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Battle of Jericho

The Battle of Jericho is an incident from the Book of Joshua, being the first battle fought by the Israelites in the course of the conquest of Canaan. According to Joshua 6:1–27, the walls of Jericho fell after the Israelites marched every day once for six days around the city and seven times on the seventh day blew their trumpets. Excavations at Tell es-Sultan, the biblical Jericho, have failed to substantiate this story, which has its origins in the nationalist propaganda of much kings of Judah and their claims to the territory of the Kingdom of Israel; the lack of archaeological evidence and the composition history and theological purposes of the Book of Joshua have led archaeologists like William G. Dever to characterise the story of the fall of Jericho as "invented out of whole cloth." The Book of Joshua is the story of. Joshua, the leader of the Israelites, sent two spies to Jericho, the first city of Canaan that they decided to conquer, discovered that the land was in fear of them and their God.

The Israelites marched around the walls once every day for six days with the priests carrying the Ark of the Covenant. On the seventh day they marched seven times around the walls the priests blew their ram's horns, the Israelites raised a great shout, the walls of the city fell. Following God's law they killed every man and child, as well as the oxen and donkeys. Only Rahab, a Canaanite prostitute who had sheltered the spies, her parents and all "those who belonged to her" were spared. Joshua cursed anybody who rebuilt the foundations and gates, with the deaths of their firstborn and youngest child respectively; this was fulfilled by Hiel the Bethelite under King Ahab's reign. In 1868, Charles Warren identified Tell es-Sultan as the site of Jericho. In 1930–36, John Garstang conducted excavations there and discovered the remains of a network of collapsed walls which he dated to about 1400 BCE. Kathleen Kenyon re-excavated the site over 1952–1958 and demonstrated that the destruction occurred c.1500 BCE during a well-attested Egyptian campaign of that period, that Jericho had been deserted throughout the mid-late 13th century BCE, the supposed time of Joshua's battle.

Kenyon's work was corroborated in 1995 by radiocarbon tests which dated the destruction level to the late 17th or 16th centuries BCE. A small unwalled settlement was rebuilt in the 15th century BCE, but the tell was unoccupied from the late 15th century until the 10th/9th centuries BCE. Scholars agree unanimously that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value, its origin lies in a time far removed from the times that it depicts, its intention is theological in detailing how Israel and her leaders are judged by their obedience to the teachings and laws set down in the book of Deuteronomy. The story of Jericho and the rest of the conquest represents the nationalist propaganda of the kings of Judah and their claims to the territory of the Kingdom of Israel after 722 BCE. Ai Biblical archaeology Early Israelite campaigns "Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho", African-American spiritual about the battle Media related to The Battle of Jericho at Wikimedia Commons

Shamshad Cockcroft

Shamshad Cockcroft is a British physiologist and a professor of cell physiology in the Neuro and Pharmacology Division of Biosciences at the UCL Institute of Education. She has been a member of The Physiological Society since 1989. Cockcroft earned a degree in Biological Chemistry at the University of Manchester in 1974 and completed her PhD in Biochemistry at the University of Birmingham in 1977. During her PhD she was introduced to the subject of inositol lipids as a potential source of second messengers by Bob Michell, a topic she pursued during her postdoctoral fellowship at University College London. Cockcroft's research and work investigates intracellular lipid traffic, interfaces club and lipids in cell signalling and membrane traffic; some of her publications include: ATP induces nucleotide permeability in rat mast cells, Role of guanine nucleotide binding protein in the activation of polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase and Polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase: regulation by a novel guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gp.

