Waterloo Campaign: Ligny through Wavre to Waterloo
The French were desultory in the aftermath of Ligny. Napoleon wasted the morning of 17 June by taking a late breakfast, in a second dispatch written four hours he informed Napoleon that he now intended to advance either on Corbais or Wavre. The problem for the French was that by the end of 17 June, most of Grouchys detachment was now behind the Prussians, on the far side of the Dyle. On the morning of 18 June those Prussians who had not already done so crossed the Dyle in and around Wavre and this was in a north-westerly direction, at a distance of about 23 kilometres as the crow flies, with no direct roads between Grouchys position and the battlefield. The distance to Wavre was about 13 kilometres with some larger minor road leading there, after considering his options, Grouchy decided to advance to Wavre and engage whatever Prussians he found there, and so aid Napoleon by preventing those Prussians from moving towards Waterloo. The Prussian vanguard started to arrive in strength out of the Wood of Paris at around 17,00 on 18 June and were attacking the right flank of Napoleons army engaged in the Battle of Waterloo.
It was not until the night of 16 June, after Prussian I Corps and the II Corps had retired to Tilly and Gentinnes, pirch I followed the same route, but took post on the right bank of the Dyle, between Sainte Anne and Aisémont. After the receipt of the pointing out the direction of the retreat, Jagow conducted these troops, in the course of 17 June. An unfortunate incident occurred for the Prussians during the passage of the IV Corps, through Wavre and this not only caused a suspension of the march of the main body of the Corps, but created much alarm because of the great number of ammunition wagons in the place. Every exertion was made to extinguish the fire, the 1st Battalion of the 14th Regiment, under Major Löwenfeld, and the 7th Pioneer Company, were ordered to put out the fire, and after they had encountered considerable difficulty, their successful. In the mean time the vanguard of IV Corps had continued its march, the 16th, and the 13th, brigades arrived much later, and the 14th Brigade, which formed the rearguard, was a long way behind.
The vanguard did not wait the arrival of the other brigades, however, from the 2nd Silesian Hussars, were immediately sent forward to feel for the Anglo-allied left, and to reconnoitre the French right. The I Corps commenced its march, upon the bank of the Dyle, towards Ohain. The Prussian Lieutenant Colonel Ledebur, who was still at Mont-Saint-Guibert, having received intelligence of the approach of the French, Lieutenant Colonel Sohr, who had fallen back early in the morning from Mont-Saint-Guibert, sent 150 cavalry and two guns of horse artillery as a reinforcement to Ledebur. The Prussian II Corps broke up from its position between Saint-Anne and Aisémont, on the bank of the Dyle, about noon, for the purpose of passing the defile of Wavre. The 1st Battalion of the 14th Regiment, which occupied this town, was relieved by a battalion of the 30th Regiment, belonging to the Prussian III Corps. Pirch had just put his Corps in motion, with a view to cross the Dyle by the town of Wavre, when the approach of the French was announced.
The Wood of Sarats, close to the Farm of Auzel, was now occupied by some battalions of the 8th Brigade, the command of which had devolved upon Colonel Reckow
Battle of Ligny
The Battle of Ligny was the last victory of the military career of Napoleon Bonaparte. In this battle, French troops of the Armée du Nord under Napoleons command, defeated part of a Prussian army under Field Marshal Prince Blücher, near Ligny in present-day Belgium. However, had the French army succeeded in keeping the Prussian army from joining the Anglo-allied Army under Wellington at Waterloo, Napoleon might have won the Waterloo Campaign. If he could destroy the existing Coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. The Duke of Wellington expected Napoleon to try to envelop the Coalition armies, the roads to Mons were paved, which would have enabled a rapid flank march. This would have cut Wellingtons communications with his base at Ostend, in fact, Napoleon planned instead to divide the two Coalition armies and defeat them separately, and he encouraged Wellingtons misapprehension with false intelligence.
Only very late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust, neys orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Bras, so that if necessary, he could swing east and reinforce Napoleon. As Napoleon considered the concentrated Prussian army the greater threat, he moved against them first, the centre and left wing together would make a night-march to Brussels. The Coalition forces would thus be irremediably sundered, and all that remained would be to them in detail. Ney spent the morning in massing his I and II corps, and in reconnoitring the enemy at Quatre Bras, but up till noon he took no serious step to capture the cross-roads, which lay at his mercy. Grouchy meantime reported from Fleurus that Prussians were coming up from Namur and he was still at Charleroi when, between 09,00 and 10,00, further news reached him from the left that considerable hostile forces were visible at Quatre Bras. Then, keeping Lobau provisionally at Charleroi, Napoleon hastened to Fleurus and it was a position that had been previously and found to be one of most suitable, in the event of Napoleons adoption of a line of operations across the Sambre at Charleroi.
