Battle of Mohács
The Battle of Mohács was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent; the Ottoman victory led to the partition of Hungary for several centuries between the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Principality of Transylvania. Further, the death of Louis II as he fled the battle marked the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Hungary and Bohemia, whose dynastic claims passed to the House of Habsburg; the Battle of Mohács marked the end of the Middle Ages in Hungary. After the death of the absolutist King Matthias Corvinus in 1490, the Hungarian magnates, who did not want another heavy-handed king, procured the accession of Vladislaus II, King of Bohemia, because of his notorious weakness, he was known as King Dobře, or Dobrzse in Hungarian orthography, for his habit of accepting, without question, every petition and document laid before him.
The freshly elected King Vladislaus II donated most of the royal estates, régales and royalties to the nobility. By this method, the king tried to stabilize his new reign and preserve his popularity amongst the magnates. After the naive fiscal and land policy of the royal court, the central power began to experience severe financial difficulties due to the enlargement of feudal lands at his expense; the noble estate of the parliament succeeded in reducing their tax burden by 70–80%, at the expense of the country's ability to defend itself. Vladislaus became the magnates' helpless "prisoner"; the standing mercenary army of Matthias Corvinus was dissolved by the aristocracy. The magnates dismantled the national administration systems and bureaucracy throughout the country; the country's defenses sagged as border guards and castle garrisons went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled. Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, social progress was deadlocked.
The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country. The strongest nobles were so busy oppressing the peasants and quarreling with the gentry class in the parliament that they failed to heed the agonized calls of King Louis II against the Turks. In 1514, the weakened and old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. After the Dózsa Rebellion, the brutal suppression of the peasants aided the 1526 Turkish invasion as the Hungarians were no longer a politically united people; the resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. King Louis II of Hungary married Mary of Habsburg in 1522; the Ottomans worked to break it. After Suleiman I came to power, the High Porte made the Hungarians at least one and two offers of peace, it is unclear. It is possible that King Louis was well aware of Hungary's situation and he believed that war was a better option than peace.
In peacetime the Ottomans raided Hungarian lands and conquered small territories, but a final battle still offered a glimmer of hope. To such ends, in June 1526, an Ottoman expedition advanced up the Danube. King Francis I of France was defeated at the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525 by the troops of the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. After several months in prison, Francis I was forced to sign the Treaty of Madrid. In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis formed a formal Franco-Ottoman alliance with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent as an ally against Charles V; the French-Ottoman strategic, sometimes tactical, alliance lasted for about three centuries. To relieve the Habsburg pressure on France, in 1525 Francis asked Suleiman to make war on the Holy Roman Empire, the road from Turkey to the Holy Roman Empire led across Hungary; the request of the French king coincided nicely with the ambitions of Suleiman in Europe and gave him an incentive to attack Hungary in 1526, leading to the Battle of Mohács.
The Hungarians had long opposed Ottoman expansion in southeastern Europe, but in 1521 the Turks advanced up the Danube River and took Nándorfehérvár – the strongest Hungarian fortress on the Danube – and Szabács. This left most of southern Hungary indefensible; the loss of Nandorfehervar caused great alarm in Hungary, but the huge 60,000 strong royal army – led by the king, but recruited too late and too – neglected to take food along. Therefore, the army disbanded spontaneously under pressure from hunger and disease without trying to recapture Belgrade from the newly installed Turkish garrisons. In 1523, Archbishop Pál Tomori, a valiant priest-soldier, was made Captain of Southern Hungary; the general apathy that had characterized the country forced him to lean on his own bishopric revenues when he started to repair and reinforce the second line of Hungary's border defense system. Pétervárad fell to the Turks on July 1526 due to the chronic lack of castle garrisons. For about 400 km along the Danube between Pétervárad and Buda there was no single Hungarian town, village, or fortification of any sort.
