorific suffix used with people's names, such as Watanabe-san, but the Sino-Japanese reading of the character yama used in Sino-Japanese compounds. In Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanization, the name is transliterated as Huzi.
Other Japanese names for Mount Fuji, which have become obsolete or poetic, include Fuji-no-Yama, Fuji-no-Takane, Fuyō-hō, Fugaku, created by combining the first character of 富士, 岳, mountain. In Shinto mythology, Kuninotokotachi is one of the two gods born from "something like a reed that arose from the soil" when the earth was chaotic. According to the Nihon Shoki, Konohanasakuya-hime, wife of Ninigi, is the goddess of Mount Fuji, where Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha is dedicated for her. Mount Fuji is an attractive volcanic cone and a frequent subject of Japanese art after 1600, when Edo became the capital and people saw the mountain while traveling on the Tōkaidō road; the mountain is mentioned in Japanese literature throughout the ages and is the subject of many poems. One of the modern artists who depicted Fuji in all her works was Tamako Kataoka, it is thought. The summit has been thought of as sacred since ancient times and was forbidden to women until the Meiji Era in the late 1860s. Ancient samurai used the base of the mountain as a remote training area, near the present-day town of Gotemba.
The shōgun Minamoto. Founded by Nikko Shonin in 1290 on the lower slopes of Mount Fuji in Shizuoka Prefecture is the Taiseki-ji temple complex, the central base headquarters of Nichiren Shōshū Buddhism, visited by thousands of westerners and Asian believers from neighbouring countries each year who go on varying Tozan pilgrimages; the first ascent by a foreigner was by Sir Rutherford Alcock in September 1868, from the foot of the mountain to the top in eight hours and three hours for the descent. Alcock's brief narrative in The Capital of the Tycoon was the first disseminated description of the mountain in the West. Lady Fanny Parkes, the wife of British ambassador Sir Harry Parkes, was the first non-Japanese woman to ascend Mount Fuji in 1869. Photographer Felix Beato climbed M
The Genpei War was a national civil war between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan. It resulted in the downfall of the Taira and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate under Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1192; the name "Genpei" comes from alternate readings of the kanji "Minamoto" and "Taira". The conflict is known in Japanese as the Jishō-Juei War, after the two Imperial eras between which it took place, it followed a coup d'état by the Taira in 1179 with the removal of rivals from all government posts, subsequently banishing them, a call to arms against them, led by the Minamoto in 1180. The ensuing battle of Uji took place just outside Kyoto, starting a five-year-long war, concluding with a decisive Minamoto victory in the naval battle of Dan-no-ura; the Genpei War was the culmination of a decades-long conflict between the two aforementioned clans over dominance of the Imperial court, by extension, control of Japan. In the Hōgen Rebellion and in the Heiji Rebellion of earlier decades, the Minamoto attempted to regain control from the Taira and failed.
In 1180, Taira no Kiyomori put his grandson Antoku on the throne after the abdication of Emperor Takakura. Emperor Go-Shirakawa's son Mochihito felt that he was being denied his rightful place on the throne and, with the help of Minamoto no Yorimasa, sent out a call to arms to the Minamoto clan and Buddhist monasteries in May. However, this plot ended with the deaths of Mochihito. In June 1180, Kiyomori moved the seat of imperial power to Fukuhara-kyō, "his immediate objective seems to have been to get the royal family under his close charge." The actions of Taira no Kiyomori having deepened Minamoto hatred for the Taira clan, a call for arms was sent up by Minamoto no Yorimasa and Prince Mochihito. Not knowing, behind this rally, Kiyomori called for the arrest of Mochihito, who sought protection at the temple of Mii-dera; the Mii-dera monks were unable to ensure him sufficient protection, so he was forced to move along. He was chased by Taira forces to the Byōdō-in, just outside Kyoto; the war began thus, with a dramatic encounter around the bridge over the River Uji.
