Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland was a naval battle fought between Britain's Royal Navy Grand Fleet, under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet, under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer, during the First World War. The battle unfolded in extensive manoeuvring and three main engagements, from 31 May to 1 June 1916, off the North Sea coast of Denmark's Jutland Peninsula, it was the only full-scale clash of battleships in that war. Jutland was the third fleet action between steel battleships, following the Battle of the Yellow Sea in 1904 and the decisive Battle of Tsushima in 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War. Jutland was the last major battle in world history fought by battleships. Germany's High Seas Fleet intended to lure out and destroy a portion of the Grand Fleet, as the German naval force was insufficient to engage the entire British fleet; this formed part of a larger strategy to break the British blockade of Germany and to allow German naval vessels access to the Atlantic.

Meanwhile, Great Britain's Royal Navy pursued a strategy of engaging and destroying the High Seas Fleet, thereby keeping German naval forces contained and away from Britain and her shipping lanes. The Germans planned to use Vice-Admiral Franz Hipper's fast scouting group of five modern battlecruisers to lure Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty's battlecruiser squadrons into the path of the main German fleet, they stationed submarines in advance across the routes of the British ships. However, the British learned from signal intercepts that a major fleet operation was so on 30 May Jellicoe sailed with the Grand Fleet to rendezvous with Beatty, passing over the locations of the German submarine picket lines while they were unprepared; the German plan had been delayed, causing further problems for their submarines, which had reached the limit of their endurance at sea. On the afternoon of 31 May, Beatty encountered Hipper's battlecruiser force long before the Germans had expected. In a running battle, Hipper drew the British vanguard into the path of the High Seas Fleet.

By the time Beatty sighted the larger force and turned back towards the British main fleet, he had lost two battlecruisers from a force of six battlecruisers and four powerful battleships—though he had sped ahead of his battleships of 5th Battle Squadron earlier in the day losing them as an integral component for much of this opening action against the five ships commanded by Hipper. Beatty's withdrawal at the sight of the High Seas Fleet, which the British had not known were in the open sea, would reverse the course of the battle by drawing the German fleet in pursuit towards the British Grand Fleet. Between 18:30, when the sun was lowering on the western horizon, back-lighting the German forces, nightfall at about 20:30, the two fleets—totalling 250 ships between them—directly engaged twice. Fourteen British and eleven German ships sank, with a total of 9,823 casualties. After sunset, throughout the night, Jellicoe manoeuvred to cut the Germans off from their base, hoping to continue the battle the next morning, but under the cover of darkness Scheer broke through the British light forces forming the rearguard of the Grand Fleet and returned to port.

Both sides claimed victory. The British succeeded in containing the German fleet; the British press criticised the Grand Fleet's failure to force a decisive outcome, while Scheer's plan of destroying a substantial portion of the British fleet failed. The British strategy of denying Germany access to both the United Kingdom and the Atlantic did succeed, the British long-term goal; the Germans' "fleet in being" continued to pose a threat, requiring the British to keep their battleships concentrated in the North Sea, but the battle reinforced the German policy of avoiding all fleet-to-fleet contact. At the end of 1916, after further unsuccessful attempts to reduce the Royal Navy's numerical advantage, the German Navy accepted that its surface ships had been contained, subsequently turning its efforts and resources to unrestricted submarine warfare and the destruction of Allied and neutral shipping, which—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—by April 1917 triggered the United States of America's declaration of war on Germany.

Subsequent reviews commissioned by the Royal Navy generated strong disagreement between supporters of Jellicoe and Beatty concerning the two admirals' performance in the battle. Debate over their performance and the significance of the battle continues to this day. With 16 dreadnought-type battleships, compared with the Royal Navy's 28, the German High Seas Fleet stood little chance of winning a head-to-head clash; the Germans therefore adopted a divide-and-conquer strategy. They would stage raids into the North Sea and bombard the English coast, with the aim of luring out small British squadrons and pickets, which could be destroyed by superior forces or submarines. In January 1916, Admiral von Pohl, commander of the German fleet, fell ill, he was replaced by Scheer, who believed that the fleet had been used too defensively, had better ships and men than the British, ought to take the war to them. According to Scheer, the German naval strategy should be: to damage the English fleet by offensive raids against the naval forces engaged in watching and blockading the German Bight, as well as by mine-laying on the British coast and submarine attack, whenever possible.