Three years an Ottoman army set out from Istanbul on 16 April 1526, led by Suleiman the Magnificent personally. The Hungarian nobles, who still did not realize the magnitude of t
Siege of Knin
The Siege of Knin was a siege of the castle of Knin, the capital of the Kingdom of Croatia, by the Ottoman Empire. After two failed attempts in 1513 and 1514, Ottoman forces led by Gazi Husrev-beg, sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Bosnia, laid the final siege of the Knin Fortress in May 1522. Frequent confrontations and raids of its surroundings left Knin devastated, so it had only a small garrison at the time. Mihovil Vojković was the commander of Knin's defense and he surrendered the fortress on 29 May in exchange for a free evacuation of his men and the castle's residents; the Ottomans made Knin the center of Sanjak Lika-Krka. The defeat at Krbava field in 1493, preceded by the first serious Ottoman siege of Knin, marked the beginning of the largest emigration from the city and its surroundings to safer parts of Croatia. Knin, the long-time capital city of Croatia, was losing its status as the political and administrative center of the country, its Supreme court ceased to function, Ban's deputy no longer had civil duties, all efforts were focused on the buildup of Knin's fortifications.
The last major conflict around Knin before the truce was in September 1502 when 2,000 Ottoman cavalrymen looted the area. On 20 August 1503 King Vladislaus II concluded a 7-year peace treaty with Sultan Bayezid II; the armistice was respected by all sides, during which Knin's defensive positions were strengthened in 1504. A period of severe famine started in 1505. In 1510 the plague halved Knin's population. A new peace treaty was signed after the previous one expired, but sanjak-beys from the Sanjak of Bosnia have not honored the new ceasefire and were ravaging the countryside of the Croatian border towns. In a report on 5 May 1511 to the parliament in Budim, it was stated that Knin was under constant Ottoman assaults and that whole Croatia will be lost if it fell. In 1510 around 1,000 Ottoman Akıncı raided the countryside of Knin. There had been word. Three years there was another siege of Knin, but Baltazar Baćan, Vice Ban of Slavonia, together with forces from the Zagreb Bishopry managed to lift the siege in January 1513.
In February of the following year the Ottomans besieged Knin with 10,000 men from the Sanjak of Bosnia, but were unable to take the castle and lost 500 troops. The settlement beneath the castle in its outskirts was burned on this occasion; these clashes left Knin devastated and there were no news about the city for 5 years. Local population was decimated by war, hunger and migration to safer places, its economy was hindered by the seizure of crops and livestock. Due to Knin's strategic value, King Louis II responded to requests from captains of Knin and Ostrovica and promised reinforcements of 1,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalrymen. However, it is unlikely. In 1522 the Ottomans attacked Knin and the nearby forts not just to raid them, but with a firm intention to occupy the area. Mahmud-Bey of the Sanjak of Herzegovina bypassed Knin with his army into Lika and ravaged the entire area; the goal of his offensive was to cut off Knin form the north and prevent the arrival of reinforcements. Mahmud's army encamped near Cetina.
Soon an army led of Gazi Husrev-beg, sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Bosnia, returned from a raid into Carniola. Gazi Husrev-beg conquered smaller forts near Knin and surrounded it, joining his forces with Mahmud-beg; the two combined armies had a large amount of artillery. They started shelling Knin night; the fortress was defended by Mihovil Vojković from Klokoč, a Croatian nobleman who had only a small garrison on his disposal. As soon as Croatian Ban Ivan Karlović heard news of the siege, he started gathering an army to help Knin, the seat of Croatian Bans, he asked captains from neighbouring Archduchy of Austria for assistance. While the ban was preparing an army, Knin's fate was determined; the Ottomans launched three intense attacks on Knin until Mihovil Vojković surrendered the fortress on 29 May after negotiations with Gazi Husrev-bey. He was granted permission to leave the city with his men. After hearing about the fate of Knin, the citizens of nearby Skradin fled and left the town undefended, so it was taken by the Ottomans.
Next day Drniš fell into Ottoman hands. Ivan Karlović was at the time located in Topusko, so information about the loss of Knin and Skradin arrived with a considerable delay. After conquering Knin the Ottomans moved towards another important fortress in Croatia. However, the fortress garrison was strong enough to repel the attacks of Husrev-bey's men, who had to break the siege and withdraw his forces. Croatian border captains expected that the Ottomans will try to compensate their failure under Klis by attacking the less defended towns of Udbina, Bihać and coastal cities. Ivan Karlović was furious at Mihovil Vojković for surrendering Knin, so he arrested Vojković and sent him to prison in Udbina. Counts Juraj II i Matija II Frankopan seized the town of Klokoč, Vojković's seat, where they found ammunition and cannons that were intended to strengthen Knin's defenses; the fall of Knin was a huge shock for Croatia, as the cradle of the Croatian state, seat of the Croatian ban and place of Croatian nobility conventions was lost.