Cockcroft was awarded a fellowship from the Lister Institute in 1986 and established the Lipid Signalling Group at UCL. She was Chair in Cell Biology at UCL and was awarded a programme grant by the Wellcome Trust. Cockcroft was born in Zanzibar, but moved to the United Kingdom aged 18 following the Zanzibar Revolution, she faced problems when she tried to apply for university, having only 4'O' levels in Maths, British Constitution and Geography. She had to do her'A' levels in a grammar school in the UK, she was inspired to pursue a career in science by reading biographies of scientists, including William Harvey and Marie Curie. She is married to Laurence Cockcroft and has three children: Jasmine and Joshua

Headquarters (The Monkees album)

Headquarters is the third album issued by the Monkees and the first with substantial songwriting and instrumental performances by members of the group itself, rather than by session musicians and professional songwriters. After a struggle for creative autonomy with their record label, the group had been allowed to record by themselves. Headquarters reached No. 1 on the Billboard 200 chart and was certified double platinum in the United States with sales of more than two million copies within the first two months of release. It peaked at #2 on the UK charts, it is included in the 2006 book 1001 Albums You Must Hear. While the original concept of their third album was to follow the same format and production of the first two albums, after the release of More of the Monkees the group was becoming frustrated by the limited creative input they were allowed by Don Kirshner, continued to fight for more creative control and independence from him. Kirshner had begun supervising recording sessions with studio musicians for their third album, with Davy Jones recording vocal tracks for some of the songs, while the group recorded two songs featuring them both singing and playing, for their next single.

The hope was to pacify the group Michael Nesmith and Peter Tork, by gaining some of the input they were asking for though the track would feature as the b-side, with the a-side featuring one of the aforementioned Jones-vocal tracks. Tensions came to a head when Kirshner released the third single, with Jones tracks on both sides ignoring the group's request, without the approval of record executives; this was the last straw and it led to Kirshner's dismissal from the Monkees project and the group was given full creative control of their next album. The single was withdrawn from Canada and pulled from scheduled release in the US. Since "A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You" was announced as the next single, it was retained as the a-side and "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" as the b-side, replacing "She Hangs Out"; the remaining Kirshner-supervised tracks, finished were discarded so that the group could produce an album where they would decide the songs, the arrangements, etc. More they would provide all the vocals and instrumentals, using sessions musicians only as an addition to their own.

The album was released on May 22, 1967 and charted at the No. 1 in the U. S, it stayed at that position for only one week, was replaced by The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, it began a run of 11 consecutive weeks at the No. 2 position as Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band remained at No. 1. The album was issued on the compact disc format for the first time by Arista Records in 1989, remixed from the multi-tracks later from the original stereo mastertape in 1995 with several bonus tracks on Rhino Entertainment. In 2000, Rhino Entertainment, through its Rhino Handmade division, issued The Headquarters Sessions, a 3-disc box set of outtakes from the session as well as the album's original monophonic mix presented in an alternate running order, rejected before release. In 2007, Rhino issued a two-disc deluxe edition of the album; the CD set was housed in a digipak with a slipcase and featured original album artwork, as well as a booklet of essays and session information by Monkees historian Andrew Sandoval.

The discs contained both the stereo and mono mixes of the album, remastered, as well as alternate mixes and outtakes. The original rear album cover features a collage of photos including one of the band with producer Chip Douglas and engineer Dick Bogert; however the photo was mislabeled: it identifies Hank Cicalo as sitting next to Chip Douglas. This is known as the "Producers Cover". Colgems/RCA corrected the error by substituting a different photo rather than revising the caption. Peter and Mike were sporting light beards while Davy's shoulder-length hair had been cut off; this is the corrected version because it was standard practice for RCA to add an "RE" to the catalog number when any one side of a record sleeve had a revision. The "Beard Cover" has a catalog number of COS/COM-103 RE. Side 1Side 2 The album's preliminary track lineup was compiled shortly, it would have included the following songs:Side 1 "For Pete's Sake" "I'll Spend My Life With You" "Forget That Girl" "You Just May Be The One" "Shades Of Gray" "A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You" "Band 6"Side 2 "Sunny Girlfriend" "Mr. Webster" "You Told Me" "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" "Zilch" "Early Morning Blues And Greens" "Randy Scouse Git" Tracks 1-14: Original album in stereo "All of Your Toys" - 3:02 "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" - 2:38 "Peter Gunn's Gun" - 3:38 "Jericho" - 2:02 "Nine Times Blue" - 2:07 "Pillow Time" - 4:00 Bonus track at the end of Side 1: "All of Your Toys" Bonus track at the end of Side 2: "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" Disc 1 Tracks 1-14: Original Album in Stereo "All of Your Toys" - 3:10 "The Girl I Knew Somewhere" - 2:52 "A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You" - 3:02 "She Hangs Out" (Ste

