click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Battle of Karbala

The Battle of Karbala was fought on 10 October 680 between the army of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I and a small army led by Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at Karbala, Iraq. Prior to his death, the Umayyad caliph Muawiyah. Yazid's nomination was contested by the sons of a few prominent companions of Muhammad, including Husayn, son of the fourth caliph Ali, Abd Allah ibn Zubayr, son of Zubayr ibn al-Awam. Upon Muawiyah's death in 680 CE, Yazid demanded allegiance from other dissidents. Husayn traveled to Mecca; the people of Kufa, an Iraqi garrison town and the center of Ali's caliphate, were averse to the Syria-based Umayyad caliphs and had a long-standing attachment to the house of Ali. They proposed Husayn overthrow the Umayyads. On Husayn's way to Kufa with a retinue of about 70 men, his caravan was intercepted by a 1,000-strong army of the caliph at some distance from Kufa, he was forced to head north and encamp in the plain of Karbala on 2 October, where a larger Umayyad army of 4,000 arrived soon afterwards.

Negotiations failed after the Umayyad governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad refused Husayn safe passage without submitting to his authority, a condition declined by Husayn. The Battle of Karbala ensued on 10 October during which Husayn was killed along with most of his relatives and companions, while his surviving family members were taken prisoner; the battle was followed by the Second Islamic Civil War, during which the Iraqis organized two separate campaigns to avenge the death of Husayn. The Battle of Karbala galvanized the development of the pro-Alid party into a unique religious sect with its own rituals and collective memory, it has a central place in the Shi'a history and theology, has been recounted in Shi'a literature. For the Shi'a, Husayn's suffering and death became a symbol of sacrifice in the struggle for right against wrong, for justice and truth against injustice and falsehood, it provides the members of the Shi'a faith with a catalog of heroic norms. The battle is commemorated during an annual ten-day period during the Islamic month of Muharram by Shi'a, culminating on tenth day of the month, known as the Day of Ashura.

On this day, Shi'a Muslims mourn, hold public processions, organize religious gathering, beat their chests and in some cases self-flagellate. Sunni Muslims regard the incident as a historical tragedy. After the third caliph Uthman's assassination by rebels in 656, the rebels and the townspeople of Medina declared Ali, a cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, caliph; some of Muhammad's companions including Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, Zubayr ibn al-Awam and Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, Muhammad's widow A'isha, refused to recognize Ali. They called for the election of a new caliph through shura; these events precipitated the First Fitna. When Ali was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite, in 661, his eldest son Hasan succeeded him but soon signed a peace treaty with Mu'awiya to avoid further bloodshed. In the treaty, Hasan was to hand over power to Mu'awiya on the condition that Mu'awiya be a just ruler and that he would not establish a dynasty. After the death of Hasan in 670, his younger brother Husayn became the head of the Banu Hashim clan to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged.

Though his father's supporters in Kufa gave him their allegiance, he would abide to the peace treaty between Hasan and Mu'awiya as long as the latter was alive. The Battle of Karbala occurred within the crisis resulting from the succession of Yazid I. In 676, Mu'awiya nominated his son Yazid as successor, a move labelled by the historian Wilferd Madelung as breach of the Hasan–Muawiya treaty. With no precedence in Islamic history, hereditary succession aroused opposition from several quarters. Mu'awiya summoned a shura, or consultative assembly, in Damascus and persuaded representatives from many provinces to agree to his plan by diplomacy and bribes, he ordered Marwan ibn al-Hakam the governor of Medina, where Husayn and several other influential Muslims resided, to announce the decision. Marwan faced resistance to this announcement from Husayn, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd Allah ibn Umar and Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, the sons of Muhammad's prominent companions, all of whom, by virtue of their descent, could lay claim to the caliphal title.

Mu'awiya pressed the four dissenters to accede. He followed and threatened some of them with death. Nonetheless, Mu'awiya convinced the people of Mecca that the four had pledged their allegiance, received allegiance from them for Yazid. On his return to Damascus, he secured allegiance from the people of Medina as well. There was no further overt protest against the plan for Yazid's succession. According to the historians Fitzpatrick and Walker, Yazid's succession, considered as an "anomaly in Islamic history", transformed the government from a "consultative" form to a monarchy. Before his death in April 680, Mu'awiya cautioned Yazid that Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr might challenge his rule and instructed him to defeat them if they did. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was the grandson of Muhammad. On his succession, Yazid charged the governor of Medina, Walid ibn Utba ibn Abu Sufyan, to secure allegiance from Husayn, Ibn al-Zubayr and