Bihać now took the leading role in Croatia's defenses south of the Sava river. Under Ottoman rule, a new population moved into the region; these were Vlach shepherds from other Ottoman territories of Orthodox faith. There were several attempts of a quick liberation of Knin. In September of the same year, Croatian Ban Ivan Karlovi
Crusade of Varna
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy; the Crusade of Varna culminated in a decisive Ottoman victory over the crusader alliance at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444, during which Władysław and the expedition's Papal legate Julian Cesarini were killed. In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state. After the war ended in 1430, the Ottomans returned to their earlier objective of controlling all lands south of the Danube. In 1432, Sultan Murad II began raiding into Transylvania. After King Sigismund died in 1437, the attacks intensified, with the Ottomans occupying Borač in 1438 and Zvornik and Srebrenica in 1439.
At the end of 1439, Smederevo capitulated and Murad succeeded in making Serbia an Ottoman province. Đurađ Branković, Despot of Serbia, fled to his estates in Hungary. In 1440, Murad besieged Belgrade. After failing to take the fortress, he was forced to return to Anatolia to stop attacks by the Karamanids. Meanwhile, Sigismund's successor Albert had died in October 1439, shortly after signing a law to "restore the ancient laws and customs of the realm"; the law restricted the royal authority by requiring the participation of landed nobility in political decisions. Four months after Albert's death, his only son, was born while Hungary was in the midst of a civil war over the next monarch. On 17 July king of Poland, was crowned despite continuing disputes. John Hunyadi aided Vladislaus's cause by pacifying the eastern counties, gaining him the position of Nádor of Transylvania and the corresponding responsibility of protecting Hungary's southern border. By the end of 1442, Vladislaus had secured his status in Hungary, rejected an Ottoman proposal of peace in exchange for Belgrade.
The Roman Catholic Church had long been advocating for a crusade against the Ottomans, with the end of both the Hungarian civil war and a nearly simultaneous one in Byzantium, they were able to begin negotiations and planning realistically. The impetus required to turn the plans into action was provided by Hunyadi between 1441–42. In 1441, he defeated a raid led by Ishak Pasha of Smederevo, he nearly annihilated Mezid Bey's army in Transylvania on 22 March 1442, in September he defeated the revenge attack of Şihabeddin Pasha, governor-general of Rumelia. Branković, hoping to liberate Serbia lent his support after Novo Brdo, the last major Serbian city, fell to the Ottomans in 1441. On 1 January 1443 Pope Eugene IV published a crusading bull. In early May, it was reported "that the Turks were in a bad state and that it would be easy to expel them from Europe". War was proclaimed against Sultan Murad II at the diet of Buda on Palm Sunday 1443, with an army of 40,000 men Magyars, the young monarch, with Hunyadi commanding under him, crossed the Danube and took Nish and Sofia.
The crusaders, led by Vladislaus and Branković, attacked in mid-October. They expected that Murad would not be able to mobilize his army, which consisted of fief-holding cavalrymen who needed to collect the harvest to pay taxes. Hunyadi's experience of winter campaigns from 1441–42 added to the Hungarians' advantage, they had better armor rendering the Ottoman weapons useless. Murad could not rely on the loyalty of his troops from Rumelia, had difficulties countering Hungarian tactics. In the Battle of Nish the crusaders were victorious and forced Kasim Pasha of Rumelia and his co-commander Turahan Bey to flee to Sofia, Bulgaria to warn Murad of the invasion. However, the two burned all the villages in their path in an attempt to wear down the crusaders with a scorched earth tactic; when they arrived in Sofia, they advised the Sultan to burn the city and retreat to the mountain passes beyond, where the Ottoman's smaller army would not be such a disadvantage. Shortly after, bitter cold set in, the next encounter, fought at Zlatitsa Pass on 12 December 1443, was fought in the snow.