Apart from the tactical considerations, there were favourable strategic reasons for Blücher choosing the location. At the last named point, another stream falls into the Ligny on leaving a ravine, which commences northward of the village of Bothey. The extreme-right, resting upon the Namur road, in the direction of Quatre Bras, was completely open, above Mont-Potriaux, the bed of the valley was soft, and occasionally swampy, below that Mont-Potriaux the ground was still softer. The buildings in the villages were generally of stone, with thatched roofs, Saint-Amand and Boignée were the most salient points of the position, the central portion of which retired considerably, particularly near Mont-Potriaux. In the morning of the 16th, the I Corps occupied that portion of the position which was circumscribed by the villages of Brye, Saint-Amand-la-Haye, Saint-Amand, and Ligny. The main body of the I Corps was drawn up on the height between Brye and Ligny, and upon which stands the farm and windmill of Bussy, the highest point of the whole position
According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town, founded by the will of King Louis XIV, it was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of city, it became the préfecture of Seine-et-Oise département in 1790, of Yvelines in 1968. Versailles is historically known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War and this word formation is similar to Latin seminare which gave French semailles. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, during the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790, Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants, Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese which was created in 1790. The diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris, in 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of Frances 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the palace of Versailles is in the out-skirts of the city. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris, the city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, which is a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a density of 3, 344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a rational and symmetrical grid of streets, by the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a very modern European city.
Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, the name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle, the 14th century brought the Black Death and the Hundred Years War, and with it death and destruction. At the end of the Hundred Years War in the 15th century, in 1561, Martial de Loménie, secretary of state for finances under King Charles IX, became lord of Versailles. He obtained permission to four annual fairs and a weekly market on Thursdays. The population of Versailles was 500 inhabitants, Martial de Loménie was murdered during the St. Bartholomews Day massacre
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine,30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city, examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864, a number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, on the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple.
Small statues of the dea Sequana Seine goddess and other ex voti found at the place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea, commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine,560 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges, the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime,105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne, from the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine.
From there on, the river is only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes and this canal has been abandoned for many years. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the suburbs of Paris,19.1 km from the centre of Paris. Inhabitants are called Saint-Germanois or Saint-Germinois, with its elegant tree-lined streets it is one of the more affluent suburbs of Paris, combining both high-end leisure spots and exclusive residential neighborhoods. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a sub-prefecture of the department, because it includes the National Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it covers approximately 48 km2, making it the largest commune in the Yvelines. It occupies a large loop of the Seine, Saint-Germain-en-Laye lies at one of the western termini of Line A of the RER. Saint-Germain-en-Laye was founded in 1020 when King Robert the Pious founded a convent on the site of the present Church of Saint-Germain, in 1688, James II, King of England, exiled himself to the city due to religious conflicts in his own country. He spent the remainder of his days there, and died on 16 September 1701, prior to the French Revolution in 1789, it had been a royal town and the Château de Saint-Germain the residence of numerous French monarchs.
The old château was constructed in 1348 by King Charles V on the foundations of an old castle dating from 1238 in the time of Saint Louis, francis I was responsible for its subsequent restoration. In 1862, Napoleon III set up the Musée des Antiquités Nationales in the erstwhile royal château and this museum has exhibits ranging from Paleolithic to Celtic times. The Dame de Brassempouy sculpted on a mammoths ivory tusk around 23,000 years ago is the most famous exhibit in the museum, kings Henry IV and Louis XIII left their mark on the town. Louis XIV was born in the château, and established Saint-Germain-en-Laye as his residence from 1661 to 1681. Louis XIV turned over the château to James VII & II of Scotland and England after his exile from Britain after the Glorious Revolution in 1688, James lived in the Château for 13 years, and his daughter Louisa Maria Stuart was born in exile here in 1692. James II is buried in the Church of Saint-Germain, Saint-Germain-en-Laye is famous for its 2. 4-kilometre long stone terrace built by André Le Nôtre from 1669 to 1673.
The terrace provides a view over the valley of the Seine and, in the distance, during the French Revolution, the name was changed along with many other places whose names held connotations of religion or royalty. During his reign, Napoleon I established his cavalry officers training school in the Château-Vieux, the Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed in 1919 and was applied on July 16,1920. The treaty officially registered the breakup of the Habsburg empire, which recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland and the Kingdom of the Serbs, during the occupation from 1940 to 1944, the town was the headquarters of the German Army. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Saint-Germain-en-Laye station on Paris RER line A and it is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line, Saint-Germain – Bel-Air – Fourqueux and Saint-Germain – Grande Ceinture. Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by Achères – Grand Cormier station on Paris RER line A and this station is located in the middle of the Forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, far away from the urbanized part of the commune
Battle of Rocheserviere
The battle ended with the defeat of the Royalist forces. Five days the Treaty of Cholet was signed, ending the hostilities, the Army of the West had been formed to pacify the region and support the new French government instigated by Napoleon Bonaparte after his return to Paris at the start of the Hundred Days in 1815. While Napoleon marched north to deal with the threat from the British and Prussian armies during the Waterloo campaign, assisted by Michel Silvestre Brayer, he left Nantes with 3000 men on June 11. By the 17, his force had increased to 6000 men and he soon learned that a Vendean army of around 8000 men under Charles Autichamp and Pierre Constant Suzannet was concentrating in the vicinity of Rocheservière. The Vendée Royalist forces were protected in defensive positions, but were divided into separate armies. Suzannet occupied the heights of Rocheservière, protected to the west by the Boulogne river, another force under Bertrand Saint-Hubert was in Saint-André-Treize-Voies, nine kilometers east of Rocheservière.