After an equality of strength had been realised as a result of these operations, all our forces had been made ready and concentrated, an attempt was to be made with our fleet to seek battle under circumstance

Hillel Yaffe

Hillel Yaffe was a Russian Jewish physician and Zionist leader who immigrated to Palestine during the First Aliyah. He was instrumental in curing malaria among the Jewish population of Palestine in the early 20th century, helped improve the medical infrastructure of the Yishuv during the same period; the Hillel Yaffe Medical Center in Hadera is named after him. Hillel Yaffe was born in 1864 in a small village in the Ukraine, his father was a merchant and a man of means, who provided his son with a traditional Jewish education. When he grew up, Yaffe was sent to learn in a secondary school; these studies brought him close to the Zionist movement. When he finished secondary school, he traveled to Geneva. Afterward he specialized in eye care in Paris, he began to publish laboratory work in his field of expertise, his research was respected in the scientific community. Yaffe's decision to specialize in medicine in eye care, derived from his dream to become a doctor in the Land of Israel. In 1891, he traveled to Turkey, the seat of the Ottoman Empire, where he received a license to practice medicine.

From there, he sailed to Jaffa. Yaffe married Rivka Glickstein in 1898, she was the sister of Esther Glickstein, who would marry Haim Margaliot-Kalvarisky. Before they met, Rivka had studied with Yaffe's sister in France; the couple had three children: Sarah and Ya'akov. Yirmeyahu served as a captain in the Jewish Brigade, after World War I he earned a doctorate in chemistry. Sarah studied agriculture in England and married Joseph Bentwich, who earned the Israel Prize for education in 1962. Ya'akov, who learned medicine and specialized in tropical diseases, lived in Jerusalem as of 2007, his nephew, Yigael Gluckstein who wrote under the name Tony Cliff, was a Palestinian Jewish Trotskyist and the founder of the British Socialist Workers Party. After traveling around the country, Yaffe settled in Tiberias, he worked as a doctor there for two years and moved to Zikhron Ya'akov. He was noted for his dedicated work for the people of Hadera, who were suffering from malaria, he visited the moshava of Hadera at least twice a week and succeeded to heal some of the men, but the mortality rate remained high.

It became apparent that a fundamental, broad program would be necessary to remove the scourge of malaria from the Jewish settlement, since individual treatment was insufficient. In 1895, two years after he became the doctor of Zikhron Ya'akov, Yaffe received a nomination to become the representative of Hovevei Zion in Israel; this nomination opened a new chapter in Yaffe's life. Yaffe's decision to combine medicine with political activism derived from his realization that in order to fulfill his mission for the Jewish settlement in Israel, it was necessary to form new institutions. Yaffe understood that in order to succeed in eradicating malaria, he needed to combine practical treatment of patients with research, community activism, politics; when Yaffe accepted this job, he moved to Jaffa, a central city, managed to raise money to drain the infested swamp near Hadera. He traveled to Europe to raise money for various purposes such as saving the first Hebrew school, on the verge of financial collapse.

Yaffe became a noted authority on its prevention and its cure. He published many articles and lectured in Paris in an international conference on malaria in 1900, he worked to improve public health and studied other illnesses which had spread throughout the region, with an emphasis on prevention and minimizing contagious spreading of diseases. In 1902, an epidemic of cholera spread through Israel. Yaffe was appointed by the Turkish government to combat the epidemic, he decided that people were forbidden to leave their communities, that it was forbidden to enter or leave the house of a sick person, in order to stop the illness from spreading. The epidemic was stopped. In 1903 Yaffe participated in a delegation of the Zionist movement to investigate the El-Arish region, a prospective location for a Jewish state suggested by Theodor Herzl at the Zionist Congress. In the same year, representatives of Zikhron Ya'akov gathered and established the General Union and Teachers' Union of the Yishuv. Yaffe stood as their head and worked to establish the resources of the communities so that they would not need to rely on external financial support.

He worked to convince the groups who worked in education to use the Hebrew language. In 1905, Yaffe began to work in the Jaffa hospital. During his work he traveled to Europe to heal. In 1907 he began to run the hospital in Zikhron Ya'akov. Yaffe's extensive knowledge of the importance of public health and the practical realities of Israel led him to build a widespread system of prevention, he trained crews of medics who could help settlers, these crews spread throughout the land and improved the level of prevention and treatment in the population. In 1919, he moved from Zikhron Ya'akov to Haifa, where he worked as a doctor and published articles on medicine, his articles were published in newspapers outside the country, he was invited to international medical conferences. Yaffe continued to work until his death in 1936, he was buried, in Zikhron Ya'akov. Yaffe's first efforts to eradicate malaria focused on drying the swamps, he used many methods, including wide use of eucalyptus trees, on the principle that the large tree would draw a lot of water from the ground.