Until the Battle of Zlatitsa the crusaders did not meet a major Ottoman army, but only town garrisons along their route toward Adrianople. At Zlatica they met strong and well positioned defence forces of the Ottoman army; the crusaders were defeated. As they marched home, they ambushed and defeated a pursuing force in the Battle of Kunovica, where Mahmud Bey, son-in-law of the Sultan and brother of the Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, was taken prisoner. Four days after this battle the Christian coalition reached Prokuplje. Đurađ Branković proposed to Władysław III of Poland and John Hunyadi that they stay in Serbian fortified towns during the winter and continue their campaign against the Ottomans in Spring 1444. They rejected his proposal, retreated. By the end of January 1444 forces of Władysław and Hunyadi reached Belgrade, in February they arrived at Buda where they were greeted as heroes. While the battle at Zlatitsa Pass had been a defeat, the ambush returned to the crusaders the impression of an overall Christian victory, they returned triumphant.
The King and Church were both anxious to maintain this impression, gave instructions to spread word of the victories, but contradict anyone who mentioned the loss. Murad, returned angry and dejected by the unreliability of his forces, imprisoned Turahan after blaming him for the army's setbacks and Mahmud Bey'
Battle of Zlatitsa
The Battle of Zlatitsa was fought on 12 December 1443 between the Ottoman Empire and Serbian Hungarian troops in the Balkans. The battle was fought at Zlatitsa Pass near the town of Zlatitsa in the Balkan Mountains, Ottoman Empire; the impatience of the king of Poland and the severity of the winter compelled Hunyadi to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the Sultan's power in Bosnia, Serbia and Albania. In 1440 John Hunyadi became the trusted adviser and most regarded soldier of the king Władysław III of Poland. Hunyadi was rewarded with the captaincy of the fortress of Belgrade and was put in charge of military operations against the Ottomans; the king Władysław recognized Hunyadi's merits by granting him estates in Eastern Hungary. Hunyadi soon showed and displayed extraordinary capacity in marshalling its defenses with the limited resources at his disposal, he was victorious in Semendria over Isak-Beg in 1441, not far from Nagyszeben in Transylvania he annihilated an Ottoman force and recovered for Hungary the suzerainty of Wallachia.
In July 1442 at the Iron Gates he defeated a massed Ottoman formation of 80.000 led by Sehabbedin. These victories made Hunyadi a prominent enemy of the Ottomans and renowned throughout Christendom, were prime motivators for him to undertake in 1443, along with King Władysław, the famous expedition known as the long campaign with the Battle of Niš as one of the battles of this campaign. Hunyadi was accompanied by Giuliano Cesarini during this campaign; the battle took place in the plain between Bolvani and Niš on November 3, 1443. Ottoman forces were led by the beglerbeg of Rumelia, Turakhan Beg and Isak-Beg. After the Ottoman defeat, the retreating forces of Kasim Pasha and Turakhan Beg burned all of the villages between Niš and Sofia; the Ottoman sources justify an Ottoman defeat by lack of cooperation between the Ottoman armies led by different commanders. Until the Battle of Zlatica crusaders did not meet a major Ottoman army, only town garrisons along their route toward Adrianople. Only at Zlatica they met well positioned defence forces of the Ottoman army.
The severe winter cold weather favored the position of the Ottoman defenders. The Ottoman forces were commanded by Kasim Pasha; the crusaders intended to continue their advance toward Adrianople through the forests of Sredna Gora. When they reached Zlatica they were unable to continue their advance because the pass was blocked by the strong Ottoman army, the weather was bitterly cold, it was hard for them to obtain regular supplies of their forces and Ottoman forces of Kasim Pasha attacked them. After the Battle of Zlatica and subsequent retreat of the crusaders, the battlefield and surrounding region were destroyed. Serbia was devastated while Sofia was destroyed and burnt, turned into "black field" with its surrounding villages being turned into "black charcoal". Only Đurađ Branković gained from 1443 campaign; as they marched home, the crusaders ambushed and defeated a pursuing Turkish force in the Battle of Kunovica, where Mahmud Bey, son-in-law of the Sultan and brother of the Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, was taken prisoner.