The Gates of Hell

The Gates of Hell is a monumental sculptural group work by French artist Auguste Rodin that depicts a scene from the Inferno, the first section of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. It contains 180 figures; the figures range from 15 centimetres high up to more than one metre. Several of the figures were cast independently by Rodin; the sculpture was commissioned by the Directorate of Fine Arts in 1880 and was meant to be delivered in 1885. Rodin would continue to work on and off on this project for 37 years, until his death in 1917; the Directorate asked for an inviting entrance to a planned Decorative Arts Museum with the theme being left to Rodin's selection. Before this commission, Rodin had developed sketches of some of Dante's characters based on his admiration of Dante's Inferno; the Decorative Arts Museum was never built. Rodin worked on this project on the ground floor of the Hôtel Biron. Near the end of his life, Rodin donated sculptures and reproduction rights to the French government. In 1919, two years after his death, The Hôtel Biron became the Musée Rodin housing a cast of The Gates of Hell and related works.

Rodin conceived that people would walk toward the work up a flight of stairs, be overwhelmed frontally by the massive gates, contemplating the experience of hell that Dante describes in his Inferno. Rodin thought of Dante's warning over the entrance of the Inferno, "Abandon every hope, who enter here."A work of the scope of The Gates of Hell had not been attempted before, but inspiration came from Lorenzo Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise at the Baptistery of St. John, Florence, 15th century bronze doors depicting figures from the Old Testament. Another source of inspiration was medieval cathedrals combining low relief. Rodin was inspired by Michelangelo's fresco The Last Judgment, Delacroix's painting The Barque of Dante, Balzac's collection La Comédie humaine and Baudelaire's poems Les Fleurs du mal. In an article in Le Matin, Rodin said: "For a whole year I lived with Dante, with him alone, drawing the eight circles of his inferno. At the end of this year, I realized that while my drawing rendered my vision of Dante, they had become too remote from reality.

So I started all over again, working from nature, with my models." Variations of The Gates of Hell The original sculptures were enlarged and became works of art of their own. The Thinker called The Poet, is located above the door panels. One interpretation suggests that it might represent Dante looking down to the characters in the Inferno. Another interpretation is. Others believe that the figure may be Adam, contemplating the destruction brought upon mankind because of his sin; the Kiss was in The Gate along with other figures of Paolo and Francesca da Rimini. Rodin wanted to represent their initial joy as well as their final damnation, he removed the figure that became known as The Kiss because it seemed to conflict with the other suffering figures. Ugolino and His Children depicts Ugolino della Gherardesca, who according to the story, ate the corpses of his children after they died by starvation; the Ugolino group was cast as a separate bronze in 1882. The Three Shades was 98 cm high; the over-life size group was made of three independent figures in 1899.

On, Rodin replaced one hand in the figures to fuse them together, in the same form as the smaller version. The figures pointed to the phrase "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate" from Canto III of the Inferno. Fleeting Love is located on the right door pane, it is one of several figures of lovers that represent Paolo and Francesca da Rimini; the male figure is called The Prodigal. Paolo and Francesca is shown on the left door pane. Paolo tries to reach Francesca. Meditation appears on the rightmost part of the tympanum, shown as an enlarged figure in 1896; the Old Courtesan is a bronze cast from 1910 of an aged, naked female body. The sculpture is called She Who Was Once the Helmet-Maker's Beautiful Wife; this title is taken from a poem by François Villon. Fallen Caryatid Carrying Her Stone is based on the figure at the top of the left pilaster. Around 1881 Rodin gave her a stone. I Am Beautiful, cast in 1882, is among the second set of figures on the extreme right portion of the door. Eternal Springtime was cast in 1884.