As for Charles Autichamp, he was positioned Vieillevigne north-east,7 kilometers from Rocheservière and 4 km from Saint-André and these positions would be difficult for the Bonapartists to attack, but on June 19th Suzannets force suddenly withdrew from Rocheservière and occupied Mormaison to the south east. The Bonapartists took the opportunity to launch an attack on the Vendeans, the chasseurs under Jean-Pierre Travot clashed with the Vendeans at La Grolle between Rocheservière and Saint-André. However Suzannets cavalry were sent in, forcing Travot to retreat, Suzannet brought all his troops up to La Grolle. The next day, June 20, Suzannet decided to meet the Bonapartists in battle and he wrote to Autichamp, the commander in chief, asking him to join him, but Autichamp refused to move immediately saying he was securing his position. Suzannet and Saint-Hubert crossed the Boulogne river and marched to meet the Bonapartists, the two armies met on the moors of the Grand-Collet, South West of Rocheservière.
The separate forces of Saint-Hubert and Suzannet were at distance from each other. The Bonapartists under Travot first entered into contact with the forces of Saint-Hubert, saint-Huberts men were taken in the flank by Travots chasseurs, and were routed. Suzannet arrived too late to retrieve the situation, seeing the rout of Saint-Hubert, he launched a desperate charge at the Bonapartist lines. In the ensuing fight Suzannet collapsed, seriously wounded by a bullet, Lamarque ordered his cavalry to attack, and Suzannets forces broke and fled the field. At Vieillevigne, General Autichamp was informed of the fighting at Grand-Collet and he immediately marched towards Rocheservière, but only arrived in time to witness the rout of Suzannet and Saint-Hubert. Autichamp decided to place his men in defense of the bridge over the Boulogne, but Lamarque forded the river, taking Rocheservière, and moved round behind the Vendeans. They panicked and fled, falling back in disorder to the north of Clisson, the next day General Suzannet died of his injuries Aigrefeuille-sur-Maine
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Battle of Quatre Bras
The Battle of Quatre Bras was fought on 16 June 1815, two days before the Battle of Waterloo. The battle was contested between Wellingtons Anglo-allied army and the wing of the Armée du Nord under Marshal Michel Ney. It took place near the crossroads of Quatre Bras. He would destroy the Prussian army before forcing Wellington back to the coast, however if Wellingtons Anglo-allied army could combine with the Prussians, the combined force would be larger than Napoleons. If Napoleon controlled the crossroads of Quatre-Bras he could prevent Wellington moving south-eastward along the Nivelles-Namur road towards the French, although the coalition commanders did have an overview of French pre-war movements, Napoleons strategy was initially very successful. It was 18,00 that Wellington drafted initial orders to concentrate his army, Wellington did not order his entire army to Quatre Bras on 16 June either, still suspecting a flanking manoeuvre through Mons. The headquarters of the I Corps, however decided to ignore Wellingtons order to assemble in and around Nivelles, the centre and left wing together would make a night-march toward Brussels.
The Coalition forces would thus be irremediably sundered, and all that remained would be to them in detail. The brigade, consisting of two regiments from Nassau, arrived at about 14,00 on 15 June, Prince Bernhard deployed before the first French scouts, lancers of the Guard Light Cavalry Division approached Quatre Bras. The lancers were interdicted at Frasnes after which the Nassauers retreated to the Bois de Bossu, Ney spent the morning of 16 June in massing his I and II corps, and in reconnoitering the enemy at Quatre Bras, who, as he was informed, had been reinforced. But up till noon he took no step to capture the cross-roads. Grouchy meantime reported from Fleurus that Prussians were coming up from Namur and he was still at Charleroi when, between 09,00 and 10,00, further news reached him from the left that considerable hostile forces were visible at Quatre Bras. Then, keeping Lobau provisionally at Charleroi, Napoleon hastened to Fleurus, arriving about 11,00. At the beginning of the battle the left wing of the Armée du Nord, with 18,000 men under Marshal Michel Ney, faced 8,000 infantry and 16 guns, under the command of William, Prince of Orange.
The Dutch were thinly deployed south of the crossroads of Quatre Bras, fresh allied troops started to arrive two hours later, along with Wellington, who took over command of the allied forces. As the day wore on, fresh Dutch and Brunswickers arrived faster than fresh French troops and these forces consisted of the II/2nd Nassau regiment and Bijlevelds horse artillery. The Dutch and Nassau commanders had taken precaution however, and the Lancers were greeted by canister and volley fire, losing some men, patrols were sent out and the positions were kept until the next morning. From 5 AM on June 16, there were skirmishes between Allied and French forces, in which neither side managed to get an advantage