This battle ended in Yorimasa's ritual suicide inside the Byōdō-in and Mochihito's capture and execution shortly afterwards. It was at this point that Minamoto no Yoritomo took over leadership of the Minamoto clan and began traveling the country seeking to rendezvous with allies. Leaving Izu Province and heading for the Hakone Pass, he was defeated by the Taira in the battle of Ishibashiyama; however he made it to the provinces of Kai and Kōzuke, where the Takeda and other friendly families helped repel the Taira army. Meanwhile, seeking vengeance against the Mii-dera monks and others, besieged Nara and burnt much of the city to the ground. Fighting continued the following year, 1181. Minamoto no Yukiie was defeated by a force led by Taira no Shigehira at the Battle of Sunomatagawa. However, the "Taira could not follow up their victory."Taira no Kiyomori died from illness in the spring of 1181, around the same time Japan began to suffer from a famine, to last through the following year. The Taira moved to attack Minamoto no Yoshinaka, a cousin of Yoritomo who had raised forces in the north, but were unsuccessful.
For nearly two years, the war ceased, only to resume in the spring of 1183. In 1183, the Taira loss at the Battle of Kurikara was so severe that they found themselves, several months under siege in Kyoto, with Yoshinaka approaching the city from the north and Yukiie from the east. Both Minamoto leaders had seen little or no opposition in marching to the capital and now forced the Taira to flee the city. Taira no Munemori, head of the clan since his father Kiyomori's death, led his army, along with the young Emperor Antoku and the Imperial regalia, to the west; the cloistered emperor Go-Shirakawa defected to Yoshinaka. Go-Shirakawa issued a mandate for Yoshinaka to "join with Yukiie in destroying Munemori and his army". In 1183, Yoshinaka once again sought to gain control of the Minamoto clan by planning an attack on Yoritomo, while pursuing the Taira westward; the Taira set up a temporary Court at Daaifu in the southernmost of Japan's main islands. They were forced out soon afterwards by local revolts instigated by Go-Shirakawa, moved their Court to Yashima.
The Taira were successful in beating off an attack by Yoshinaka's pursuing forces at the Battle of Mizushima. Yoshinaka conspired with Yukiie to seize the capital and the Emperor even establishing a new Court in the north. However, Yukiie revealed these plans to the Emperor. Betrayed by Yukiie, Yoshinaka took command of Kyoto and, at the beginning of 1184, set fire to the Hōjūjidono, taking the Emperor into custody. Minamoto no Yoshitsune arrived soon afterwards with his brother Noriyori and a considerable force, driving Yoshinaka from the city. After fighting his cousins at the bridge over the Uji, Yoshinaka made his final stand at Awazu, in Ōmi Province, he was defeated by Yoshitsune, killed while attempting to flee. As the united Minamoto forces left Kyoto, the Taira began consolidating their position at a number of sites in and around the Inland Sea, their ancestral home territory, they received a number of missives from the Emperor offering that if they surrendered by the seventh day of the second month, the Minamoto could be persuaded to agree to a truce.
This was a farce, as neither the Minamoto nor the Emperor had any intentions of waiting until the eighth day to attack. This tactic offered the Emperor a chance to regain the Rega
The Miura family was one of the branch families descended from the Taira clan. They held large fiefs, retained great political influence, they were one of the primary opponents of the Hōjō family of regents in the mid-13th century, again at the beginning of the 16th. Miura remains a common family name in Japan today; the Miura clan supported Minamoto no Yoritomo in the foundation of the Kamakura shogunate, but were annihilated by Hōjō Tokiyori in 1247. However, the family name was reassigned to a supporter of the Hōjō clan, the Miura continued to rule Miura Peninsula through the Muromachi period until their defeat at Arai Castle in a 1516 attack by Hōjō Sōun. Miura Yasumura – member of Council of State, signer of Jōei Formulary Miura Yoshiaki – grandfather to Minamoto no Yoshihira Miura Yoshizumi – ally to Minamoto no Yoshitsune at the Battle of Dan-no-ura, 1185 Miura Yoshimura – a Minamoto ally during the Jōkyū War of 1221 Miura Yoshiatsu - his son was Miura Yoshimoto, who committed suicide during the Siege of Arai Miura Yoshimoto – the son of Miura Yoshiatsu.