Mount Irving

Mount Irving is a mountain rising to ca. 1,950 metres, the dominant elevation on Clarence Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The rounded glaciated mountain is situated in Urda Ridge occupying the southern part of the island. A prominent feature, the mountain doubtless was known to sealers in the area in the 1820s, it was named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee for Rear Admiral Sir Edmund George Irving, Royal Navy, Hydrographer of the Navy, 1960-66. First ascent by a team comprising Capt. Crispin Agnew, John Hult and George Bruce of the Joint Services Expedition to Elephant Island on 6 December 1970. List of Ultras of Antarctica This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Mount Irving"

Little 'Tinker

Little'Tinker is a 1948 MGM cartoon directed by Tex Avery. It was composed by Scott Bradley; the story begins at the home of B. O. Skunk, which contains many fans. B. O. overly douses himself with expiring perfume. He goes out for a walk; the flowers along the path from his home fall as he passes them. As B. O. walks to the forest, he sees a pretty squirrel. But as B. O. goes to the squirrel with wilted flowers and she smells his stench, she runs out to her home and puts up a sign that reads "NO VACANCY". The point is that B. O. has an offensive odor. B. O. sees a pretty female rabbit. He first gives her a flower to smell, substitutes himself; the female rabbit runs into her hole and "zips" it. B. O. cries. Cupid appears and gives the skunk a book: "Advice to the Love-Lorn" by Beatrice Bare Fax; the first chapter says to try the great lover routine. B. O. goes to another female squirrel sitting on a branch and attracts her by speaking in the manner of Charles Boyer. All goes well until the squirrel smells B. O. and runs away.

B. O. thinking he is kissing the squirrel, kisses the branches of the tree and a sleepy owl. The owl falls onto the ground, unconscious; the second chapter says to try the balcony routine. B. O. dresses like Romeo and climbs a tree to serenade a female raccoon with a part of the sextet, "Chi mi frena in tal momento" from Act II of Gaetano Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor. At first, the raccoon is attracted to B. O.'s wooing, but when she smells him, she throws a pot at him, sending B. O. falling into a nearby pond. The fish are repelled by B. O.'s smell and they run away from the pond. A big female rabbit goes to B. O. wants to kiss him. But she runs from his smell and tosses B. O. into a trash hides herself in a rabbit hole, which moves as she flees. The next chapter of book says "Swoon'em!" B. O. gets a Frank Sinatra suit and pours water on it to become thinner. B. O.-Sinatra sings "Rhapsody in Pew" with Sinatra's actual voice. All the females in the forest run to hear B. O.'s singing. All of them swoon, an old female rabbit jumps in the air and yells "FRANKIE!"

B. O. continues to sing with more gags and ends as all the females jump on him. But they all run out, having detected his smell. Despairing, B. O. attempts suicide by drinking a bottle of poison because no one loves him. But Cupid stops him and shows the last piece of advice: camouflage! B. O. sees a pretty fox and disguises himself as a male fox. B. O. whistles to the fox. The fox likes B. O. and she kisses him. B. O. is excited and walks with the fox on a trunk lying horizontally above the river. B. O. and the fox lose their balance and fall into the river. Downcast, B. O. thinks. But the "fox" is a painted skunk too, as is revealed when paint washes out of her fur. Now aware that they are both skunks, they kiss longingly. Iris out, B. O. throws the advice book out of the scene. Pepé Le Pew - a character with an identical premise from competitor Warner Bros; the black rabbit in the Frank Sinatra scene has been edited out of some copies for stereotypical reasons. Little'Tinker on IMDb Little'Tinker at the Big Cartoon DataBase

White House Card

White House Card or Executive Mansion Card refers to cards that were used by U. S. Presidents in the 19th and 20th century; the size of today's average business card - sextodecimo - these cards contained a president's signature and sometimes a short message or sentiment. President Abraham Lincoln instituted the first printed presidential stationary, emblazoned with "Executive Mansion." Executive Mansion cards were first employed by President Ulysses S. Grant; these are rare as only one is known to exist and it is dated by Grant as president. It is in the collection of Stephen Koschal. Executive Mansion cards signed by Rutherford B. Hayes are what collectors can start there collection with his example. Early President cards, such as Millard Fillmore's, were a blank card 4x6in. Presidents have used visiting cards since the early 19th century saying "The President" in ornate script. Signed examples of these cards come up for sale. Otherwise, it can be difficult to determine; the official Executive Mansion card of Rutherford B. Hayes contained the header, "Executive Mansion, Washington" on the upper left corner of the card.

On cards, such as William McKinley's, the header was displayed in the upper right corner. President Grover Cleveland distinguished cards signed during his two non-consecutive terms in office by adding the year under his signature during his second term. President Benjamin Harrison preferred to respond to autograph requests by signing a card with an engraved view of the White House. Executive Mansion cards signed by Harrison, are somewhat scarce. One month after taking office following McKinley's assassination, Theodore Roosevelt changed the name of the presidential residence from "Executive Mansion" to "White House," which it had been popularly called since 1810. With this, he ordered the Presidential stationary to bear the name "White House", which can be seen on his cards as well, he signed a handful of "Executive Mansion" cards prior to the change, these are rare collector's items. Both Roosevelt and President Woodrow Wilson were concerned that an unscrupulous individual might attempt to append a message above their signatures.