There is debate amongst historians as to the victor of the battle. According to Halil Inalcik "İzladi ve Varna Savaşları Üzerinde Gazavatnâme" of unknown author is most reliable of all Ottoman chronicles about the events related to Battle of Zlatica and Battle of Varna
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire, at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Habsburg Spain. The wars were dominated by land campaigns in Hungary, including Transylvania and Vojvodina and central Serbia. By the 16th century, the Ottomans had become a serious threat to the European powers, with Ottoman ships sweeping away Venetian possessions in the Aegean and Ionian seas and Ottoman-supported Barbary pirates seizing Spanish possessions in the Maghreb; the Protestant Reformation, the French–Habsburg rivalry and the numerous civil conflicts of the Holy Roman Empire served as distractions to the Christians from their conflict with the Ottomans. Meanwhile, the Ottomans had to contend with the Persian Safavid Empire and to a lesser extent the Mamluk Sultanate, defeated and incorporated into the empire. Ottoman conquests in Europe made significant gains with a decisive victory at Mohács reducing around one third part of Kingdom of Hungary to the status of an Ottoman tributary.
The Peace of Westphalia and the Spanish War of Succession in the 17th and 18th centuries left the Austrian Empire as the sole firm possession of the House of Habsburg. Following the Siege of Vienna in 1683 the Habsburgs were able to assemble a large coalition of European powers known as the Holy League, allowing them to combat the Ottomans and to regain control over Hungary; the Great Turkish War ended with the decisive Holy League victory at Zenta. The wars came to an end following Austria's participation in the war of 1787-1791, which Austria fought in alliance with Russia. Intermittent tension between Austria and the Ottoman Empire continued throughout the nineteenth century, but they never again fought each other in a war and found themselves allied in World War I, in the aftermath of which both empires were dissolved. Historians have devoted most of their attention to the second siege of Vienna of 1683, depicting it as a decisive Austrian victory that saved Western civilization and began the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
However more historians have taken a broader perspective noting that the Habsburgs at the same time resisted internal separatist movements, were battling Prussia and France for control of central Europe. The key advance made by the Europeans was an effective combined arms doctrine in which the infantry and artillery, supported by the cavalry, cooperated together to be triply effective; the Ottomans were able to maintain military parity with the Habsburgs until the middle of the eighteenth century. Historian Gunther E. Rothenberg has emphasized the non-combat dimension of the conflict, whereby the Habsburgs built up military communities that protected their borders and produced a steady flow of well-trained, motivated soldiers. While the Habsburgs were the Kings of Hungary and Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, the wars between the Hungarians and the Ottomans included other Dynasties as well; the Ottoman Wars in Europe attracted support from the West, where the advancing and powerful Islamic state was seen as a threat to Christendom in Europe.
The Crusades of Nicopolis and of Varna marked the most determined attempts by Europe to halt the Turkic advance into Central Europe and the Balkans. For a while the Ottomans were too busy trying to put down Balkan rebels such as Vlad Dracula. However, the defeat of these and other rebellious vassal states opened up Central Europe to Ottoman invasion; the Kingdom of Hungary now bordered its vassals. After King Louis II of Hungary was killed at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, his widow Queen Mary fled to her brother the Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand I. Ferdinand's claim to the throne of Hungary was further strengthened by his marriage to Anne, the sister of King Louis II and the only family member claimant to the throne of the shattered Kingdom. Ferdinand I was elected King of Bohemia, at the Diet of Pozsony he and his wife were elected King and Queen of Hungary; this clashed with the Turkish objective of placing the puppet John Szapolyai on the throne, thus setting the stage for a conflict between the two powers.
The Austrian lands were in miserable economic and financial conditions, thus Ferdinand introduced the so-called Turkish Tax, despite of that huge Austrian sacrifices, he was not able to collect enough money to pay the expenses of the defense costs of the Austrian lands. His annual revenues only allowed him to hire 5.000 mercenaries for two months, thus Ferdinand asked help from his brother Emperor Charles V, started to borrowing money from rich bankers like the Fugger family. Ferdinand I attacked Hungary, a state weakened by civil conflict, in 1527, in an attempt to drive out John Szapolyai and enforce his authority there. John was unable to prevent Ferdinand's campaigning, which led to the capture of Buda and several other key settlements along the Danube. Despite this, the Ottoman sultan was slow to react and only came to the aid of his vassal when he launched an army of about 120,000 men on 10 May 1529; the Austrian branch of Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars.
During the Ottoman wars the territory of former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. T