Both are said to have committed seppuku in 1516 when the Arai castle was stormed, with Yoshimoto decapitating himself. Miura Tsunesaburō - a rookie of Shinsengumi. Being new and did not comprehend Kondō Isami's wish, he killed former captain Tōdō Heisuke.'Miura' was the family name given to English sailor William Adams, who became shipwrecked in Japan in the year 1600. Japanese clans Miura Peninsula
Kanagawa Prefecture is a prefecture located in Kantō region of Japan. The capital of the prefecture is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area. Kanagawa Prefecture is home to Hakone, two popular side trip destinations from Tokyo; the prefecture has some archaeological sites going back to the Jōmon period. About 3,000 years ago, Mount Hakone produced a volcanic explosion which resulted in Lake Ashi on the western area of the prefecture, it is believed. In the ancient era, its plains were sparsely inhabited. In medieval Japan, Kanagawa was part of the provinces of Musashi. Kamakura in central Sagami was the capital of Japan during the Kamakura period. During the Edo period, the western part of Sagami Province was governed by the daimyō of Odawara Castle, while the eastern part was directly governed by the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo. Commodore Matthew Perry landed in Kanagawa in 1853 and 1854 and signed the Convention of Kanagawa to force open Japanese ports to the United States. Yokohama, the largest deep-water port in Tokyo Bay, was opened to foreign traders in 1859 after several more years of foreign pressure, developed into the largest trading port in Japan.
Nearby Yokosuka, closer to the mouth of Tokyo Bay, developed as a naval port and now serves as headquarters for the U. S. 7th Fleet and the fleet operations of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. After the Meiji period, many foreigners lived in Yokohama City, visited Hakone; the Meiji government developed the first railways in Japan, from Shinbashi to Yokohama in 1872. The epicenter of the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake was deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, it devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba and Shizuoka, caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. The sea receded as much as 400 metres from the shore at Manazuru Point, rushed back towards the shore in a great wall of water which swamped Mitsuishi-shima. At Kamakura, the total death toll from earthquake and fire exceeded 2,000 victims. At Odawara, ninety percent of the buildings collapsed and subsequent fires burned the rubble along with anything else left standing. Yokohama and other major cities were damaged by the U.
S. bombing in 1945. Casualties amounted to more than several thousand. After the war, General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers for the Occupation of Japan, landed in Kanagawa, before moving to other areas. U. S. military bases still remain in Kanagawa, including Camp Zama, Yokosuka Naval Base, Naval Air Station Atsugi. In 1945, Kanagawa was the 15th most populous prefecture in Japan, with the population of about 1.9 million. In the years after the war, the prefecture underwent rapid urbanization as a part of the Greater Tokyo Area; the population as of September 1, 2014, is estimated to be 9.1 million. Kanagawa became the second most populous prefecture in 2006. Kanagawa is a small prefecture located at the southeastern corner of the Kantō Plain wedged between Tokyo on the north, the foothills of Mount Fuji on the northwest, the Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay on the south and east; the eastern side of the prefecture is flat and urbanized, including the large port cities of Yokohama and Kawasaki.
The southeastern area nearby the Miura Peninsula is less urbanized, with the ancient city of Kamakura drawing tourists to temples and shrines. The western part, bordered by Yamanashi Prefecture and Shizuoka Prefecture on the west, is more mountainous and includes resort areas like Odawara and Hakone; the area, stretching 80 kilometres from west to east and 60 kilometres from north to south, contains 2,400 square kilometres of land, accounting for 0.64% of the total land area of Japan. As of 1 April 2012, 23% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. Topographically, the prefecture consists of three distinct areas; the mountainous western region features Hakone Volcano. The hilly eastern region is characterized by the Tama Hills and Miura Peninsula; the central region, which surrounds the Tama Hills and Miura Peninsula, consists of flat stream terraces and low lands around major rivers including the Sagami River, Sakai River, Tsurumi River, Tama River.
The Tama River forms much of the boundary between Tokyo. The Sagami River flows through the middle of the prefecture. In the western region, the Sakawa runs through a small lowland, the Sakawa Lowland, between Hakone Volcano to the west and the Ōiso Hills to the east and flows into Sagami Bay; the Tanzawa Mountain Range, part of the Kantō Mountain Range, contains Mount Hiru, the highest peak in the prefecture. Other mountains measure similar mid-range heights: Mount Hinokiboramaru, Mount Tanzawa, Mount Ōmuro, Mount Himetsugi, Mount Usu; the mountain range is lower in height southward leading to Hadano Basin to the Ōiso Hills. At the eastern foothills of the mountain range lies the Isehara Plateau and across the Sagami River the Sagamino plateau. Nineteen cities are located in Kanagawa Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: Tama River Firework event Yokohama Port Anniversary Festival Kamakura Festival Hiratsuka Tanabata Festival Odawara Hōjō Godai Festival Yugawara