To prevent this, both tended to sign their names high on the left-hand side of the card. Presidents, such as Calvin Coolidge, thwarted this possibility by making their signatures exceptionally large. In addition to the normal White House card, President Warren G. Harding signed a larger white card with no lettering, but with the presidential seal embossed in gold at the top. Herbert Hoover was the last president to sign and distribute the cards to anyone who asked. Starting with the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the vast increase in the president's workload meant the cards were signed for friends and political supporters. Signed White House cards by Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman exist, but are less common than those of earlier presidents. President Dwight D. Eisenhower began the practice of providing the card with a printed signature, beneath the sentiment "with best wishes." A printed or autopen signature thus became the norm. Collectors were able to obtain authentic signatures, making these cards rare and valuable collector's items.

The design of the card remained unchanged from the administration of Theodore Roosevelt through Jimmy Carter. Carter moved the lettering "The White House, Washington" to the left hand corner and added an engraved view of the South Portico of the White House. President George H. W. Bush altered the card, moving the heading "The White House, Washington" back to the right hand corner, removing the view of the White House and adding a raised presidential seal in blue on the card's left side. First Ladies used the cards to fulfill autograph requests. Other family members, such as Margaret Truman Daniel, as well as staff members, signed them as well. There is one known example signed by Edward, Prince of Wales, during a visit to the White House during the Coolidge Administration; the White House card has fallen out of general use and has been replaced with the popular White House greeting cards. Today, receipt of these cards is restricted to U. S. citizens and requests are only fulfilled for a limited list of specified occasions.

Carte de visite Visiting card Cabinet card White House

Minnipuka, Ontario

Minnipuka is an unincorporated place and Dispersed Rural Community in geographic Marjorie Township, in the Unorganized North part of Algoma District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the Canadian National Railway transcontinental railway main line between the railway points of Neswabin to the west and Dishnish to the east, has a passing track, is passed but not served by Via Rail transcontinental Canadian passenger trains; the place is on the east side of part of the Goat River system. Geographic Minnipuka Township is the township adjacent diagonally to the northeast of Marjorie Township. Minnipuka is part of a section of what was the Canadian Northern Railway, under construction from 1912 to 1913

Jennifer Colón

Jennifer Colón Alvarado known as Jenny Allende, is a Puerto Rican soprano singer, Tv Personality, former beauty queen who represented her country in Miss World 2009. Colón was creative as a child and had an early interest in music and art, her grandfather, Eliseo Alvarado, was a well known musician in Puerto Rico. When she was 4 years old her brother was born with a rare disease called nonketotic hyperglycinemia; this and the flooding of their family home in San Juan made her parents move with her grandparents in Orocovis Puerto Rico for a few months. The sound of Colón's grandfather playing the cuatro left a mark in her heart and created a passion for sounds and melodies. In 2005, she graduated with honors from high school Colegio Bautista in Levittown, Puerto Rico and studied chemistry for three years at Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico in Cupey. In 2008, she changed her major to architecture, studying at the Polytechnic University of PR, but only for one year; as a model, Colón appeared in many editorials and fashion shows in Puerto Rico and is one of the most sought after models on the island.

At 16 years old, Colón participated in Miss Teen of PR 2006 with Natalia Rivera Piñero, where she placed 2nd runner-up. On October 22, 2008, Colón competed in the Miss Puerto Rico Universe 2009 competition representing San Juan municipality, she was predicted by many to win the pageant. However, she placed 1st runner-up to Mayra Matos of Cabo Rojo, she won the award for "Most Beautiful Hair". In early 2009, Colón decided to represent her hometown of Bayamón in the Miss World Puerto Rico 2009 pageant, held on July 23, 2009 in Puerto Rico. Prior to the final competition, Colón won the Top Model fast-track event on July 9, which automatically guaranteed her a spot as a semi-finalist. Ivonne Orsini, who won the title of Miss World Puerto Rico 2008, would crown Colón as Miss World Puerto Rico 2009. Colón represented Puerto Rico at the Miss World 2009 pageant, held in Johannesburg, South Africa on December 12, 2009, where she was one of the semifinalists in the Miss World Sports and Miss World Beach Beauty fast-track events but did not advance to the semifinals in the final competition.

Through people in Miss World Puerto Rico, she met son of Fernando Allende. On September 21, 2010 Colón and Allende secretly wed in Puerto Rico with only relatives present; the couple's daughter Maria Valentina was born on June 21, 2011. On April 20, 2012 the couple welcomed son Fernando Jose. Together they form. Now both Elan and Jenny are cast members for the hit reality TV show on Bravo TV called Mexican Dynasties