It exists both in marble and in bronze. Despair is found in various versions on both the right door panes. Kneeling Female Faun was conceived around 1884 and first cast in 1887, it is found in front of the bas-reliefs which form the background. Adam and Eve. Rodin asked the directorate for additional funds for the independent sculptures of Adam and Eve that were meant to frame The Gates of Hell. However, Rodin found. Several figures of Eve were made, none of which were used, all of them were sold; the original plaster is displayed at the Musée d'Orsay in Paris. A series of plaster casts illustrating the development of the work is on view at the Musée Rodin in Meudon. In 1917, a model was used to make the original three bronze casts: The Musée Rodin, Paris; the Rodin Museum, Pennsylvania. The National Museum of Western Art in Ueno Park, Tokyo. Subsequent bronzes have been distributed by the Mus

World Soundtrack Awards 2005

The 5th World Soundtrack Awards were given on 15 October 2005 in the Bijloke Concert Hall, Belgium. Best Soundtrack Composer of the Year: Angelo Badalamenti - Un long dimanche de fiançailles Best Original Soundtrack of the Year: War of the Worlds - John Williams Best Original Song Written for a Film: "Old Habits Die Hard" - Alfie Performed by Mick Jagger Lyrics by Dave Stewart and Mick Jagger Public Choice Award: Alexander - Vangelis Discovery of the Year Michael Giacchino - The Incredibles Lifetime Achievement Award: Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller Best Soundtrack Composer of the Year: Thomas Newman - Lemony Snicket John Powell - The Bourne Supremacy Howard Shore - The Aviator John Williams - War of the Worlds Best Original Soundtrack of the Year: The Aviator - Howard Shore Batman Begins - James Newton Howard and Hans Zimmer The Bourne Supremacy - John Powell Mar adentro - Alejandro Amenábar Best Original Song Written for a Film: "Al otro lado del río" - Diarios de motocicleta Performed by Jorge Drexler Lyrics by Jorge Drexler "Believe" - The Polar Express Composed by Alan Silvestri Performed by Josh Groban Lyrics by Glen Ballard "Learn to Be Lonely" - The Phantom of the Opera Composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber Performed by Minnie Driver Lyrics by Charles Hart "Million Voices" - Hotel Rwanda Composed by Andrea Guerra Performed by Wyclef Jean Lyrics by Wyclef Jean and Jerry Duplessis Discovery of the Year: Ilan Eshkeri - Layer Cake Andrés Goldstein and Daniel Tarrab - Deuda Cyril Morin - The Syrian Bride Benjamin Wallfish - Dear Wendy


Dornac, or Paul Marsan, or Pol Marsan, pseudonyms of Paul François Arnold Cardon was a French photographer. Born in Paris, Dornac was active since the 1880s, specializing in portraits of personalities photographed at home or at work, he is the author of a series of photographic portraits from 1887 to 1917 entitled Nos contemporains chez eux. Many of Dornac's portraits have been taken either directly or after wood engraving, in Le Monde illustré between 1890 and 1900. Dornac died in the 14th arrondissement of Paris on 10 January 1941 at age 83 and is buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery. Elizabeth Emery, "Dornac's'At Home' Photographs, Proceedings of the Society for the Study of French History, 36. Elizabeth Emery, Le Photojournalisme et la naissance des maisons-musées d’écrivains en France. Grenoble, Les Editions de l’Université Savoie Mont Blanc, 2016. Marie Mallard, Étude de la série de Dornac: nos contemporains chez eux, 1887–1917 – Personnalités et espaces en représentation, mémoire de maîtrise en Histoire de l'art, Paris 4, 1999.

Valérie Sasportas, Des stars fin de siècle dans l'objectif, in Le Figaro, 23 June 2011. Dornac Three collections of annotated photographs are available at Gallica