Manual efforts were undertaken to dry the swamps. The residents of Hadera and foreign workers from Africa (who arrived after Yaffe reque

Master/slave (BDSM)

In BDSM, Master/slave, M/s or sexual slavery is a relationship in which one individual serves another in an authority-exchange structured relationship. Unlike Dominant/submissive structures found in BDSM in which love is the core value and obedience are the core values in Master/slave structures; the participants may be of sexual orientation. The relationship uses the term "slave" because of the association of the term with ownership rights of a master to their slave's body, as property or chattel. While male "masters" will be referred to as "Master", whether or not female Masters are referred to as "Master" or "Mistress" may depend upon whether they identify as following the leather subculture or BDSM path, or preference. Sexual slavery in a BDSM context is both sexual roleplay; the slave master or mistress might be any person or group, though the majority of such relationships are either one dominant, or a committed dominant couple, owning one or more slaves. A sex slave and the owner, others involved in the relationship, can be of any gender, sexual identity, or orientation.

The Master/slave relationship is entered into on a consensual basis, without the legal force of historical or modern non-consensual slavery, forbidden by the laws of most countries. The term "slave" is used rather than "sex slave" because sex is not a necessary component of consensual slavery. In BDSM, a slave is a specific type of submissive. Not all submissives are slaves, though all slaves would be considered submissive in the relationship. However, some calling themselves "slave" may only be submissive within a sexual context/activity whilst others are submissive within other or all aspects of the relationship, "sex-slave" or "slave" respectively. Outside the BDSM community, the relationship of Master/slave is sometimes regarded as a form of consensual sexual slavery. In BDSM, a slave is a specific type of submissive; the Master/slave relationship refers to the relationship between the individuals involved, does not require any specific acts, sexual or otherwise, though sexual activity is an aspect of the relationship.

The sexual aspect could be conventional, not BDSM. A slave could be a masochist or bottom, but this is not always the case; some participants regard the relationship as sexual roleplay, while others enter into the relationship on the basis of a committed, long-term, submissive lifestyle. Various forms of symbolism are sometimes used to affirm the owner/slave relationship; these include wearing the owner's collar, being registered in a slave register, adopting a name chosen by the owner, or engaging in a public declaration or ritualized ceremony of some type. Some people draw up a slave contract; these contracts may deal with domestic arrangements and interpersonal relationship matters, besides the sexual arrangements. They would provide that the Master has the exclusive authority in all matters relating to the body and behavior of the slave, including underwear and other clothing, social relations outside of the arrangement, etc. Although such contracts are not enforceable in the ways legal contracts are, they can be useful for defining in written form the limits of the arrangement between the signatories, for documenting the consensuality of the relationships they define between them.

In some traditional rituals, after signing a slave contract, the commitment to the relationship is celebrated by a collaring ceremony, which can be simple or elaborate witnessed by invited friends. The slave wears a collar to publicly declare the slave's subjugation and the Master's ownership; such a collar may be a piece of neckwear, or may be a bracelet or other piece of jewelry that symbolizes slave status. Such a collar is not removed except for practical reasons such as medical or security requirements, unless or until the relationship is dissolved. Slave training is a BDSM activity involving a consensual power exchange between two people taking on the roles of a Master or Mistress and a slave; the objective is to change the slave's behavior in a manner, pleasing to the Master or Mistress, for example to train the slave to follow a set of rules or commands that the Master or Mistress has provided. Some Masters adopt a holistic approach to the maintenance and long-term development of their slave by using such models as Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Sexual slavery is a consensual exchange of power by the submissive to the dominant, though the scope of the surrender of discretion may be limited and may be withdrawn at any time. The types of activities that the sex slave may be expected to perform are defined in advance and sometimes spelled out in a slave contract, a document without real value that outlines the desires and expectations of the parties; the sex slave is expected to perform sexually, though many relationship-oriented dynamics are clearly negotiated, including clothing, speech restrictions, household affairs and schedules, though the details may be left to the master or mistress. Outlined are clear expectations of whether the couple will be monogamous or polyamorous, if there would be permission or expectation of sexual interaction with other people. Otherwise, a sex slave may be expected to perform many of the same functions that are expected of a slave